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The Plant Kingdom topic 9 pages 8387

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Title: The Plant Kingdom topic 9 pages 8387


1
The Plant Kingdom topic 9pages 83-87
  • The Plant Kingdom An Introduction - Learning
    Activity
  • Amazing little food factories for themselves and
    most terrestrial food chains
  • Retain stem cells ( meristems) for growth through
    out their life.
  • Meristem cells are small and reproduce by mitosis
    and cytokinesis

2
Plant ClassificationBryophytes
  • Mosses have no true roots, only structures
    similar to root hairs called rhizoids.

3
More on bryophytes
  • Mosses have simple leaves and stems.

4
Liverworts are bryophytes
  • Liverworts consist of a flattened thallus.

5
Bryophytes
  • Maximum height is 0.5 ,meters
  • Reproductive structures Spores are produced in a
    capsule. The capsule develops at the end of a
    stalk

6
Life Cycle of a Moss animation
  • Spores produced in capsule, found on a stalk.

7
Filicinophytes
  • Ferns have
  • a rhizome with adventitious roots,
  • Leaves
  • short woody stems.
  • The leaves are usually curled up in buds and are
    often pinnate ( divided up into pairs of
    leaflets).

8
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9
Filicinophytes / Ferns
  • Maximum height is 15 meters
  • Spores are produced in sporangia, usually on the
    underside of leaves
  • All have vascular roots, leaves non-woody
    stems.

10
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11
Pinnate leaves
  • There is a main nerve, called midrib, from which
    the other nerves derive. Reproductive
    strategies
  • Cell Cycle Cancer Animation
  • Life cycle Flifecycle2

12
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13
Coniferophytesconifers
  • Conifers are shrubs or trees with roots, leaves
    and woody stems. The leaves are often narrow
    with a thick waxy cuticle

14
Produce cones for reproduction
15
conifers
  • Maximum height is 100 meters
  • Seeds are produced. The seeds develop from ovules
    on the surface of the scales of female cones.
    Male cones produce pollen

16
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17
Angiospermophytesflowering plants
  • Flowering plants are very variable but usually
    have roots, leaves and stems. The stems of
    flowering plants that develop into shrubs and
    trees are woody.

18
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19
angiosperms
  • Maximum height is 100 meters. Seed are produced.
    The seeds develop from ovules inside ovaries.
    The ovaries are part of flowers. Fruits develop
    from the ovaries, to disperse the seed.

20
Flowers. Pistil is female part and stamen is male
  • Animations
  • Animations

21
Photoperiodic control of flowering
  • Short day plants
  • Long day plants
  • Studies have shown that it is not the length of
    time there is light but dark
  • Go to study guide page 87
  • Flower growers can manipulate light to produce
    flowering plants year round

22
Phytochrome and photoperiodism
23
Photoperiodism, Gravitropism, and Thigmotropism
AP Biology Unit 5
24
Photoperiodism
  • How a plant responds (with respect to flowering)
    to the relative amount of light (photoperiod)
  • In reality, plants are responding to the relative
    amount of night.

Slide 2 of 15
25
  • Photoperiodism is a biological response to a
    change in relative length of daylight and
    darkness as it changes throughout the year.
  • Hormones such as phytochrome, and others not yet
    identified, probably influence flowering and
    other growth processes.

26
Photoperiodism Types of Plants
  • 3 different types of plants
  • Short Day ? flower when days are short, nights
    are long (Ex. poinsettias, chrysanthemums)
  • Long Day ? flower when days are long and
    nights are short (Ex. Spinach, Radish)
  • Day Neutral ? flowering does not depend on
    length of day or night (Ex. tomato)

Images taken without permission from
http//www.fernlea.com/xmas/pix/poinsettia.jpg,
and http//www.illinoiswildflowers.info/weeds/plan
ts/garden_radish.htm
Slide 3 of 15
27
Question
  • Poinsettias are short day plants how could
    nurseries make sure they bloom just before
    Christmas?
  • Control the amount of light and dark they
    experience

Slide 4 of 15
28
Phytochromes
  • Plants absorb light via blue-light photoreceptors
    and phytochromes (Pr and Pfr).
  • Pr and Pfr play a significant role in the
    flowering and germinating responses
  • Experiments into the control of flowering time

Slide 5 of 15
29
Phytochromes
  • Germination and flowering occurs in response to
    red and far-red light
  • effects of both lights are reversible
  • Pr and Pfr are isomers (alternate forms)
  • red light (660 nm) activates Pr to become Pfr
  • far-red light (730 nm) activates Pfr to become Pr

Slide 6 of 15
30
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31
Flowering
  • Pfr
  • inhibits flowering in short day plants
  • promotes flowering in long day plants
  • Sunlight consists of quite a bit of red light,
    not much far red light
  • During the day, which form of phytochrome is in?
  • Pfr

Slide 7 of 15
32
Flowering
  • At sunset, most of the phytochrome is in the Pfr
    form
  • During the night, Pfr gets converted back into Pr
    or breaks down
  • Whether a plant flowers or not depends on the
    amount of Pfr left (which relates to the amount
    of night)

