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Community development


Community and society. Community. Classifying societies. Social structure. Porcess and culture ... define culture as the product of a human group or society. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Community development

Community development
  • Community
  • Community and society
  • Community
  • Classifying societies
  • Social structure
  • Porcess and culture
  • Community Development
  • Development
  • Communtiy development
  • Process
  • Work method
  • Nine assumptions

Society and Community (1)
  • Community is introduced next to society as these
    are often confused, both refer to groups or
    clusters of people living together and sharing a
    common culture. Sociologists distinguish between
    them on the basis of size, degree of dependence
    and self-sufficiency.
  •  A community is a cluster of people focused on
    individual homes and places of work, based on
    daily patterns of interaction) such as those
    involved with work, shopping and school).
  •  A society is a comprehensive, territorially
    based social grouping that includes all the
    social institutions required to meet basic human
    need. (Such comprehensiveness is not found in a
    family, an organization or a local community.)

Society and Community (2)
  • Societies can be structured in many ways, but
    display the following traits (Olsen, 1968)
  • 1        Nearly all the social relationships of
    a societys members occur within the boundaries
    of the society.
  • 2        A society establishes the social
    procedures and mechanisms by which resources
    (economic and otherwise) are obtained and
    distributed in order to satisfy peoples needs.
  • 3        The final authority to make decisions
    and resolve conflict rests within a society.
  • 4        A society is the highest level of
    organization to which its members are loyal and
    which they are prepared to defend.
  • 5 All of a societys members share a common and
    unique culture and usually a common language.
    (In South Africa we share such cultural symbols
    as June 16, the flag and the family braai, and
    mostly share such cultural values as ubuntu.

Society and Community (3)  
In traditional African society, such as Zulu or
Xhosa society, community and society were one and
the same. In such settings, there was no larger
social unit beyond the local population cluster.
Today, however, advances in communication and
transportation have increased the range of human
activity. The local community is often a fairly
small and by no means independent or a
self-sufficient part of a larger cluster of
people known as a society. (Popenoe et al, 1998,
A community (after Ferrinho, 1980)
  • A specific system of action which arises
  • When a human population (demography)
  • Settled in a given territory, establishes
  • Structural arrangements fro the adaptiveness, to
    it in order to live and survive as a group
  • Developing interactive relationships amongst its
    components, which not only define an order kept
    off equilibrium by some kind of stress but also
  • Originate shared ways of thinking, feeling and
    acting which are (Cultural anthropology)
  • Internalised by all the population and with which
    each individual identifies himself in a
    particular edgree according to his personal
    living experience and inherited characteristics

Classifying societies (1)Existence
  • Many classifications
  • By mode of existence
  • By social structure.
  • Knowledge of these classes may assist in
    determining the public participation approach or
    tactics when dealing with diverse groups.
  • Mode of existence
  • Lenski traces the societies through time and
  • Hunting and gathering societies.
  • small and sparse population
  • nomadic way of life
  • rudimentary technology
  • family is important
  • little specialization
  •  Horticultural society
  • permanent communities up to 1000 people
  • favorable locations
  • tools and household objects
  • efficiency resulted in surpluses
  • specialization developed
  • inequalities in wealth and power

Classifying societies (2)Existence
  • Pastoral societies
  • rely more on animals
  • semi-nomadic
  • Agrarian society
  • inventions like the plough
  • predictable surpluses
  • resulted in large communities and cities
  • stratification of people
  • unequal social groups
  • bureaucracies
  • money based economies
  • technological advances
  •   Modern society
  • manufactured goods accessible
  • specialization in work
  • social roles
  • stratified society
  • higher populations at higher densities
  • large government intervention.
  •   Post-industrial society
  • offices, computers
  • metropolitan areas
  • services replaced goods

Classifying societies (3)Social structure
  • Communal societies
  • 1 There is a low division of labour and roles
    are not highly specialized. There may be
    differences in the roles of males and females,
    young and old, but the young males, for example,
    play roughly the same role.
  • 2   The family is the most important institution
    in the society. Kinship is the basis of
    virtually all social organization. There may be
    larger kinship groups like tribes or clans.
  • 3   Most societal relationships are personal and
    long lasting. Social interaction has great
    emotional meaning for the people involved.
  • 4 Behaviour is governed mostly by custom and

Classifying societies (4 )Social structure
  • Associational societies
  • 1    There is an extensive division of labour and
    most roles are specialized. Knowledge and skill
    become more important than age and other ascribed
    characteristics as the basis for the division of
  • 2    The family loses influence and many of its
    activities are taken over by other institutions
    economic, religious and political. Large
    corporations dominate economic activity, worship
    is through organized religion and politicians and
    civil servants do governing.
  • 3    Many social relationships are impersonal and
    short-lived. We may neither know nor care to
    know our taxi drivers name or our lecturers
    hobbies. We care only that they carry out their
    jobs smoothly and efficiently.
  • 4 Behaviour is governed by law rather than by
    custom. Tradition simply cannot adapt to rapidly
    changing conditions and needs regulation.

