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Democracy and Radicalisation


in more extremism, radicalisation of Muslim students. the radicalisation of Palestinian society. ... of parts of the Muslim community. the radicalisation of the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Democracy and Radicalisation

Democracy and Radicalisation
  • Keywords for our times?

Raymond Williams 1976
  • Keywords

  • Meanings reflecting the times
  • The Last Enemy (BBC2 Sundays)
  • Ive been away four years and everything has

Background to my research
  • The borders between langue and parole (or system
    and use).
  • Is this a real distinction?
  • How can we operate without a system?
  • How can a system both be stable and change over
  • Do we need the system to understand new forms and

Emergent meaning
  • Previous studies
  • 1. The meaning of water during the 1995
    Yorkshire water shortage.
  • 2. The nature of the apology according to news
    coverage of Tonys Blairs apology for the Iraq
  • 3. The creation of opposites in context.

This project keywords
  • Words which seem to acquire positive or negative
    connotation in particular political climates and
    become absolute and assumed good or bad.
  • e.g. choice
  • radicalisation
  • democracy
  • extremism

Theoretical assumptions
  • That texts can have meaning to some extent
  • That such meaning may be ideological, either
    reflecting the dominant ideologies of society or
    reflecting a minority view that is being
  • That readers are to a greater or lesser extent
    potentially influenced by this ideology.

Pilot Study
  • Newspaper articles from ten year period 1998
  • All articles from 5 newspapers Daily Mail, The
    Guardian, The Independent, The Sun, The Times.
  • Focussing on choice, democracy, radicalisation
    and extremism
  • Quantitative do they increase in frequency?

Raw data
Normalised by number of articles
Qualitative study
  • Methodology
  • Extract all occurrences of words with context
  • Examine all occurrences for their semantic
    prosody (regular collocation)
  • Examine all occurrences for their grammatical
  • Examine all occurrences for their semantic

Semantic prosody (Louw)
  • Not part of the denotation of a word, but like
    other connotations, associated with the word by
    frequency of co-occurrence.
  • E.g. radicalisation of Muslim youth

Grammatical properties
  • Many possibilities here, including
  • Determiners and adjectives
  • e.g. social democracy, a democracy
  • Grammatical role (Actor, Goal etc)
  • e.g. democracy is
  • the US will bring democracy to

Semantic properties
  • e.g. is the verbal origin of radicalisation
    evident in the context ?
  • Is democracy presented as a single, unified
  • Are they measurable?
  • What metaphors are used?
  • Are opposites (or synonyms) being constructed?

Democracy and radicalisation - results
  • Based on a comparison of only part of the
    available data from June of 1998 and June of
  • To see whether there is any discernible
    difference between the two years
  • To assess the contextual meaning of these words
    at these two times

  • Nominalisation
  • Process presented as noun
  • e.g. transform (v) ? transformation
  • No Actor/Goal
  • e.g. She transformed the room
  • It was a transformation

Radicalisation 2
  • Nominalisation
  • Process presented as noun
  • e.g. radicalise (v) ? radicalisation
  • No Actor/Goal
  • e.g. Poverty radicalised the young Muslim
  • Muslim radicalisation (is increasing)

Radicalisation 2007
  • Goals mainly young, mainly Muslim
  • Actors mainly absent
  • Determiners mainly definite articles (the)

Radicalisation 2007 contd.
  • the radicalisation of Arab youth
  • the radicalisation of young men and women
  • in more extremism, radicalisation of Muslim
  • the radicalisation of Palestinian society.
  • to the radicalisation of the anti-G8 scene.
  • the radicalisation of parts of the Muslim
  • the radicalisation of the British people
  • the radicalisation of Russia's Muslims
  • The radicalisation of students by Islamist groups
    on campus

Radicalisation 2007 - possessives, self-evident
meaning and equivalence
  • His radicalisation
  • his brother's long process of radicalisation.
  • modern Islam's radicalisation
  • a sign of radicalisation
  • in danger of radicalisation.
  • the "fight against radicalisation and extremism".

