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EMBA 2003 Positive Organization Analysis and Development:

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Title: EMBA 2003 Positive Organization Analysis and Development:


1
EMBA 2003Positive Organization Analysis and
Development
  • An Appreciative Inquiry Approach to Change
    Leadership
  • Professor David L. Cooperrider
  • dlc6_at_cwru.edu
  • http//ai.cwru.edu

2
(No Transcript)
3
A Time For Re-thinking... Human Organization And
Change
  • Global Context of Democratization
  • End of Apartheid
  • No Limits To Cooperation
    E-CompanyConnect! Now
  • Shuttle into Space Reality
    Isnt What it Used to Be
  • Whole System Change
  • Large Groups...
  • Positive Revolution Aiming Higher

4
It is a Time for Re-thinking Human Organization
Change
We are at the very point in time when a
400-year old age is dying and another is
struggling to be born, a shifting of culture,
science, society, and institutions enormously
greater than the world has ever experienced.
Ahead, the possibility of the regeneration of
relationships, liberty, community, and ethics
such as the world has never known, and a harmony
with nature, with one another, and with the
divine intelligence such as the world has never
dreamed. --Dee Hock, Founder
CEO--Visa
5
Exciting Stories and Results
  • Hunter Douglas
  • Culture Change
  • Strategic Planning
  • Total Quality
  • Results
  • Employee Engagement
  • Leadership Bench Strength
  • Strategic Vision Alignment

6
Exciting Stories and Results
  • Nutrimental Foods
  • Whole System Visioning Strategic Planning
  • Annual Whole System Summits
  • Results
  • 200 Increase Profits
  • 300 Decrease Absenteeism

7
Exciting Stories and Results
  • United Religions Initiative
  • Annual Global Summits
  • Organization Design
  • Results
  • June 2000 Charter Signing
  • The Birth of a Global Chaordic Organization
  • Centers on Every Continent
  • Over a Million Pledges of Support

8
Exciting Stories and Results
  • GTE
  • Positive Change Network
  • Culture Change
  • Union Management Partnership
  • Call Center Excellence
  • Results
  • 1997 ASTD Award
  • Employee Surveys
  • Contract Negotiations

9
Five Principles of Appreciative Inquiry
  • Constructionist Principle The way we know is
    fateful.
  • Principle of Simultaneity Change begins at the
    moment you ask the question.
  • Poetic Principle Organizations are an open book.
  • Anticipatory Principle Deep change change in
    active images of the future.
  • Positive Principle The more positive the
    question, the greater and longer-lasting the
    change.

10
1. High Point Story ?
11
2. Valuing.
  • Self?
  • Your work ?

12
3. Core life-giving factor making human
organization possible?
13
4. Macro-trends... most promising?
  • Trends that indicate opportunities
  • Trends that give you a sense of confidence

14
4. Positive Images of the Future? (Wake Up
2010?)
15
Starting Appreciative Interview(dialogue in
pairs)
  • A--gtB (20 min)
  • B--gtA (20 min)
  • Spirit of discovery
  • Take brief notes
  • At the end.. summary thanks

16
Opening Interview
  • High point moment
    story ____________?
  • Valuing self, work?
  • Core life-giving factor?
  • Positive macro-trends?
  • Positive Images of the Future
    Wake Up 2010?

17
Social Constructionism
  • Assumption of impermanence
  • No lawssocial realities not fixed
  • Terms not derived from what is there
  • No such thing as immaculate perception.saturate
    d in values, conventions, theories, time and
    place
  • Modes of explanation derived in relationship
  • Words create worlds, they are not mirrors
  • All social action open to multiple meanings
  • Theory is language the double hermenuetic
  • Alterations in linguistic practice are powerful

18
Groups(22228)
  • Share highlights/insights from interview
  • 1.Listen for patterns--
    Characteristics and causes of the
    high points
  • 2. Core factors that give life to orgs
    3. Images of the
    desired future 2010
  • return . recorder takes notes