Processes in society
  • Functionalism is based on an analogy between
    society and a living organism. The complex parts
    of a society function to maintain order and
    stability. Order is maintained if the society
    fulfils the needs of its members and they
    continue to share the same values. Sometimes a
    part of the social structure may become
    dysfunctional that is, it upsets rather than
    maintains order. Also, manifest functions
    (revealed, recognized and intended consequences)
    may be different from its latent functions
    (unrecognized and unintended consequences).
  • The conflict perspective views society as being
    in a state of struggle over scarce resources.
    According to many conflict theorists, the
    dominant groups in a society maintain control by
    force. One major focus of the conflict theory is
    the identification of these dominant groups, or

Culture as product of society
  • Sociologist define culture as the product of a
    human group or society. These shared products
    include not only values, language and knowledge,
    but also material objects. Although culture is
    shared, it must be learned by every generation
    though social interaction. Culture is the way of
    life of a people that is transmitted from one
    generation to the other. Culture is created,
    through people interacting, but human interaction
    takes its form through the sharing of culture.
    The major components of culture are symbols,
    language, values and norms, sanctions and
    material culture.

Conclusion Community
  • The engineer is involved in the supply of
    material culture.
  • Awareness of what a society is, how it can be
    classified, what the processes and products of
    the society are, can orientate the role of
    engineering towards context sensitive problem
    analysis and design. The engineer can recognize
    the limitations of engineering processes and
    solutions and learn to work in multi-disciplinary
    groups, using the input of other experts to
    design acceptable solutions.
  •  Applying the preceding discussion to the South
    African context, it is clear that South Africa is
    a society consisting of a diversity of cultures,
    especially below the national level. At best we
    are in transition or evolving towards a society.

Defining development
  • In the purely economic sense,
  • development is the process by which a state
    reaches the position where it can provide for its
    own growth without relying on special
    arrangements for the transfer of resources from
    other and richer countries
  • where its growth, in short, becomes
    self-sustaining on a reasonable level and
  • may enable it, through its own efforts, to secure
    the benefits of industrial and technological
    progress for its people.

The nature of development
  • Development is about people, their needs and
    their circumstances.
  • For this simple reason, development can never
    rely on predetermined long-term plans and goals.
  • Because development is about people, it is
    cloaked in uncertainty - the uncertainty of
    changing circumstances, changing experiences,
    changing needs and, eventually, changing people.
  • There is nothing certain about this situation
    other than its uncertainty.

Community development Defined?
  • A movement
  • To promote better living conditons for the
    whole community with the active participation and
    if possible on the initiative of the community
  • A programme
  • A series of activities are added to the method
    the process by which the efforts of the people
    themselves are united with those of government
    authorities to improve economic, social and
    cultural conditions of communities, to integrate
    those communities into the life of the nation,
    and to enable them to contribute more fully to
    the national process
  • A method
  • Well planned action to empower a community to
    engage with a reasonable measure of success in
    the process of communtiy development
  • A process

Community development(2)
  • Community development
  • From social work assistance of the impoverished
    working classes
  • Modernisation theory
  • the traditional society,
  • the pre-conditions for take-off,
  • the take off,
  • the drive to maturity, and
  • the age of mass consumption
  • Underdevelopment theory
  • Due to past events
  • Dependency theory
  • Developed centre, dependent periphery, control of
    resources by developed countries, local elites
  • Concientisacion
  • Empowerment
  • Fear of freedom, autonomy and responsibility,
    power sharing
  • Community based resource management

Community development(3)
  • Improvement in living conditions
  • Not only infrastructure
  • Economic
  • Cultural
  • Psychological/sociological
  • etc
  • Decision making by the community
  • Assistance from authority and NGOs
  • But towards independence
  • Multi-disciplinary approach
  • Roleplayers
  • The community
  • The community leaders
  • The authority
  • Elected
  • Officials
  • Professionals
  • NGOs
  • Funders

Community development process 1a
  • Establish contact
  • Leadership
  • Members of community
  • External community developer???
  • Work method
  • Gain confidence
  • And collecting information..
  • From Wassermann and Kriel (1997)

Community development process1b
  • Collect information
  • History and origin
  • Physical aspects and climate
  • Demographics
  • Literacy, commuting, networks,
  • Services, facilities and resources
  • Oganisations
  • Transport systems
  • Housing
  • Economic conditions
  • Political circumstances, power?
  • Communication networks
  • Cultural values, norms, customs and taboos
  • Existing ersources, knowledge and skills
  • Shortcomings needs and problems
  • From
  • Reports
  • Interviews leaders, members
  • Publci meetings
  • Surveys
  • Observation
  • Engaging in conversations
  • Hard and soft information
  • Basis for future interventions

