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FAA CoE for Airliner Cabin Environment Research

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Title: FAA CoE for Airliner Cabin Environment Research


1
FAA CoE for Airliner Cabin Environment Research
  • Auburn University (Administrative lead)
  • Purdue University (Technical co-lead)
  • Harvard University (Technical co-lead)
  • Boise State University
  • Kansas State University (KSU)
  • Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL)
  • University of California, Berkeley (UCB)
  • University of Medicine and Dentistry of New
    Jersey (UMDNJ)

2
Auburn Research Centers on the Team
  • AU Detection Center
  • AU Materials Research and Education Center
  • Alabama Microelectronics Science Technology
    Center (at AU)
  • AU Microfibrous Manufacturing Center (specializes
    in filtration/environmental control/decontaminatio
    n)
  • AU Wireless Engineering Center
  • National Science Foundation Center for Vehicle
    Electronics (at AU)
  • AU Cell Science Center Hybridoma Laboratories
  • AU Poultry Research Center (houses AUs new BSL-3
    Lab.)

3
Auburn Major Accomplishments
  • Biological Detection Relevant to Airliner Cabin
    Effort
  • Rapid and reliable B. anthracis (anthrax)
    detection using acoustic wave sensors and Raman
    spectroscopy.
  • Filamentous phage (uses virus attachment
    chemistry, not viral reproduction and so safe) as
    a revolutionary alternative to antibodies

4
Auburn Major Accomplishments
  • Chemical Detection Relevant to Airliner Cabin
    Effort
  • Organophosphate neurotoxin (pesticides,
    chemical-warfare agents) detection using
    selective enzyme reactions
  • Surface plasmon resonance device for highly
    portable, low power chemical detection.

5
Auburn Major Accomplishments
  • Novel Sensors Relevant to Airliner Cabin Effort
  • Micro- and meso-scale sensor systems for
    chemical, biological, pressure, temperature, and
    gas detection (small footprint, very low power).
  • Carbon nanotube-based sensors (potential for very
    high sensitivity).
  • Wide variety of acoustic wave sensors (robust,
    reliable, proven).
  • Revolutionary magnetostrictive wireless sensors
    and devices (ultimate in sensitivity and wireless
    operation).

6
Auburn Major Accomplishments
  • Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) for Sensor
    Communication Relevant to Airliner Cabin Effort
  • Patented and commercialized RFID module for
    condition monitoring of the Patriot III missile
    system.
  • Development of a 13.56 MHz RFID system (well on
    way to commercialization).
  • Program underway for development of a 5.8 GHz
    RFID system (smaller antenna, smaller footprint,
    can beam in power, no batteries needed).

7
Auburn Major Relevant Facilities
  • Biosafety Level 3 (BSL-3) Laboratory
  • Microbiological and Chemical Thin Film Facilities
  • Chemical and Biorecognition Interface
    Characterization Facility
  • Sensor Electronic Characterization Facility
  • Microfabrication Facility
  • Microelectronic Packaging Facility
  • Microscopy and Analytical Facilities

8
Auburn Example of research
Portable Piezoelectric Biosensor for
Quantitative Bacterial Detection
9
Evolution of Auburns Radio Frequency
Identification (RFID) Effort
1st Generation - mid 1990s Road Bridge Condition
Monitoring Unit(Big, heavy and a power hog)
2nd Generation - turn of millennium Patriot
Missile Container Sensor Tag (STag) (Smaller,
better, cheaper lower power needs)
Next Generation - current development On-Chip
Passive RFID Stag(Tiny, mostly unpowered)
10
Auburn Biosensor Chips
Chip installed in package. Package integrates
with 75?l liquid flow cell.
Prototype chip contains sensor coated with enzyme
and an uncoated reference sensor and electrode.
Joint project between Auburns A. Simonian and
Texas AM
11
Purdue Indoor Environment Research
  • Computational Fluid Dynamics (RANS type)
    simulation of indoor environment
  • Large eddy simulation of indoor environment
  • Emission and sorption of volatile organic
    compounds
  • Studies of chem/bio contaminant dispersion
  • Advanced ventilation systems and design guides
  • Equipment for environmental control systems
  • Control and diagnostics of environmental control
    systems