19
Positive Image-gt Positive Actiona positive
revolution in research
  • Placebo Positive Health
  • Pygmalion
  • What Good are Positive Emotions
  • Imbalanced Inner Dialogue
  • Rise and Fall of Cultures
  • Affirmative Capability

20
A Theory of Affirmative Organizing
Organizations are made and imagined No iron
laws Metaphor heliotropic hypothesis Healthy
organizations 21positively imbalanced inner
dialogue Educative effect of positive
imagery Positive image (discourse) as an
obstacle Organizations do not need to be
fixed Leadership affirmation
21
Today
  • Non-deficit From Problem?Appreciative
  • The 4-D ApproachStories
  • Shedding the perceptual logic of our culture
  • Affirmative Topic Choice-- in Practice

22
?
Where Do Positive Images and Stories Come From?
23
Problem Solving
Appreciative Inquiry
  • Identify Problem
  • Conduct Root Cause Analysis
  • Brainstorm Solutions Analyze
  • Develop Action Plans
  • Metaphor Organizations are problems to be solved
  • Appreciate What is (What gives life?)
  • Imagine What Might Be
  • Determine What Should Be
  • Create What Will Be
  • Metaphor Organizations are a solution/mystery
    to be embracedcenters of infinite strength.

24
Deficit Based Change Unintended Consequences
  • Much lamented fragmented responses
  • Slow Puts attention on yesterdays causes
  • No new positive images of future
  • Visionless voice... fatigue
  • Weakened fabric of relationships
    defensivenessnegative culture
  • out of sync with the embedded economy of speed,
    partnerships, alliances, e-commerce

25
Organizations Grow In The Direction Of What They
Study
June Results

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26
Words Are Tools
  • To a hammer everything is a nail!

27
Ap-preci-ate, v.,
  • 1.valuing the act of recognizing the best in
    people or the world around us affirming past and
    present strengths, successes, and potentials to
    perceive those things that give life (health,
    vitality, excellence) to living systems
  • 2. to increase in value, e.g. the economy has
    appreciated in value.
  • Synonyms VALUING, PRIZING, ESTEEMING, and
    HONORING.

28
In-quire (kwir), v.,
  • 1. the act of exploration and discovery.
  • 2. To ask questions to be open to seeing new
    potentials and possibilities.
  • Synonyms DISCOVERY, SEARCH, and SYSTEMATIC
    EXPLORATION, STUDY.

29
What would you call it?(all these things taken
together)
  • Achievements
  • Strategic opportunities
  • Product strengths
  • Technical assets
  • Innovations
  • Elevated thoughts
  • Best business practices
  • Positive emotions
  • Financial assets
  • Organization wisdom
  • Core competencies
  • Visions of possibility
  • Vital traditions, values
  • Positive macrotrends
  • Social capital
  • Embedded knowledge
  • Business ecosystem s eg. suppliers, partners,
    competitors, customer

30
The Positive Core
31
Appreciative Inquiry 4-D Cycle
Discovery What gives life? (The best of what
is) Appreciating
Destiny How to empower, learn, and
adjust/improvise? Sustaining
Dream What might be? (What is the world calling
for) Envisioning Results
Affirmative Topic Choice
Design What should be--the ideal? Co-constructi
ng

32
TodayTopic Choice?Discovery
  • Spirit of Inquiry
  • The Art of the Question
  • Mass Mobilization of Discovery Into Positive Core
  • When Stories Have Wings(and what to do with the
    data)

33
Best Way to Build High Enthusiasm?
  • Do an organization survey of low morale?
  • Magnify and learn from moment of highest
    enthusiasm?

34
Topic Choice
  • A Fateful Act Organizations Move in the
    Direction of What We Most Frequently and
    Systematically Ask Questions About!