Slide 8 of 15
33
Plant Hormones
34
Phototropism/gravitropism
  • http//bcs.whfreeman.com/thelifewire/content/chp38
    /3801s.swf

35
Auxins
  • Tutorial 38.2 Went's Experiment
  • Plant Hormones

36
Experiments
  • Predict what will happen in each of these
    experiments.

Normal young shoot
Tip removed from shoot
Tip covered with a foil cap
Tip removed and replaced with an agar block
containing auxin
Tip removed and replaced on one side with a small
agar block containing auxin
37
Applications of plant hormones
Can you explain the use of hormones in each
diagram. Click to reveal the answer.
Fresh fruits are shipped around the world. Plant
hormones are used to slow the ripening of the
fruit, so they are just ripe as they reach the
supermarket.
38
Applications of plant hormones
Can you explain the use of hormones in each
diagram. Click to reveal the answer.
When a gardener takes cuttings from a plant, the
base of each cutting is first dipped into a
rooting compound to stimulate the growth of
roots. Many rooting compounds contain auxin.
39
Plants adapt to where they grow
  • Xerophytes - plants that are adapted to grow in
    very dry habitats.
  • Spines instead of leaves, to reduce transpiration
  • Thick stems containing water storage tissue
  • Very thick waxy cuticle covering stem, reducing
    water loss

40
  • Vertical stems to absorb sunlight early and late
    in the day but not at midday when the light is
    most intense
  • Very wide spreading network of shallow roots to
    absorb water after rains
  • CAM physiology, which involves opening stomata
    during the cool nights instead of during intense
    day heat

41
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42
Thick leaves and cuticle
43
Hydrophyteswater plants
  • Air space in the leaf to provide buoyancy
  • Stomata in the upper epidermis of leaf is in
    contact with the air
  • Waxy cuticle on the upper surface but not on
    bottom surface
  • Small amounts of xylem in stems and leaves

44
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45
Leaves
  • Tissues of leaves and their function

46
  • Xylem brings water to replace losses due to
    transpiration

47
  • Phloem transports products of photosynthesis
    out of leaf. (source to sink)
  • Both xylem and phloem are called the vascular
    system of plants. The vein is centrally located
    to be close to all cells.

48
phloem
49
Transport in phloem
  • Phloem is located inside leaves. Used to
    transport sugars, amino acids, and other organic
    compounds from photosynthesis.
  • Structures called sieve tubes do the
    transporting.
  • This is an active process requiring ATP
  • High concentration in sieve tubes of solute cause
    water to move in by osmosis

50
Translocation in phloem
  • Phloem tissue found throughout plants.
  • Links sources and sinks.
  • Sources photosynthetic tissue
  • Sink roots, fruits, seeds, and leaves
  • Sometimes sources turn into sinks and vice versa
    depending on plant needs.

51
  • This creates a high enough pressure for movement
    where ever the plant needs these products.
  • The transport of any biochemical (includes
    sprayed on chemicals) in phloem is called
    translocation.
  • Sucrose Transport animation
  • Sugar Transport in Plants
  • Tutorial 36.1 The Pressure Flow Model

52
Food storage in plants
  • The excess products of photosynthesis may be
    stored in storage area called tubers.

53
Transpiration
  • Flow of water from the roots, through the stems
    to the leaves of plants (transpiration)
  • Starts with evaporation of water from the cell
    walls of spongy mesophyll.
  • Water is replaced with water from the xylem

54
Xylem and transport of water
  • Google Image Result for http//www.phschool.com/sc
    ience/biology_place/labbench/lab9/images/xylem.gif
  • Animations

55
Structure of xylem
56
Transpiration
  • LabBench transpiration

57
Factors which affect transpiration
  • 1. Light causes stomata to open increasing the
    rate of transpiration . Close in darkness, no
    need to absorb carbon dioxide, water conservation

58
  • 2. Humidity water vapor in air. Because of
    evaporation of water from moist cells walls the
    humidity is usually 100 in the leaf. The lower
    the humidity outside the leaf the faster the rate
    of diffusion of water- higher rate of
    transpiration.

59
  • 3 Wind
  • High wind increases transpiration.
  • In still air or light winds rate decreased due to
    higher humidity in plant.

60
  • 4. temperature
  • High temperatures evaporation rates rise.
    Increases rater of diffusion between the air
    spaces inside the leaf and air outside.
  • Increases in temperature allow the air to hold
    more water vapor and so reduce the relative
    humidity or air outside the leaf. The
    concentration gradient therefore increases and
    water is lost more rapidly.

61
Food storage in plants
  • The excess products of photosynthesis may be
    stored in storage area called tubers.

62
Monocot and Dicot
63
True dicots vs monocots ( animation)
64
  • Plants Plant Organs Stems
  • Primary meristems are located at the tips of
    stems and roots called apical meristems.

