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CALORIMETRY

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Title: CALORIMETRY


1
CALORIMETRY
Distraction Deleted
Message 1959 Movie Classic Some Like It
Hot (Six Academy Award nominations a top 100
movie top 100 last lines starring Tony Curtis,
Marilyn Monroe and Jack Lemmon. Two Struggling
musicians (Curtis and Lemmon) witness the St.
Valentine's Day Massacre and try to find a way
out of Chicago before they are found and killed
by the mob. The only job that will pay their way
is an all-girl band, so the two dress up as
women. In addition to hiding, each has his own
problems one (Curtis) falls for another band
member (Monroe) but can't tell her his gender,
and the other has a rich suitor (Joe E. Brown)
who will not take "No," for an answer. In the
final scene, Brown asks Lemmon to marry him, at
which point Lemmon tears off his wig and says,
Look Im not even a woman, Im a man, leading
another of Director Billy Wilders famous last
lines, which also applies to calorimetry
Nobodys perfect Joe E.
Brown Vic Viola, WCI3, Feb. 12, 2005
2
  • ? HOW ACCURATELY DO WE KNOW E/A ?
  • ISSUES
  • Experimental Uncertainties
  • Physics Uncertainties
  • E Construction Protocols
  • Summary
  • My Error Estimate
  • Audience Participation

3
EXPERIMENTAL UNCERTAINTIES Solid-angle
Acceptance Granularity Resolution Effects
Thresholds IC lt Si lt CsI Energy Si gt
IC gt CsI Particle ID Si-Si gt Si-CsI gt
IC-Si phoswich Time-of-flight
IMF/residue mass neutron En
TPC/Spectrometer track definition
Neutrons detection efficiency Statistics
4
PHYSICS UNCERTAINTIES
  • Selection of Thermal Events
  • Preequilibrium Emission / Mid-rapidity Source
  • Neutrons Mn En
  • Source Reconstruction Z, A and Vll
  • Kinematic Reconstruction of Spectra
  • Primary Fragment N/Z

5
E REFERENCES pbar A Berlin
n/cp Ball PRL 77, 1230 (1996) p, p,3He A
ISiS PLB 423, 21 (1998)
PRC 64, 0646034 (2001) p,
4He, C A FASA NPA 700,457 (2002)
NPA 709, 392
(2002) A C EOS PRC 62, 024616
(2000) A A ALADIN PRL 75,
1040 (1995)
NPA 607, 457 (1996)
INDRA NPA 686, 537 (2001)
NPA 700, 555
(2002) TAMU PRC 55,
227 (1997)
PRC 62, 034607 (2000)
CHIMERA E. Gallichet, commun.
LAVAL ARRAY PRL 77, 462 (1996)
SUPERBALL PRC 64, 034603 (2001)

6
NONEQUILIBRIUM EMISSION and
MID-RAPIDITY SOURCE
7
Nonequilibrium effects
1.2 GeV at LEAR
8 GeV/c 197Au
8
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9
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10
INDRA_at_GSI
From the Fermi to the relativistic domain
Invariant cross sections for Au Au at
peripheral impact parameters
J. Lukasik et al., Phys. Lett. B566, 76 (2003)
11
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12
  • NEUTRON CORRECTIONS

13
NEUTRONS
ROCHESTER SUPERBALL
BERLIN BALL
14
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15
T. Lefort
16
SOURCE DEFINITION
17
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18
Determination of E
Hypothesis Equipartition of the total E
between the two partners
Chimera-Reverse Collaboration
Emmanuelle Galichet
19
RADIAL EXPANSION
20
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21
E (source in c.m. ) GKcp(i) GKn(j) - Q
i
j K particle kinetic
energies cp light-charged particles
IMFs heavy residues n
neutrons gammas Q )(cpsns) -
)(source) - Removal Energy DETECTORS
ALADIN CHIMERA
EOS
FASA
INDRA
ISiS
MULTICS- MINIBALL
TAMU
V2 WCI05 2/15/05
22
E PROTOCOLS (LI)
23
Zsrc ( ? 90º in c.m.) 2
(? 90º in QP frame) Asrc
(A/Z)proj Zsrc Mn Asrc ?
Afragments ? 2 ALCP (? 90º in QP
frame) ltEngt bT b 1 1.5 or 2 value
dependent on origin of neutron freeze-out or
secondary decay and on excitation energy. For
central collisions the same prescription has been
used, but the retained LCPs are those emitted
between 60 º and 120 º.
E PROTOCOLS (HI)
INDRA QP

TAMU CENTRAL Zsrc Zpt ? Asrc
Apt ? AIMF 2 ZIMF Mn
(N/Z) Mp ltEngt Mn 3T/2 ltE?gt 10
MeV
24
ALADIN (Z, A)src (Z,A)proj ? (Z,
A)fireball y gt 0.7ybeam Mn
Measured-thermal En Measured
MH pdt from literature MZ1, Asrc
from 1.3 lt (N/Z)src lt 1.5 AIMF EPAX (Z gt
3) AHe, Li randomly according to
measured mass distributions for Z 2,
3 comments ltExgt (lt?migt lt?kigt - ltmsrcgt -
ltKsrcgt
25
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26
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27
J.B. Natowitz et al., PRC 65, 034618 (2002)
K 232 30 MeV
28
SUMMARY The current state of nuclear
calorimetry permits determination of the E/A of
the fragmenting source to an accuracy of
20. Nearly all experiments can be made
self-consistent within this range     
(20,/-10, -20) Bottom Line For all
multifragmentation experiments,  the region in
which there is a dramatic change in reaction
observeables corresponds to                 E/A
  5 /- 1 MeV/nucleon. Within a phase-transition
scenario, this value represents the transition
energy.
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