35
Topic Choice Examples
World Vision Integrative Process Innovation Empowe
rment Quality Diversity Organizational Learning
North American Steel Team Mindset Magnetic
Connections Digital Spirit Ownership Societal
Investment Lightning Fast Consensus
36
The Art of the Question
  • Whats the biggest problem here?
  • Why did I have to be born in such a troubled
    family?
  • Why do you blow it so often?
  • Why do we still have those problems?
  • What possibilities exist that we have not thought
    about yet?
  • Whats the smallest change that could make the
    biggest impact?
  • What solutions would have us both win?
  • What makes my questions inspiring, energizing,
    and mobilizing?

37
Genius is Creating the Question
  • What would the universe look like if I were
    riding on the end of a light beam at the speed of
    light?
  • ---Albert Einstein

38
Basic Elements to the Typical AI Question
  • A Positive Preface (introduce your TOPIC)
  • Then a 2-part question
    A. High point discovery
  • B. Image of desired future

39
Magnetic Connections(Example of a Positive
Preface)
  • In the physical world, all matter is held
    together by the pull between opposite electric
    charges. Successful e-companies are equally
    magnetic. People connect in new and
    innovative ways. Suppliers and customers
    are pulled together and become seamless
    edge-to-edge organizations. Communities of
    interest form and are pulled together by shared
    values and interests. Knowledge networks
    form as catalysts for innovation and
    creativity.

40
Part A (past) B (future)
  • A. Think of a time when you felt magnetically
    connected to your client, your colleagues, and
    your community. . . Connected in a way that the
    force was so strong that it could not be broken.
    What was that experience like?
  • B. As you look into the future, describe how we
    are connected to our customers and our colleagues
    in a way that is so strong that we are seen as
    inseparable business partners.

41
GroupsCreate Topics for Our Future
  • Build on AI from last class the patterns
  • Nowgo beyond the data create 1 topic (s)
  • Good topics are--
    Bolda stretch.beyond status quo

    Desiredyou want it
    Potential
    to energize, mobilize, strategic
  • Can link seeming opposites (both/and)

42
GroupsCrafting the Question
  • From Topic? the Ai question (s) 3 PARTS
  • I. Positive Prefaceit is a topic intro.
  • A question to evoke a story from persons history

  • B. A question to evoke images of future
  • return...

43
What Makes AI Questions Important?
  • Language questions statements
  • Doorway into new realities, worlds
  • Heighten energydrive to complete, to answer
  • Every creative act
  • Rapport and relationship (people are honored)
  • Fulcrum change connect to strength, imagination
  • Break automatic thinking essence of learning
  • Alter internal dialogue storytelling
  • Specific positive future (the fairway)

44
MANAGING CHANGE 3 Essentials of Leadership
Management of NOVELTY
Management of TRANSITION A--gtB
Management of CONTINUITY

45
Functions of Continuity
  • For Individuals
    Pride, confidence to act, ethical
    guidance connection to others, freedom
  • For the Organization
    Strengthened commitment, better decision
    making decentralized control mission stability
    organizational learning long term thinking
    customized change.

46
AI 4-D Cycle Typical Summit
  • Discovery
  • Opportunity Context
  • Positive Core
  • Destiny
  • People/Members
  • Structures
  • Practices
  • Dream
  • Purpose
  • Vision

Summit Topic
  • Design
  • Constitutional Propositions
  • Relationship Organization


47
Applications Appreciative Inquiry
  • Strategic change... Org Summit
  • Core business redesign
  • Qualitysurveysculture change
  • Customer partnerships
  • Labor-management relations
  • Transformation of measurements
  • Knowledge exchange the PCN
  • Business ecosystem analysis...