  • The failure to engage and address the needs of
    modern Islam could result in more extremism,
    radicalisation of Muslim students, as well as a
    growing mistrust between Muslims and secular
    society, the director of the Markfield Institute
    of Higher Education claims

Radicalisation (1998)
  • Some indefinite articles (a/an)
  • More Actors evident (i.e. the causes of
  • No possessives
  • Emphasis on process rather than product
  • Not unequivocally negative connotation

Radicalisation (1998)
  • Over the past two weeks, thanks to the Decane
    offensive and the refugee crisis, there has been
    a radicalisation of Kosovo society at almost all
  • The strongest stimulus to the radicalisation of
    the Macedonian Albanians will be a constant
    pressure-cooker of revolt and suppression in
  • The deep aftershocks resulted in a new
    radicalisation of the nationalist community,
    which in turn led to a record Sinn Fein vote in
    the 1997 general election
  • The three victims were buried yesterday in their
    home village, Dura, in a sea of green flags,
    showing allegiance to the radical Islamic
    movement Hamas - a vivid gauge of the steady
    radicalisation of the West Bank in the year since
    the collapse of the peace process.

Radicalisation (1998 contd.)
  • The politicisation of the cartoon? The
    radicalisation of American mainstream movies? A
    lovely idea if it were true, but it isn't.
  • The VW Lupo a radicalisation of the SEAT Arosa
    which comes with the customary Volkswagen
  • "The English have always considered themselves as
    subjects, subordinate to the Establishment,
    rather than citizens. What happened this decade
    changed all that. It is still continuing, with
    the re-radicalisation of students, a formerly
    active body which had been dormant for 30 years."

Types of democracy 1998
  • the Tories' conversion to 'Scottish democracy'.
  • in most enlightened democracies.
  • a modern democracy with a market economy.
  • a property owning democracy
  • in a liberal democracy
  • popular democracy

Types of democracy 2007
  • We have transformed ourselves () into an
    inventive and fairly rich social democracy.
  • the Polish gay community learned to hide under
    communist rule and is continuing to hide in the
    new democracy.
  • Gordon Brown wants to encourage a "home-owning
  • Our leaders might be keen to impose Western
    democracy on oil-rich nations in the Middle East,
  • to create a "world-class democracy
  • Finding out what goes on in open democracies?

Metaphors democracy as organism
  • Local democracy is dying on its feet (1998)
  • Other cancers in our democracy threaten more
    obviously (1998)
  • There can be few issues more central to the
    health of a democracy. (1998)
  • Equally, we believe our democracy would be
    healthier if churchmen spoke out more often on
    issues of principle and morality. (2007)
  • one of the world's youngest democracies is being
    ravaged by widespread gang violence (2007)

Collocates of democracy
  • peace and democracy and that violence is
    genuinely being given up for good. (1998)
  • principles of non-violence and democracy (1998)
  • human rights and democracy. (1998)
  • the principles of freedom, democracy and justice
    around the globe. (2007)

The quality of democracy(1998)
  • leaving our democracy less stable and a weak
    government inevitable
  • a need for more democracy,
  • Pakistan's democracy is a corrupt shambles
  • Compare
  • India is a democracy.

Democracy as a unified concept
  • He said "Whoever voted to get rid of democracy?
  • we still have the nerve to sell ourselves as a
    democracy to the world.
  • Mr Blair challenged African leaders to embrace
    democracy in return for increased investment.
  • On the contrary, democracy demands that
    minorities must receive protection,

The opposites of democracy 1998
  • De-regulation applies to money, but not to you.
    As business and capital shrug off the remaining
    constraints of the post-war years, so the
    individual is confined to an ever-narrowing
    corridor of acceptable behaviour, at work, home,
    even in bed. In contrast to previous conformist
    social systems - like Scandinavian social
    democracy - there is no trade-off between
    shrinking personal liberty and economic security.
    The constraints on the person exist beside a
    financial system which believes that it is
    neither possible nor desirable to offer economic
    security and that those who fail to be
    competitive must be downsized

The opposites of democracy 2007
  • When did democracy end and racism start?
  • proof that democracy and Islam can co-exist and a
    future member of the European Union

  • Jeffries, L. (2003) 'Not a drop to drink
    emerging meanings in local newspaper reporting of
    the 1995 water crisis in Yorkshire ', Text 23(4)
  • Jeffries, L. (2007a) Textual Construction of the
    Female Body A Critical Discourse Approach .
    Basingstoke Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Jeffries, L. (2007b) Journalistic constructions
    of Blairs apology for the intelligence leading
    to the Iraq war in Sally Johnson and Astrid
    Ensslin (eds) Language in the Media
    Representations, Identities, Ideologies London
  • Louw, B. 1993 Irony in the Text or Insincerity
    in the Writer? The Diagnostic Potential of
    Semantic Prosodies, in M. Baker, G. Francis and
    E. Tognini-Bonelli (eds) Text and Technology. In
    Honour of John Sinclair, John Benjamins,
  • Williams, R. (1976) Keywords Harmondsworth