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Vedic Mathematics for Faster Mental

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Title: Vedic Mathematics for Faster Mental


1
Vedic Mathematics for Faster Mental Calculations
and High Speed VLSI Arithmetic
Himanshu Thapliyal , Ph.D. Student Department of
Computer Science and Engineering University of
South Florida Web http//www.csee.usf.edu/hthapl
iy/ Email hthapliy_at_cse.usf.edu
2
Introduction
  • Vedic Mathematics is introduced by Jagadguru
    Swami Sri Bharati Krishna Tirthaji Maharaja
    (1884-1960).
  • Vedic means derived from Vedas or another
    definition by Sri Sankaracharya is the fountain
    head and illimitable store house of all
    knowledge.
  • Based on Sixteen Simple Mathematical formulae
    from the Vedas accumulated in a book Vedic
    Mathematics by Swamiji
  • Prof. Kenneth Williams from U.K and many other
    researchers have done significant study on Vedic
    Maths.
  • Many books on Vedic Maths and its application are
    written by Prof. Kenneth Williams and other
    researchers.

3
Design of Multiplier Architecture Using Vedic
Mathematics
4
  • Implemented Algorithm
  • Urdhva Tiryakbhyam (Vertical Crosswise) -
  • Urdhva means vertically up-down, Tiryakbhyam
    means left to right or vice versa .

5
  • TABLE 1- 16 x 16 bit Vedic multiplier Using
    Urdhva Tiryakbhyam
  • CP- Cross Product
    (Vertically and Crosswise)
  • A A15 A14 A13 A12
    A11 A10 A9 A8 A7 A6 A5
    A4 A3 A2 A1 A0
  • X3
    X2
    X1 X0
  • B B15 B14 B13 B12
    B11 B10 B9 B8 B7 B6 B5
    B4 B3 B2 B1 B0
  • Y3
    Y2
    Y1 Y0

  • X3 X2 X1 X0
    Multiplicand16 bits

  • Y3 Y2 Y1 Y0 Multiplier
    16 bits
  • ----------------------------------------------
    --------------------
  • J I H G F
    E D C
  • P7 P6 P5 P4 P3
    P2 P1 P0 Product32 bits
  • Where X3, X2, X1, X0, Y3, Y2, Y1 and Y0 are
    each of 4 bits.
  • PARALLEL COMPUTATION METHODOLOGY


  • 1. CP X0 X0 Y0 A

  • Y0
  • 2. CP X1 X0 X1 Y0X0 Y1 B

6
Array Multiplier
E.L. Braun. Digital computer design. New York
academic, 1963.
7
Derivation of Array Multiplier from Vedic
Mathematics
8
Partition Multiplier Derivation from Vedic
Mathematics
1. H. Thapliyal and M.B Srinivas, "High Speed
Efficient N X N Bit Parallel Hierarchical Overlay
Multiplier Architecture Based On Ancient Indian
Vedic Mathematics", Enformatika (Transactions on
Engineering, Computing and Technology),Volume
2,Dec 2004, pp.225-228.
9
Square and Cube Architecture Using Vedic
Mathematics
10
Duplex for Binary Number
  • In order to calculate the square of a number
    Duplex D property of binary numbers has been
    taken advantage of. In the Duplex, we take twice
    the product of the outermost pair, and then add
    twice the product of the next outermost pair, and
    so on till no pairs are left. When there are odd
    number of bits in the original sequence, there is
    one bit left by itself in the middle, and this
    enters as such.

1 H.Thapliyal and and H.R. Arabnia , "A
Time-Area-Power Efficient Multiplier and Square
Architecture Based On Ancient Indian Vedic
Mathematics", Proceedings of the 2004
International Conference on VLSI (VLSI'04 Las
Vegas, USA), Paper acceptance rate of 35 pp.
434-439. 2H. Thapliyal and M.B. Srinivas
,Design and Analysis of A Novel Parallel
Square and Cube Architecture Based On Ancient
Indian Vedic Mathematics", Proceedings of the
48th IEEE MIDWEST Symposium on Circuits and
Systems (MWSCAS 2005), Cincinnati, Ohio, USA,
August 7-10, 2005, pp.1462-1465. 3 H.
Thapliyal and M.B. Srinivas ,An Efficient Method
of Elliptic Curve Encryption Using Ancient Indian
Vedic Mathematics", Proceedings of the 48th IEEE
MIDWEST Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS
2005), Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, August 7-10, 2005,
pp. 826-829.
11
  • Thus,
  • For a 1 bit number, D is the same number i.e
    D(X0)X0.
  • For a 2 bit number D is twice their product i.e
    D(X1X0)2 X1 X0.
  • For a 3 bit number D is twice the product of the
    outer pair the e middle bit i.e D(X2X1X0)2
    X2 X0X1.
  • For a 4 bit number D is twice the product of the
    outer pair twice the product of the inner pair
    i.e D(X3X2X1X0)
  • 2 X3 X02 X2 X1
  • The pairing of the bits 4 at a time is done for
    number to be squared.
  • Thus D (1) 1
  • D(11)2 1 1
  • D( 101)2 1 10
  • D(1011)2 1 12 1 0

