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## Vedic Mathematics for Faster Mental

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Title: Vedic Mathematics for Faster Mental

1
Vedic Mathematics for Faster Mental Calculations
and High Speed VLSI Arithmetic
Himanshu Thapliyal , Ph.D. Student Department of
Computer Science and Engineering University of
South Florida Web http//www.csee.usf.edu/hthapl
iy/ Email hthapliy_at_cse.usf.edu
2
Introduction
• Vedic Mathematics is introduced by Jagadguru
Swami Sri Bharati Krishna Tirthaji Maharaja
(1884-1960).
• Vedic means derived from Vedas or another
definition by Sri Sankaracharya is the fountain
head and illimitable store house of all
knowledge.
• Based on Sixteen Simple Mathematical formulae
from the Vedas accumulated in a book Vedic
Mathematics by Swamiji
• Prof. Kenneth Williams from U.K and many other
researchers have done significant study on Vedic
Maths.
• Many books on Vedic Maths and its application are
written by Prof. Kenneth Williams and other
researchers.

3
Design of Multiplier Architecture Using Vedic
Mathematics
4
• Implemented Algorithm
• Urdhva Tiryakbhyam (Vertical Crosswise) -
• Urdhva means vertically up-down, Tiryakbhyam
means left to right or vice versa .

5
• TABLE 1- 16 x 16 bit Vedic multiplier Using
Urdhva Tiryakbhyam
• CP- Cross Product
(Vertically and Crosswise)
• A A15 A14 A13 A12
A11 A10 A9 A8 A7 A6 A5
A4 A3 A2 A1 A0
• X3
X2
X1 X0
• B B15 B14 B13 B12
B11 B10 B9 B8 B7 B6 B5
B4 B3 B2 B1 B0
• Y3
Y2
Y1 Y0

• X3 X2 X1 X0
Multiplicand16 bits

• Y3 Y2 Y1 Y0 Multiplier
16 bits
• ----------------------------------------------
--------------------
• J I H G F
E D C
• P7 P6 P5 P4 P3
P2 P1 P0 Product32 bits
• Where X3, X2, X1, X0, Y3, Y2, Y1 and Y0 are
each of 4 bits.
• PARALLEL COMPUTATION METHODOLOGY

• 1. CP X0 X0 Y0 A

• Y0
• 2. CP X1 X0 X1 Y0X0 Y1 B

6
Array Multiplier
E.L. Braun. Digital computer design. New York
7
Derivation of Array Multiplier from Vedic
Mathematics
8
Partition Multiplier Derivation from Vedic
Mathematics
1. H. Thapliyal and M.B Srinivas, "High Speed
Efficient N X N Bit Parallel Hierarchical Overlay
Multiplier Architecture Based On Ancient Indian
Vedic Mathematics", Enformatika (Transactions on
Engineering, Computing and Technology),Volume
2,Dec 2004, pp.225-228.
9
Square and Cube Architecture Using Vedic
Mathematics
10
Duplex for Binary Number
• In order to calculate the square of a number
Duplex D property of binary numbers has been
taken advantage of. In the Duplex, we take twice
the product of the outermost pair, and then add
twice the product of the next outermost pair, and
so on till no pairs are left. When there are odd
number of bits in the original sequence, there is
one bit left by itself in the middle, and this
enters as such.

1 H.Thapliyal and and H.R. Arabnia , "A
Time-Area-Power Efficient Multiplier and Square
Architecture Based On Ancient Indian Vedic
Mathematics", Proceedings of the 2004
International Conference on VLSI (VLSI'04 Las
Vegas, USA), Paper acceptance rate of 35 pp.
434-439. 2H. Thapliyal and M.B. Srinivas
,Design and Analysis of A Novel Parallel
Square and Cube Architecture Based On Ancient
Indian Vedic Mathematics", Proceedings of the
48th IEEE MIDWEST Symposium on Circuits and
Systems (MWSCAS 2005), Cincinnati, Ohio, USA,
August 7-10, 2005, pp.1462-1465. 3 H.
Thapliyal and M.B. Srinivas ,An Efficient Method
of Elliptic Curve Encryption Using Ancient Indian
Vedic Mathematics", Proceedings of the 48th IEEE
MIDWEST Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS
2005), Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, August 7-10, 2005,
pp. 826-829.
11
• Thus,
• For a 1 bit number, D is the same number i.e
D(X0)X0.
• For a 2 bit number D is twice their product i.e
D(X1X0)2 X1 X0.
• For a 3 bit number D is twice the product of the
outer pair the e middle bit i.e D(X2X1X0)2
X2 X0X1.
• For a 4 bit number D is twice the product of the
outer pair twice the product of the inner pair
i.e D(X3X2X1X0)
• 2 X3 X02 X2 X1
• The pairing of the bits 4 at a time is done for
number to be squared.
• Thus D (1) 1
• D(11)2 1 1
• D( 101)2 1 10
• D(1011)2 1 12 1 0

