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Social Consciousness Arts, Ideas, Technology

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Joseph Paxton. 3 story building (neo-Gothic style) ... Claude Monet, Gare Saint-Lazare, 1877. Impact of Railroads. Lowered transportation costs ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Social Consciousness Arts, Ideas, Technology


1
Social Consciousness Arts, Ideas, Technology
2
European Urbanization
3
Social Realism and the Novel
  • Spread of education
  • Increase in literacy
  • Writers entertained and instructed their readers
  • Romanticism has turned to Realism
  • (late 19th century)

4
The Writer as Critic
  • Charles Dickens
  • Realistic and bizarre
  • Attacks unjust human behavior using a poetic
    voice
  • Attacked social inequalities

5
The writer as critic
  • Charles Dickens
  • Bleak House
  • Attacked British legal system
  • Led to legal reform in the 1860s

6
The writer as critic
  • Charles Dickens
  • Hard Times 1854
  • Attacks industrial society
  • Education without humanity can destroy those who
    it seems to help

7
The writer as critic
  • Charles Dickens
  • Oliver Twist
  • Harsh realities of young children who are poor
  • Life in orphanages detrimental to childs health
    and well-being

8
The writer as critic
  • Mary Ann Evans
  • George Eliot (alias)
  • Middlemarch
  • ways people are shaped by social medium and their
    own inner conflicts, and choices

9
The writer as critic
  • Gustave Flaubert
  • Madame Bovary
  • Attacked middle class
  • Emma Bovary, married woman who has an affair
  • Overdoses on arsenic when she knows her secret
    will be revealed

10
Realism in the Visual Arts
  • Honore Daumier
  • Paintings, lithographs, sculpted statuettes
  • Bitter and angry over the abuse of power in
    society
  • Deep resentment of legal injustices and corruption

11
Realism in the Visual Arts
  • Honore Daumier
  • -Paintings, lithographs, sculpted statuettes
  • Bitter and angry over the abuse of power in
    society
  • Deep resentment of legal injustices and
    corruption

12
Realism in the Visual Arts
  • Honore Daumier
  • Paintings, lithographs, sculpted statuettes
  • Bitter and angry over the abuse of power in
    society
  • Deep resentment of legal injustices and
    corruption

13
Realism in the Visual Arts
  • Honore Daumier
  • Paintings, lithographs, sculpted statuettes
  • Bitter and angry over the abuse of power in
    society
  • Deep resentment of legal injustices and
    corruption

14
Realism in the Visual Arts
  • Honore Daumier
  • Paintings, lithographs, sculpted statuettes
  • Bitter and angry over the abuse of power in
    society
  • Deep resentment of legal injustices and
    corruption

15
Realism in the Visual Arts
16
Realism in the Visual Arts
  • Gustave Courbet
  • Rejected Romanticism of Delacroix
  • Believed in naturalistic depictions of world
  • Painted peasants and workers

17
Realism in the Visual Arts
  • Gustave Courbet
  • Was a socialist
  • Avoided the sentimental just as Realist writers
    did

18
The Promise of Technology
19
The Promise of Technology
  • The Crystal Palace
  • Competition announced for design of an exhibit
    pavilion
  • Joseph Paxton
  • 3 story building (neo-Gothic style)
  • Individual exhibits lined either side of the huge
    central space
  • Built entirely of glass

20
The Promise of Technology
  • The Crystal Palace
  • a triumph of civil engineering
  • 300,000 panes of glass

21
Industrialization on display
  • The Crystal Palace
  • 100,000 industrial products from around the world
  • Raw materials, machinery, textiles, metal and
    ceramic products, fine arts

22
Industrialization on display
  • The Crystal Palace
  • Ice-making machines
  • Sewing machine
  • Model for a canal across the Suez

23
Industrialization on display
  • The Crystal Palace
  • 6 million people visited the exhibition
  • Palace dismantled and moved to another location

24
Pace of industrialization
  • 1850-1873 (2nd wave)
  • Increased 10 every year
  • Coal, iron, textiles, steam power
  • France, Belgium, Germany
  • The Continent adopted British technology

25
Economic Growth
  • 1850-1873
  • Population growth slowed down after 1850
  • Decline in births
  • Parents consciously limited family size
  • More children living to adult age so population
    steadily increased but not dramatically

26
Economic Growth
  • Consumer goods
  • High volume of consumption so lower birth rate
    didnt affect demand for consumer goods

27
Economic Growth
  • Consumer goods
  • Aging population led to emphasis on industrial
    products
  • Increase in prosperity produced rising sales
  • New markets overseas
  • Prices went up
  • Real wages (actual purchasing power) grew

28
Textiles
  • Great demand
  • Large numbers of workers
  • Improved machinery
  • GB by 1850 had fully mechanized textile industry
  • Cotton remained dominant fabric

29
Textiles
  • 1843 GB lifted ban on exporting machinery
  • 1870 France and Germany involved in mechanization
    ( but not ahead of GB)
  • Increase in output and decrease in production
    costs

30
Coal and Steam
  • Coal major fuel source for 19th c
  • Until 1890s GB greatest coal-producing nation
  • France coal deposits inferior quality
  • German states rich mineral resources

31
Coal and Steam
  • Coal major fuel source for 19th c
  • 1871 G. unification coal output rose 2 ½ times
    France

32
Coal and Steam
  • Steam engines
  • Increase in coal supplies led to development of
    efficient steam engines
  • French tariff on imported steam curtailed their
    use
  • Relied on water power

33
Iron
  • Instead of costly charcoal coke was used in blast
    furnace to smelt ore into cast iron
  • Mid 1840s rolling mills designed to make iron
    beams for rails

34
Iron
  • 1845 90 Belgian cast iron was made in coke blast
    furnaces
  • 1850s railroads brought two materials together,
    France tripled its iron output

35
Iron
  • Pig iron increased 1850-1870 by 70

36
Iron
  • After mid-century demand for stronger metal
  • What could it be???

37
Railroads
  • Continent
  • Industrialization took place with railroad
    production
  • Napoleon III encouraged rail construction
  • 1870 had 10,000 miles of track

38
Impact of Railroads
  • British rails built with private capitals
  • French state produced land
  • Long-term lease to private companies

Claude Monet, Gare Saint-Lazare, 1877
39
Impact of Railroads
  • Lowered transportation costs
  • Stimulated new technologies in iron, coal
  • New tracts of farmland in U.S. (European capital
    was invested)

40
Impact of Railroads
  • Investment banks started to raise capital
  • Lines linked regions to one another
  • Rise of national spirit

41
Impact of Railroads
  • Helped process of unification
  • Modern military strategy
  • Encouraged growth of cities
  • Working class could travel long distances
  • Escape inner cities
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