12
Square Proposed in 1,2
1 Albert A. Liddicoat and Michael J. Flynn,
"Parallel Square and Cube Computations", 34th
Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and
Computers, California, October 2000. 2 Albert
Liddicoat and Michael J. Flynn," Parallel Square
and Cube Computations", Technical report
CSL-TR-00-808 , Stanford University, August 2000.
13
Proposed Square
  • The proposed square architecture is an
    improvement over partition multipliers in which
    the NXN bit multiplication can be performed by
    decomposing the multiplicand and multiplier
    bits into M partitions where MN/K ( here N
    is the width of multiplicand and
    multiplier(divisible by 4 ) and K is a
    multiple of 4 such as 4, 8 , 12 ,16.. 4
    n). The partition multipliers are the fastest
    multipliers implemented in the commercial
    processors and are much faster than conventional
    multipliers.

1 H. Thapliyal and M.B. Srinivas ,Design and
Analysis of A Novel Parallel Square and Cube
Architecture Based On Ancient Indian Vedic
Mathematics", Proceedings of the 48th IEEE
MIDWEST Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS
2005), Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, August 7-10, 2005,
pp.1462-1465. 2 H. Thapliyal and M.B. Srinivas
,An Efficient Method of Elliptic Curve
Encryption Using Ancient Indian Vedic
Mathematics", Proceedings of the 48th IEEE
MIDWEST Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS
2005), Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, August 7-10, 2005,
pp. 826-829.
14
Performance Improvement
15
Comparison with 1,2
1 Albert A. Liddicoat and Michael J. Flynn,
"Parallel Square and Cube Computations", 34th
Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and
Computers, California, October 2000. 2 Albert
Liddicoat and Michael J. Flynn," Parallel Square
and Cube Computations", Technical report
CSL-TR-00-808 , Stanford University, August 2000.
16
Cube
Anurupya Sutra of Vedic Mathematics which states
If you start with the cube of the first digit
and take the next three numbers(in the top row)
in a Geometrical Proportion (in the ratio of the
original digits themselves) you will find that
the 4th figure ( on the right end) is just the
cube of the second digit.
a3 a2b ab2 b3 2a2b 2ab2
(a b)3
a3 3a2b 3ab2 b3
17
This sutra has been utilized in this work to find
the cube of a number. The number M of N bits
having its cube to be calculated is divided in
two partitions of N/2 bits, say a and b, and
then the Anurupya Sutra is applied to find the
cube of the number.
1 H. Thapliyal and M.B. Srinivas ,Design and
Analysis of A Novel Parallel Square and Cube
Architecture Based On Ancient Indian Vedic
Mathematics", Proceedings of the 48th IEEE
MIDWEST Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS
2005), Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, August 7-10, 2005,
pp.1462-1465. 2 H. Thapliyal and M.B. Srinivas
,An Efficient Method of Elliptic Curve
Encryption Using Ancient Indian Vedic
Mathematics", Proceedings of the 48th IEEE
MIDWEST Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS
2005), Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, August 7-10, 2005,
pp. 826-829.
18
Cube Proposed in 1,2
1 Albert A. Liddicoat and Michael J. Flynn,
"Parallel Square and Cube Computations", 34th
Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and
Computers, California, October 2000. 2 Albert
Liddicoat and Michael J. Flynn," Parallel Square
and Cube Computations", Technical report
CSL-TR-00-808 , Stanford University, August 2000.
19
A Comparison
1 Albert A. Liddicoat and Michael J. Flynn,
"Parallel Square and Cube Computations", 34th
Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and
Computers, California, October 2000. 2 Albert
Liddicoat and Michael J. Flynn," Parallel Square
and Cube Computations", Technical report
CSL-TR-00-808 , Stanford University, August 2000.
20
Design of Division Architecture Using Vedic
Mathematics
21
Straight Division
Examples shown is from the book Vedic
Mathematics or Sixteen Simple Sutras From The
Vedas by Jagadguru Swami Sri Bharath,
Krsna Tirathji, Motilal Banarsidas ,
Varanasi(India),1965.
22
  • TABLE 2 3 digit by 2 digit Vedic Division
    Algorithm
  • X2 X1 X0 by Y0Y1
  • X2 X1
    X0
  • Y0 C1 C0
  • Y1 _________________
  • Z1
    Z0 RD