12
Purdue Example of airflow in cabin by CFD
13
Purdue Indoor Environment Research
  • Computational Fluid Dynamics (RANS type)
    simulation of indoor environment
  • Large eddy simulation of indoor environment
  • Emission and sorption of volatile organic
    compounds
  • Studies of chem/bio contaminant dispersion
  • Advanced ventilation systems and design guides
  • Equipment for environmental control systems
  • Control and diagnostics of environmental control
    systems

14
Purdue Sensor Research
  • Next Generation Miniature Ion Trap
    Mass-Spectrometers for Chemical Agents and
    Explosives (Cooks)
  • Ion Trap Mass Spectrometers for Biological Agents
    Detection (McLuckey)
  • Micro-Array Bio-Sensors (reagent-free,
    bio-specific sensing) (Low, Reifenberger,
    Wei, and Kim)
  • Nano-enabled Sensors for Chemical/Biological
    Agents and Explosives (Regnier, Raman, Xu, Chiu,
    and Reifenberger)
  • Neutron-Based Detection Systems for Chemical,
    Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives (CRNE)
    Countermeasures (Koltick and Kim)

15
Purdue Aviation Research
  • Major Airlines
  • 3rd Party Maintenance Providers
  • Regional Airlines
  • FAA and NASA Funded Projects
  • Maintenance procedures evaluation
  • Process analysis improvement
  • Safety analysis management
  • Human Factors
  • Productivity optimization

16
Purdue Health Related Research
  • Evaluation and definition of the distribution of
    chemical and biological contaminants
  • Assessment of the adverse health effects of
    contaminants
  • Analysis of human to human airborne transmission
    of infectious agents

17
Purdue Equipment Facilities
  • Boeing 727 737 Aircraft
  • Jet Engine Test-Cells
  • University Owned Airport Dedicated to Research

18
Purdue Climate test environmental chambers
19
Wireless communication protocols developed for
these sensors
Purdue Video Exposure Monitoring (VEM) System
Wired or wireless sensor data transmission
Geiger-Mueller counter
Radio transmitters
Real-time time stamp Video-link with Sensor data
Sensor arrays Particulate, Gases/vapors,
Radiation
20
Harvard Recent examples of IAQ Research
  • Health effects of indoor NO2, particles in the 6
    cities and 24 cities air pollution studies-homes
    and schools
  • Molds and asthma studies in the 80s and 90s
  • Asthma intervention studies of allergens and
    public housing
  • Indoor, outdoor and personal risk studies of air
    toxins in NYC, LA, Mexico City
  • Source receptor analysis of indoor aerosols

21
Harvard Recent examples of IAQ Research
  • Cancer and endocrine disruption studies including
    phthalates, pesticides, PCBs, PBDEs
  • Exposures to metals and developmental effects
  • Transportation studies including cars, subways,
    trains, buses and airplanes
  • Asbestos and fiberglass building studies

22
Harvard Recent examples of IAQ Research
  • Laboratory design and microbiological exposures
  • Ergonomic studies of repetitive motions involving
    computer key boards
  • Productivity studies in call centers
  • Infection control in schools
  • Source receptor analysis of indoor aerosols

23
Harvard Recent examples of IAQ Research
  • Transmission of viruses in office buildings
  • Absenteeism and ventilation rates in offices
  • Sick building symptoms, perception and
    productivity studies of office workers
  • Gene expression of particulate matter collected
    in buildings

24
Harvard Air Travel Research
  • Onboard exposure studies of CO2, particles,
    ozone, VOCs, allergens, bacteria, fungi, noise
  • Building studies of respiratory disease
    transmission applicable to air travel
  • Modeling TB infection and transmission on
    commercial airplanes
  • Physiological responses to CO2 and reduced
    partial pressure of oxygen basic laboratory
    investigations relevant to airplanes
  • Large scale epidemiological studies of
    respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and
    morbidity in general populations including youth
    and seniors
  • Large scale studies of health outcomes and
    multiple factors including nutrition, medication,
    exercise, occupation, smoking etc.