12
Square Proposed in 1,2
1 Albert A. Liddicoat and Michael J. Flynn,
"Parallel Square and Cube Computations", 34th
Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and
Computers, California, October 2000. 2 Albert
Liddicoat and Michael J. Flynn," Parallel Square
and Cube Computations", Technical report
CSL-TR-00-808 , Stanford University, August 2000.
13
Proposed Square
• The proposed square architecture is an
improvement over partition multipliers in which
the NXN bit multiplication can be performed by
decomposing the multiplicand and multiplier
bits into M partitions where MN/K ( here N
is the width of multiplicand and
multiplier(divisible by 4 ) and K is a
multiple of 4 such as 4, 8 , 12 ,16.. 4
n). The partition multipliers are the fastest
multipliers implemented in the commercial
processors and are much faster than conventional
multipliers.

1 H. Thapliyal and M.B. Srinivas ,Design and
Analysis of A Novel Parallel Square and Cube
Architecture Based On Ancient Indian Vedic
Mathematics", Proceedings of the 48th IEEE
MIDWEST Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS
2005), Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, August 7-10, 2005,
pp.1462-1465. 2 H. Thapliyal and M.B. Srinivas
,An Efficient Method of Elliptic Curve
Encryption Using Ancient Indian Vedic
Mathematics", Proceedings of the 48th IEEE
MIDWEST Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS
2005), Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, August 7-10, 2005,
pp. 826-829.
14
Performance Improvement
15
Comparison with 1,2
1 Albert A. Liddicoat and Michael J. Flynn,
"Parallel Square and Cube Computations", 34th
Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and
Computers, California, October 2000. 2 Albert
Liddicoat and Michael J. Flynn," Parallel Square
and Cube Computations", Technical report
CSL-TR-00-808 , Stanford University, August 2000.
16
Cube
Anurupya Sutra of Vedic Mathematics which states
If you start with the cube of the first digit
and take the next three numbers(in the top row)
in a Geometrical Proportion (in the ratio of the
original digits themselves) you will find that
the 4th figure ( on the right end) is just the
cube of the second digit.
a3 a2b ab2 b3 2a2b 2ab2
(a b)3
a3 3a2b 3ab2 b3
17
This sutra has been utilized in this work to find
the cube of a number. The number M of N bits
having its cube to be calculated is divided in
two partitions of N/2 bits, say a and b, and
then the Anurupya Sutra is applied to find the
cube of the number.
1 H. Thapliyal and M.B. Srinivas ,Design and
Analysis of A Novel Parallel Square and Cube
Architecture Based On Ancient Indian Vedic
Mathematics", Proceedings of the 48th IEEE
MIDWEST Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS
2005), Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, August 7-10, 2005,
pp.1462-1465. 2 H. Thapliyal and M.B. Srinivas
,An Efficient Method of Elliptic Curve
Encryption Using Ancient Indian Vedic
Mathematics", Proceedings of the 48th IEEE
MIDWEST Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS
2005), Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, August 7-10, 2005,
pp. 826-829.
18
Cube Proposed in 1,2
1 Albert A. Liddicoat and Michael J. Flynn,
"Parallel Square and Cube Computations", 34th
Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and
Computers, California, October 2000. 2 Albert
Liddicoat and Michael J. Flynn," Parallel Square
and Cube Computations", Technical report
CSL-TR-00-808 , Stanford University, August 2000.
19
A Comparison
1 Albert A. Liddicoat and Michael J. Flynn,
"Parallel Square and Cube Computations", 34th
Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and
Computers, California, October 2000. 2 Albert
Liddicoat and Michael J. Flynn," Parallel Square
and Cube Computations", Technical report
CSL-TR-00-808 , Stanford University, August 2000.
20
Design of Division Architecture Using Vedic
Mathematics
21
Straight Division
Examples shown is from the book Vedic
Mathematics or Sixteen Simple Sutras From The
Vedas by Jagadguru Swami Sri Bharath,
Krsna Tirathji, Motilal Banarsidas ,
Varanasi(India),1965.
22
• TABLE 2 3 digit by 2 digit Vedic Division
Algorithm
• X2 X1 X0 by Y0Y1
• X2 X1
X0
• Y0 C1 C0
• Y1 _________________
• Z1
Z0 RD