65
Function of stem
  • Connects roots, leaves, and flowers
  • Transport materials between them using xylem and
    phloem
  • Support the aerial parts (especially xylem in
    woody plants)
  • Pith and cortex provide cell turgor

66
Terrestrial plant stems/support
  • Turgid cells
  • Cellulose cell walls
  • Xylem tissue which has cell walls impregnated
    with lignin ( woody)

67
  • Plants Plant Organs - Stems

68
Monocot / dicot stems
  • Stem organization

69
Monocot stems
  • In most monocots, the vascular bundles arc
    scattered throughout thc ground tissue.

70
Dicot stem
  • The stems of most dicots have vascular bundles
    arranged as a ring that divides the ground tissue
    into the outer cortex and inner pith.

71
Roots dicots
  • In most dicots (and in most seed plants) the root
    develops from the lower end of the embryo, from a
    region known as the radicle. The radicle gives
    rise to an apical meristem which continues to
    produce root tissue for much of the plant's life.

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73
Monocot root
  • By contrast, the radicle aborts in monocots, and
    new roots arise adventitiously from nodes in the
    stem. These roots may be called prop roots when
    they are clustered near the bottom of the stem.

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75
Roots
76
  • Roots absorb mineral ions and water from the soil
  • Anchor the plant and are sometimes used for food
    storage
  • Plants Transport and Nutrition - Water Movement

77
Mineral uptake by roots
  • Plants absorb potassium, nitrate and other
    mineral ions
  • Concentration is lower than inside roots
  • active transport
  • Root hairs provide surface area for ion uptake

78
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79
Water uptake by roots
  • High solute concentration in roots therefore
    water moves in to root from soil.
  • Two paths
  • Symplastic movement from cell to cell through the
    cytoplasm
  • Movement by capillary action through cortex cell
    walls called apoplastic

80
Nutrients Plants Transport and Nutrition
Nutrients (animation)
81
Flowers
  • Monocots have their flower parts in threes or
    multiples of three

82
  • Dicots have their flower parts in fours (or
    multiples) or fives (or multiples).

83
Reproduction in flowering plants
  • Egg and pollen formation and fertilization
    animation
  • Life cycle of cherry (Prunus)

84
  • The transfer of pollen from the anther to the
    female stigma is termed pollination. This is
    accomplished by a variety of methods. Flower
    color is thought to indicate the nature of
    pollinator red petals are thought to attract
    birds, yellow for bees, and white for moths. Wind
    pollinated flowers have reduced petals, such as
    oaks and grasses.

85
Double Fertilization
  • The process of pollination being accomplished,
    the pollen tube grows through the stigma and
    style toward the ovules in the ovary ( you need
    to know double fertilization for AP only)
  • Life cycle of a lily ( animation )
  • Tutorial 39.1 Double Fertilization

86
  • Observe FLOWERS AND FRUITS - BIOLOGY 2402 IMAGE
    DATABASE

87
Pollen tube
88
  • Monocot seeds will not separate into two Halves.
    Instead, the food is stored around the embryo.
  • have one seed leaf which is generally long and
    thin
  • Rice wheat corn

89
Dicots
  • has two halves.
  • called cotyledons.
  • food stored in the fleshy seed leaves to nourish
    the new plant until its roots and true leaves are
    ready. first two seed leaves look quite different
    from the adult leaves, which will develop later.

90
Seeds
91
Seeds in a Pod,
92
germination
  • Requirements proper
  • temperature.
  • water
  • Water-allow vigorous metabolism to begin.
  • leach away germination inhibitor
  • common among desert annuals. (ABA).
  • oxygen
  • a preceding period of dormancy (often).

93
Metabolic events of seed germination
  • Water re hydration -metabolically active.
  • Growth hormone gibberellins is produced in the
    cotyledons
  • stimulates the production of amylase which
    converts the stored starch into maltose

94
  • Maltose is converted into glucose needed for
    cellular respiration
  • Leaves appear above ground and photosynthesis
    begins.
  • Teachers' Domain From Seed to Flower

95
Germination in Dicots
  • The primary root emerges through the seed coats
    while the seed is still buried in the soil.
  • The hypocotyl emerges from the seed coats pushes
    up through the soil.
  • bent in a hairpin shape the hypocotyl arch
  • as it grows up. The two cotyledons protect the
    epicotyl structures the plumule from
    mechanical damage.

96
  • Once the hypocotyl arch emerges from the soil, it
    straightens out. This response is triggered by
    light.
  • The cotyledons spread apart exposing the
  • epicotyl, consisting of
  • two primary leaves and the
  • apical meristem
  • Plant development ( animation)

97
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98
Germination in Monocots
  • the primary root pierces the seed
  • grows down
  • primary leaf grows up.
  • protected by the coleoptile a hollow,
    cylindrical structure.
  • Once the seedling above surface, the coleoptile
    stops growing and the primary leaf pierces it.

99
Go back to 3 slides and watch monocot plant
development
100
Growth and development in plants
  • Root organization
  • http//www.wadsworthmedia.com/biology/0495119814_s
    tarr/big_picture/ch25_bp.swf

101
Review of topic
  • General Human Biology
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