25
Harvard Boeing 767 Cabin Environment
26
Harvard Distribution of Ozone (ppb) for
Winter/Spring and Summer/Fall
27
Boise Sensor Laboratory
  • Equipment
  • Oscilloscopes, Signal generators, Power Supplies
  • Microcontroller Prototype Resources
  • Burn-In Station
  • Software
  • Development Systems
  • Prototype manufacturing
  • PC Boards ( Outside contract)
  • Thin Film Hybrids
  • Semiconductor Development ( Internal and
    External)
  • Trained Personnel

28
BoiseIdaho Microfabrication Laboratory (IML)
  • The IML is Boises microelectronic device and
    MEMS processing laboratory.
  • Air Quality Class 1000
  • Processing of complex digital circuits is also
    done using
  • Boises computer design tools and foundries.

29
Boise Geoenvironmental Research Lab
  • Scinco UV-Visible Spectrophotometer
  • Shimadzu Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer
  • Chemical Analysis Laboratory for the testing and
    calibration of sensors.
  • GERL has a complete analytical laboratory for
    performing precision environmental lab work.
  • Beckman Multisizer Particle Size Analyzer

30
Boise Supercomputing Laboratory
  • NSF Major Research Grant
  • Hardware
  • 64 node, 128 Xeons, 2.4GHz
  • Beowulf Cluster
  • 64 Gbyte RAM
  • 2.5 TB Disk memory
  • Interconnects
  • 1 Gigabit service/node
  • CISCO switched HUBS
  • Software
  • Linux operating system
  • High performance Fortran (network) with open MP
    compiler (node)
  • C, C
  • Time available to any university researcher

31
KSU One of the six environmental chambers
32
KSU Another environmental chambers
Evaluation of the thermal and other physiological
stresses associated with elevated activities
while wearing firefighter protective gear.
33
KSU Thermal Manikin
Thermal Observation Manikin, Tom, is probably the
most sophisticated non-sweating thermal manikin
in the world
34
KSU Particle Image Velocimetry
35
KSU Aircraft Cabin Section
Various chemicals are used to treat and
protect aircraft surfaces and components.
There may be out-gassing of chemicals use to
clean, treat, and manufacture furnishings.
Biological growth (e.g mold) may occur in
inaccessible places.
36
(No Transcript)
37
KSU Aircraft filter test apparatus with aircraft
HEPA filter installed.
38
KSUNational Gas Machinery LaboratoryTurbocharger
Test and Research Facility
  • The TTRF, the premiere turbocharger test stand in
    the US, provides researchers the ability to test
    improved turbocharger designs that
  • lower emissions,
  • improve efficiency, and
  • increase reliability

39
KSU Experimental Numerical Research
Computational modeling along with lab test
data provide researchers the opportunity to
perform what-if design
scenarios without the high cost of
prototypes
40
ASHRAE SPC 161P Air Quality Within Commercial
Aircraft (Chair Byron Jones)

Purpose This Standard defines the
requirements for air quality in air-carrier
aircraft and specifies methods for measurement
and testing in order to establish compliance with
the standard.
41
LBNL Indoor Environment Department(60
world-class scientists)
Energy use
Building Design and Operation
Concentrations
Exposures
Climate
Health effects
Outdoor Air Quality
Productivity
Activities
Costs
Pollutant Sources
Effectiveness of Control Measures
Research Products Technologies, Models,
Measurement methods, Guidelines, Standards,
Information
42
LBNL Examples of IED Research
  • Indoor VOCs
  • Indoor Particles
  • Ventilation and Air Cleaning Technologies
  • Epidemiology
  • Sensor Development
  • Airflow and Pollutant Transport Modeling

43
VOC Source Characterization Control
  • Measuring indoor VOC emissions
  • Evaluating building product selections for source
    control
  • Evaluating influence of ventilation rates on
    concentrations

SIP House Modelpredictedvalues
Typical new house
44
LBNL Example of facilities
Exterior view of stainless steel environmental
chamber used to study pollutant emission rates
45
LBNL Indoor Deposition and Fate of Particles
  • Measurements and modeling
  • Particle deposition rates in
  • buildings envelopes
  • engineered cracks
  • building interiors
  • duct systems and coils
  • Particle resuspension rates
  • Particle transformation
  • Gas to particle conversion

