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The Minor Prophets

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Title: The Minor Prophets


1
The Minor Prophets
2
www.dhcc.faithofreason.com
3
The Minor Prophets
  • Obadiah 840-830 BC
  • Joel 830-750 BC
  • Jonah 780-740 BC
  • Hosea 765-725 BC
  • Amos 760 BC
  • Micah 740-700 BC
  • Nahum 640-620 BC
  • Zephaniah 640-609 BC
  • Habakkuk 608-605 BC
  • Haggai 520 BC
  • Zechariah 520-480 BC
  • Malachi 420-400 BC

4
Habakkuk
5
Author
  • Embracing or one who is embraced
  • Nothing else is known or mentioned about the
    author
  • Rabbinic tradition states that he is the son of
    the Shunammite woman restored by Elisha II Kings
    416 embrace a son
  • Habakkuk is mentioned in Bel and the dragon
    where he gave food to Daniel in the lions den.

6
  • Now the prophet Habakkuk was in Judea he had
    made a stew and crumbled bread into the bowl, and
    he was on the way to his field, carrying it to
    the reapers, when an angel of the Lord said,
    'Habakkuk, carry the meal you have with you to
    Babylon, for Daniel, who is in the lion-pit.'
    Habakkuk said, 'My Lord, I have never been to
    Babylon. I do not know where the lion-pit is.'
    Then the angel took the prophet by the crown of
    his head, and carrying him by his hair, he swept
    him to Babylon with the blast of his breath and
    put him down above the pit. Habakkuk called out,
    'Daniel, Daniel, take the meal that God has sent
    you!' Daniel said, 'O God, thou dost indeed
    remember me thou dost never forsake those who
    love thee.' Then he got up and ate and God's
    angel returned Habakkuk at once to his home. On
    the seventh day the king went to mourn for
    Daniel, but when he arrived at the pit and looked
    in, there sat Daniel! Then the king cried aloud,
    'Great art thou, O Lord, the God of Daniel, and
    there is no God but thou alone.' So the king drew
    Daniel up and the men who had planned to destroy
    him he flung into the pit, and then and there
    they were eaten up before his eyes.

7
Date
  • Hab 16-Hab 16 ESV For behold, I am raising up
    the Chaldeans
  • Had to be written before the Chaldeans became
    prominent
  • 605 BC at the battle of Carchemish Babylon
    defeated Egypt
  • Hab 12-4conditions that must have existed after
    the death of Josiah

8
Date
  • The reign of King Jehoiakim (609-597 BC) does fit
    (II Kings 2334 - 245 Jeremiah 2218)
  • This would put the book somewhere between 609 and
    605 BC. Probably 607 or 606 BC.

9
Historical Background
  • Upon the death of the good King Josiah at Megiddo
    (609 BC) --- II Kings 2329 --- his son,
    Jehoahaz, was made king.
  • He was only 23 years old, and according to II
    Kings 2332 "he did evil in the sight of the
    Lord.
  • He reigned for only 3 months, and then Pharaoh
    Neco of Egypt deposed him and put his brother,
    Jehoiakim (also called Eliakim), upon the throne
    (II Kings 2333-37).
  • He was 25 years old when he took the throne and
    he also did evil in the sight of God.

10
Historical Background
  • "Within a period of approximately 20 years the
    Chaldeans swept over Judah in successive waves,
    and ultimately destroyed the country and took its
    inhabitants away into captivity in 586 BC.
  • (Zondervan's Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible)
  • In reality the Captivity began in 605 BC when
    Nebuchadnezzar took some Jews with him to Babylon
    (most likely including Daniel)--not at 586 BC
    with the destruction of Jerusalem

11
Character of the Book
  • Unique in approach
  • Consists of a conversation with God and a song
  • While others proclaim judgment, Habakkuk asks for
    judgment
  • "The book of Habakkuk differs from other books of
    prophecy in one special aspect. Instead of taking
    Jehovah's message directly to the people, he
    takes the complaint of the people to Jehovah,
    representing them in the complaint" (Homer
    Hailey).

12
Outline of the Book
  • I. Judgment on Evil (in the form of a
    conversation between God and the prophet)
  • 1. Habakkuks question about Judah and Gods
    answer. (11-111)
  • 2. Habakkuks question about Babylon and Gods
    answer. (112-220)
  • III. Habakkuks song of praise to God. (31-19)

13
Habakkuk
14
Chapter 1
  • 11-Inscription of the book.
  • 12-14-Habakkuk complains of the iniquity of
    Israel
  • V. 3 asks How can God look upon the evil being
    done and not do anything about it.
  • V. 4 responds that because of the lack of action
    the law no longer has any force.