Community development process 2
  • Role of developer
  • Not to guide people to define their problem but
  • To sensitise them to be critical of their own
    needs (Why do they want what they want?)
  • Implications of fulfilling their wants
  • Identifing needs and problems
  • More clear definition of needs and problems
  • Not a problem because the community developer
    perceives it to be so

Community development process 3
  • Establishing priorities
  • Need to prioritise the needs and problems
  • Cannot be dealt with simultaneously
  • Cannot all be solved at the community level (I.e.
    also at national and regional level)
  • But communities find this difficult to do
  • Only needed if
  • Inadequate resources, urgency of problem,
    distances and scope,
  • Other aspects
  • When and how often?
  • Who suffers?
  • Consequences of no action / do-nothing
  • Usually in respect of funding priority

Community development process 4
  • Organising the community
  • Establish a committee
  • Elected by the community
  • Can the whole community be brought together for
    the election
  • Utilise existing community structures committees
    and leaders
  • Now that the roles and obligations of the
    committee are clearer and
  • The needs are clearer

Community development process 5
  • Planning
  • Formulating objectives
  • Realistic, achievable, understandable, measurable
    and controllalbe within a realistic time frame
  • Success breeds success rather than a long time
  • Development at the rate the community can cope
  • Identify resources
  • Human
  • Manufactured
  • Natural
  • Organisational
  • Devising alternative plans
  • Sense of responsibility by the members of the
    project - ability to take initiative,
    self-confidence, minimising costs
  • This requires imagination on the part of the
    community Start with small objectives

Community development process 6
  • Implementation
  • To occur as soon as possible after the planning
  • Changing circumstances may make planning
  • Actions should be
  • In tems of project plan
  • Goal directed
  • Include grass roots
  • Co-ordinated
  • Adjusted over time
  • Continuous motivation of participants
  • Discussions
  • Attitude of the community developer
  • Marginal successes during project
  • The existing situation
  • The human attribute
  • Working mood, work ethic, enthusiasm, positive
    thinking, readiness to take risks
  • Cultural circumstances
  • Decision making, poverty

Community development process 7
  • Evaluation or monitoring
  • During the project
  • Can this be done?
  • Community development implies a change in values
    , attitudes and actions of individuals
  • Measures defined in terms of the need/s
  • Criteria for evaluation
  • Relevance
  • Feasibility
  • Efficiency
  • Cost effectiveness
  • Consequences
  • Acceptance
  • Obstacles and highlights
  • OR questions
  • Efficiency
  • Objectives achieved through CP
  • Which groups have benefitted
  • How
  • Inteviews, observation, written documentation

Community development process 8
  • Termination
  • When the objectives are reached
  • Community independent enough to plan and
    implement projects on its own
  • Self-confidence of the community
  • Fewer inputs from CD
  • Research skills developed
  • Ideas being generated by the community
  • Leadership developed
  • Community identity
  • Roles perceived correctly
  • Problem solving skills
  • Aid now of a technical nature

Work method (1)
  • Task of the community
  • Principle of self-help
  • Principle of community participation
  • How many can be involved in each facet?
  • Task of community developer
  • A problem solving role
  • Think, decide, plan organise, administer and
    provide for people, always the main initiative
    and the final say
  • Growth orientated approach
  • Elicit a process of self- determination and
    self-help in the learning experience and through

Work method (2)
  • Foundations
  • Nature and aims of community development
  • Primary aims
  • Socialisation
  • Shaping values
  • Developing abilities
  • Secondary aims
  • Institutional development
  • Political development
  • Economic development
  • Physical development
  • Social development
  • Self determination
  • No valid community development model
  • Value of work method to the community
  • Value assigned to the project by the community
  • Local community participation buy-in
  • Local sense of responsibility
  • Building relationships

Nine assumptions
  • About the community
  • Communities consist of harmonious interest groups
  • All community members desire change
  • All community members have the self-confidence
    and knowledge to participate
  • All community members may take free, democratic
  • Community leaders serve community interests
  • About community developers
  • All community developers are objective
  • External guidance is given unconditionally
  • About the process
  • Felt needs are satisfied
  • Community development projects necessarily

Community development Conclusion
  • Value in that people are stimulated to change the
    context of the group
  • Special circumstances
  • Away from the notion of community to the
    individual that shows intiative
  • Concentrating on the individual with the capacity
    to think ahead and plan could be more effective
    than pushing the group in a bottom up approach
  • Not forcing individuals into the process of
    development but rather that the individual be
    accorded authority and competence to free
    him/herself of restrictive factors
  • Remember
  • The community is a collection of conflicting
    interests, which extend far beyond the village
  • But entrepreneurs are required to initiate