44 ft. Long duct
46
LBNL Research on Ventilation and Air Cleaning
Technologies
  • Task (personal) ventilation
  • Measurements systems for outside air flow into
    HVAC
  • Classroom HVAC technology development and
    evaluation
  • Particle air cleaning
  • Ozone air cleaning

47
LBNL Task Ventilation (TV)Flow Visualization
  • Supply air labeled with smoke
  • Rationale
  • Pressure for increased ventilation
  • Respiration is only 1/100 of the code minimum
    outside air supply
  • TV improves outside air delivery to breathing
    zone without increasing flow

5 L s-1 supply flow
Supply Air Temperature 2 oC Below Room
Temperature
48
LBNL Epidemiological Analyses
Assessing Risk Factors for SBS Symptoms in EPA
BASE Data
  • CO2 concentrations
  • Ventilation rates
  • VOC Metrics
  • Particle concentrations
  • Cleaning practices
  • HVAC cleanliness
  • Moisture problems

49
MEMS PM mass and speciation sensorLow Cost PM
Monitor, Collaboration with BSAC
LBL Sensor development
  • Goals
  • Measure particle mass with picogram sensitivity
  • Particle speciation black carbon, ETS, wood
    smoke
  • Miniature
  • Low power (portable)
  • Reasonable cost


UVIR LEDs
FBAR ARRAY CCD ARRAY
50
LBNL Rapid Location of Chem/Bio Sources in
Buildings
Finding the Sources is Critical for Effective
Emergency Response
  • Guidance for first responders
  • Sensor deployment, operation
  • Pre-event response plans
  • Training
  • Response automation
  • Real-time estimates
  • Source location, amount
  • Future concentrations in rooms
  • Response effectiveness

51
UC Berkeley Core Capabilities
  • Air pollutant dynamics
  • physical and chemical processes in enclosed
    spaces
  • evaluation of control technologies
  • Exposure science
  • source-receptor relationships
  • health-risk evaluation
  • Health effects of air pollutants
  • exposure chambers
  • biochemical measurements

52
UCB Relevant Expertise
  • Ozone chemistry on indoor surfaces
  • Indoor particle dynamics source
    characterization, transport deposition
  • Airborne infectious disease transmission
  • Air pollution epidemiology
  • Laboratory-based air-pollutant exposure studies
    with human subjects (ozone, fine particles)

53
UCB Senior Personnel
  • William Nazaroff, PhD (PI)
  • Environmental Engineering

Ira Tager, MD, MPH (co-PI) Epidemiology
John Balmes, MD Environmental Health Sciences
Mark Nicas, PhD Environmental Health Sciences
54
UMDNJ Ozone in Indoor Settings
  • Indoor/outdoor O3 measurements in offices and
    homes
  • Measurements of oxidation products, including
    formaldehyde and submicron particles, in offices
    and homes
  • Extensive chamber studies of ozone-initiated
    chemistry in simulated indoor settings

55
Aircraft Cabin Simulation at Technical University
of Denmark
56
UMDNJ Exposure Measurements and Association with
Health Outcomes
  • Multi-media exposure assessment and biomarker
    measurements to pesticides and organic compound
  • Evaluation of respiratory and neurobehavior
    health outcomes following controlled inhalation
    exposures at environmental levels
  • Epidemiological assessment of adverse respiratory
    effects of exposure to air pollutants

57
UMDNJ Facilities Relevant to Chemistry in
Aircraft Cabins
  • 25 m3 chamber designed to study chemistry and
    chemical exposures in indoor settings
  • Real time instrumentation for monitoring ozone
    and size-fractionated airborne particles (gt 0.02
    micron diameter)
  • Fully equipped analytical chemistry laboratory
    capable of analyzing gas phase and condensed
    phase pollutants

58
CoE Members
  • NRC Panel members on cabin environment (Jones,
    Nazaroff, Spengler, Tager, and Weschler)
  • Members of International Academy of Indoor Air
    Sciences (Chen, Fisk, Nazaroff, Spengler, and
    Weschler)
  • Many of our graduate programs are top ones in the
    nation
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