15
Chapter 1
  • 15-111--God answers that he will punish the
    evil with the Chaldeans
  • V. 5 Look among the nations, and see the source
    of the punishment will come from a nation around
    them
  • V. 6 The Chaldeans are named--God says that he
    will raise them up.
  • V. 6 march through the breadth of the earth
    represents their future conquests

16
Chapter 1
  • V. 7 their judgment and their dignity proceed
    from themselvesmeaning they have no master and
    attribute their position to their own power and
    ability
  • V. 9 They come to do violence, which is a
    judgment on the people for their violence (Hab
    12-4)
  • V. 10 They do not recognize others as
    authorities. The second half describes them
    taking cities/fortresses with earthworks

17
Chapter 1
  • V. 11-these people who are the instrument of
    punishment will pass through and themselves be
    guilty, worshipping their own power.
  • 112-117--Habakkuk pleads with God not to
    destroy Israel
  • V. 12-Habakkuk asks about Gods nature of
    immutability to point that God will fulfill his
    promise to Israel (and thus not destroy them)
  • But recognizes that need for the Chaldeans to
    punish them anyway

18
Chapter 1
  • V. 13-Habakkuk argues that God cannot look upon
    the evilHe must do something about it.
  • However, he does not understand how the wicked
    people could be left unpunished while they will
    be the force to punish Israel
  • The righteous mentioned is most likely the
    faithful of Israel, not the ones mentioned in
    12-4

19
Chapter 1
  • V.14-16 use a figure of the fisherman applied to
    Babylon.
  • Israel is the fish caught up in the net they cast
  • They rejoice in the catch and sacrifice to the
    net (idolatry) for the abundance (victory)
  • V. 17 Habakkuk asks if Babylon would stop with
    Israel or continue to take all the other nations
    it could

20
Chapter 2
  • 21-23-God asks Habakkuk to take the message to
    the people
  • V. 1 Habakkuk, speaking to himself, awaits for
    Gods message and is sure that he will receive
    it.
  • V. 2 God tells him to make the message plain
    where one can run while he reads it
  • V. 3 It needs to be understood because it will
    happen.

21
Chapter 2
  • V. 4- The proud will not continue, but the
    righteous shall live by faith
  • Gal 311 ESV Now it is evident that no one is
    justified before God by the law, for "The
    righteous shall live by faith."
  • Rom 117 ESV For in it the righteousness of God
    is revealed from faith for faith, as it is
    written, "The righteous shall live by faith."

22
Chapter 2
  • V. 5-Desctiption of the character of the
    Chaldeans
  • Treacherous, greedy, prideful
  • V. 6-20-the judgment on the Chaldeans (as spoken
    by the nations they oppressed through 5 woes)

23
Chapter 2
  • V. 6-8-The first woe for their plundering of
    others
  • Those who were plundered will come back to take
    from you.
  • V. 9-11-The second woe for their violence and
    cunning
  • Everything here was done for their house yet
    the house speaks out against them

24
Chapter 2
  • V. 12-14-The third woe for building their nation
    on blood violence
  • God will take all that people have built and
    destroy it to demonstrate He is God.
  • V. 15-17-The fourth woe for their treatment of
    the subject nations
  • Babylon looked to humiliate those who they
    conquered, but they will be the ones humiliated
    at the end.

25
Chapter 2
  • V. 18-20-The fifth woe for their idolatry
  • The idolatrous nations trusted in their gods who
    they made themselves but could not speak for
    themselves (the idols)
  • Compared to God, who is in His Holy temple (not
    in Jerusalem, but in Heaven) and all the world
    should keep silent before Him

26
Chapter 3
  • V. 1-the title
  • Shigionoth-an impassioned or triumphal strain,
    with rapid change of emotion
  • V. 2-Plea for mercy while executing judgment

27
Chapter 3
  • V. 33-315-Description of God coming in judgment
  • V. 3-connection with both Moses and Deborahs
    songs
  • God is coming from the Southbut not connected
    with Sinai, which would be immediately connected
    with the Law

28
Chapter 3
  • V. 4 Description of God with light (truth) and
    power
  • V. 5 punishment goes before him to the
    disobedient
  • V. 6 Measured the Earth and shook it up so to
    speak
  • His ways are everlasting-not necessarily
    connected with previous point, but stands on its
    own.

29
Chapter 3
  • V. 7 various nations struck with fear
  • V. 8-12 description of God given where all nature
    bows before Him (remember Nahum-typical type of
    imagery for kings and rulers)
  • The difference here is that it is a list of
    things God has done for His people (mostly
    account of Exodus and conquering of Canaan)
  • V. 13-God leading His people in battle to victory

30
Chapter 3
  • V. 15- reference to the crossing of the Red Sea
  • V. 16-Habakkuk thinks about the wonders of God
    and what he had done for Israel and decides to
    wait until they will be punished.

31
Chapter 3
  • V. 17-19Habakkuk trusts in God
  • Even though bad things may happen, one must trust
    in God
  • He gives strength and stability

32
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