• ------------------------------
• Steps
• 1. First do X2/Y0 (divide) to get
Z1 as quotient and C1 as remainder.
• 2. Call Procedure ADJUST(Z1,C1,X1,Y1,Y0).
• Now take the next dividend as
• K( C1 10X1)-(Y1 Z1).
• 3. Do K/Y0(divide) to get Z0 as quotient
and C0 as remainder.
• 4. Call procedure ADJUST (Z0,C0,X0,Y1,Y0).
• Now Our required remainder,
• RD(C0 10X0)-(Y1 Z1).
• Hence the Quotient QtZ1Z0
• RemainderRD
• For example 35001/77 will work as follows
• 3 5 0 0 1
• 7 7 7 7
• 7 ----------------
• 4 5 4 43
• 1. Divide 35 by 7 and get 5 as the
quotient and 0 as the remainder.
• 2. Call ADJUST (5,0, 0,7,7) .
• gt modified quotient5 and remainder 7
• Next Dividend K ( 7 10 0)-(7
4)42
• 3. Do K/ 7 and get 6 as quotient and 0 as
remainder.
• 4. Call ADJUST(6,0,0,7,7).
• gt modified quotient 5 and remainder 7
• Next dividend K (7 100)-(7 4)42
• 5. Do K/7 and get 6 as quotient and 0 as
remainder
• 6. Call ADJUST (6,0,1,7,7)
• gt modified quotient 4 and remainder 7
• H. Thapliyal and H. R. Arabania,"High Speed
Efficient N Bit by N Bit Division Algorithm And
Architecture Based On Ancient Indian Vedic
Mathematics", Proceedings of VLSI04, Las Vegas,
U.S.A, June 2004, pp. 413-419
• 2. H. Thapliyal and M.B Srinivas, VLSI
Implementation of RSA Encryption System using
Ancient Indian
• Vedic Mathematics , Proceedings of SPIE --
Volume 5837 VLSI Circuits and Systems II, Jose F.
Lopez,
• Francisco V. Fernandez, Jose Maria
Lopez-Villegas, Jose M. de la Rosa, Editors, June
2005, pp. 888-892

23
Verification and Synthesis
• The algorithms are implemented in Verilog HDL
and the simulation is done in Verilog simulator.
• The code is synthesized in Synopsis FPGA
Express. The design is optimized for speed
using Xilinx, family Spartan, device S30VQ100.
• The design is completely technology independent
and can be easily converted from one technology
to another
• The Spartan family used for synthesis consists of
FMAP HMAP which are basically 4 inputs and 3
input XOR function respectively.

24
Application of Vedic Division and Multiplier
Architecture in Design of RSA Encryption
Hardware
25
Timing Simulation Results of RSA Circuitry
Using Vedic Overlay Multiplier and Division
Architectures

26
(No Transcript)
27
Results and Discussion
• Using the Vedic hierarchical overlay multiplier
and the novel Vedic division algorithm lead to
significant improvement in performance
• The RSA circuitry has less timing delay compared
to its implementation using traditional
multipliers and division algorithms.

28
Conclusions
• Vedic Maths algorithms leads to faster mental
calculation.
• High speed VLSI arithmetic architectures can be
derived from Vedic Maths
• Due to its parallel and regular structure the
Vedic algorithms can be easily laid out on
silicon chip .
• This presentation is a tribute to a great scholar
and mathematician Jagadguru Swami Sri Bharati
Krishna Tirthaji Maharaja.
• Vedic maths India forum lead by Gaurav Tekriwal
is doing a great job in promoting the Vedic
Maths among the students.

29
• To refer to (cite) this presentation, the
following style should be used
• Himanshu Thapliyal, Vedic Mathematics for
Faster Mental Calculations and High Speed VLSI
Arithmetic, Invited talk at IEEE Computer
Society Student Chapter, University of South
Florida, Tampa, FL, Nov 14 2008.