  • ------------------------------
  • Steps
  • 1. First do X2/Y0 (divide) to get
    Z1 as quotient and C1 as remainder.
  • 2. Call Procedure ADJUST(Z1,C1,X1,Y1,Y0).
  • Now take the next dividend as
  • K( C1 10X1)-(Y1 Z1).
  • 3. Do K/Y0(divide) to get Z0 as quotient
    and C0 as remainder.
  • 4. Call procedure ADJUST (Z0,C0,X0,Y1,Y0).
  • Now Our required remainder,
  • RD(C0 10X0)-(Y1 Z1).
  • Hence the Quotient QtZ1Z0
  • RemainderRD
  • For example 35001/77 will work as follows
  • 3 5 0 0 1
  • 7 7 7 7
  • 7 ----------------
  • 4 5 4 43
  • 1. Divide 35 by 7 and get 5 as the
    quotient and 0 as the remainder.
  • 2. Call ADJUST (5,0, 0,7,7) .
  • gt modified quotient5 and remainder 7
  • Next Dividend K ( 7 10 0)-(7
    4)42
  • 3. Do K/ 7 and get 6 as quotient and 0 as
    remainder.
  • 4. Call ADJUST(6,0,0,7,7).
  • gt modified quotient 5 and remainder 7
  • Next dividend K (7 100)-(7 4)42
  • 5. Do K/7 and get 6 as quotient and 0 as
    remainder
  • 6. Call ADJUST (6,0,1,7,7)
  • gt modified quotient 4 and remainder 7
  • H. Thapliyal and H. R. Arabania,"High Speed
    Efficient N Bit by N Bit Division Algorithm And
    Architecture Based On Ancient Indian Vedic
    Mathematics", Proceedings of VLSI04, Las Vegas,
    U.S.A, June 2004, pp. 413-419
  • 2. H. Thapliyal and M.B Srinivas, VLSI
    Implementation of RSA Encryption System using
    Ancient Indian
  • Vedic Mathematics , Proceedings of SPIE --
    Volume 5837 VLSI Circuits and Systems II, Jose F.
    Lopez,
  • Francisco V. Fernandez, Jose Maria
    Lopez-Villegas, Jose M. de la Rosa, Editors, June
    2005, pp. 888-892

23
Verification and Synthesis
  • The algorithms are implemented in Verilog HDL
    and the simulation is done in Verilog simulator.
  • The code is synthesized in Synopsis FPGA
    Express. The design is optimized for speed
    using Xilinx, family Spartan, device S30VQ100.
  • The design is completely technology independent
    and can be easily converted from one technology
    to another
  • The Spartan family used for synthesis consists of
    FMAP HMAP which are basically 4 inputs and 3
    input XOR function respectively.

24
Application of Vedic Division and Multiplier
Architecture in Design of RSA Encryption
Hardware
25
Timing Simulation Results of RSA Circuitry
Using Vedic Overlay Multiplier and Division
Architectures

26
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27
Results and Discussion
  • Using the Vedic hierarchical overlay multiplier
    and the novel Vedic division algorithm lead to
    significant improvement in performance
  • The RSA circuitry has less timing delay compared
    to its implementation using traditional
    multipliers and division algorithms.

28
Conclusions
  • Vedic Maths algorithms leads to faster mental
    calculation.
  • High speed VLSI arithmetic architectures can be
    derived from Vedic Maths
  • Due to its parallel and regular structure the
    Vedic algorithms can be easily laid out on
    silicon chip .
  • This presentation is a tribute to a great scholar
    and mathematician Jagadguru Swami Sri Bharati
    Krishna Tirthaji Maharaja.
  • Vedic maths India forum lead by Gaurav Tekriwal
    is doing a great job in promoting the Vedic
    Maths among the students.

29
  • To refer to (cite) this presentation, the
    following style should be used
  • Himanshu Thapliyal, Vedic Mathematics for
    Faster Mental Calculations and High Speed VLSI
    Arithmetic, Invited talk at IEEE Computer
    Society Student Chapter, University of South
    Florida, Tampa, FL, Nov 14 2008.
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