48
TodayFrom Discoveryto Dream and Design
  • Some tips on working with data
  • Gender-plus story illustrating the 4-d cycle
  • The Ai summit method
  • Nutrimental Foods United Religions
  • The Dream Design phases

49
The Power of AI Stories
  • Stories stick like glue
  • Make information easier to rememberWhole brain
  • Builds identities and fosters relationships
  • Medium for conveying values, visions
  • Moves the internal dialogue of the system
  • Human Hope

50
The AI Organization Summit Method
Increasing positive capacity through large group
methods
51
4 Common Aproaches to Change
  • Top Down Strategies
  • Bottom Up Strategies
  • Representative Cross-Section Strategies
  • Pilot Strategies

52
Typical Results
  • Less Informed and Ultimatley Less Effective
    Change Efforts
  • A Few Try to Convince Many That Change is Needed
  • Partial Responsibility Mindset
  • Change Occurs Sequentially
  • Change is Perceived as a Disruption of Real Work

53
Typical Results (cont)
  • Pace of Change is Too Slow
  • Substantial Change in Part or Modest Change in an
    Entire Organization
  • Breakdown at Implementation

54
Dream Design The AI Organization Summit
  • Whole System in the Room
  • Task is Clear...
  • Future Focus--In Historical and Global
    Perspective
  • Self-Management and Dialogue
  • Common Ground (not conflict management as
    the frame of reference)
  • 3-Day event/100 to 1000 Participants
  • Uncommon Action/Follow Through

55
AI 4-D Cycle Typical Summit
  • Discovery
  • Opportunity Context
  • Positive Core
  • Destiny
  • People/Members
  • Structures
  • Practices
  • Dream
  • Purpose
  • Vision

Summit Topic
  • Design
  • Constitutional Principles
  • Relationship Organization


56
Nutrimental Foods
  • Why is this so easy?
  • The experience of wholenessan amazing
    power.why? How?

57
Typical Results from Whole System Ai Summit
  • More Informed and Ultimately More Effective
    Change Efforts
  • A Critical Mass of People Making Changes that
    they All Believe Are Needed
  • A Total Organization Mindset
  • Simultaneous Change
  • Change is Percieved as Real Work
  • FastEntire OrganizationStrong
    ImplementationActionUnifyingSpirit

58
The Importance of Continuity Search Before
Future Search
Management of NOVELTY
Management of TRANSITION A--gtB
Management of CONTINUITY

59
Functions of Continuity
  • For Individuals
    Pride, confidence to act, ethical
    guidance connection to others, freedom
  • For the Organization
    Strengthened commitment, better decision
    making decentralized control mission stability
    organizational learning long term thinking
    customized change.

60
Exciting Stories and Results
  • GTE
  • Positive Change Network
  • Culture Change
  • Union Management Partnership
  • Call Center Excellence
  • Results
  • 1997 ASTD Award
  • Employee Surveys
  • Contract Negotiations

61
Exciting Stories and Results
  • United Religions Initiative
  • Annual Global Summits
  • Organization Design
  • Results
  • June 2000 Charter Signing
  • The Birth of a Global Chaordic Organization
  • Centers on Every Continent
  • Over a Million Pledges of Support

62
A Story on Organizational DesignThe Birthing of
a Spiritual United Nations
  • A call from the UN the UN 50th
  • A Bishops vision
  • Hans Kung there will be no peace among nations
    until there is peace among religions, no peace
    among religions until
  • Huntingtons thesisclash of civilizations
  • Can we make a contribution?

63
Three Types of Relations BetweenThe Past 100
Years
  • Relationship Canceling Conversation
  • Relationship Tolerating Conversation
  • Relationship Honoring or Strength-Building
    Conversation

64
AI 4-D Cycle Typical Summit
  • Discovery
  • Opportunity Context
  • Positive Core
  • Destiny
  • People/Members
  • Structures
  • Practices
  • Dream
  • Preamble
  • Purpose

Chartering the URI
  • Design
  • Constitutional Principles
  • Relationship Organization


65
Insights on Success
  • Holographic Beginning
  • Polyphonic--Multiple Voices
  • Dislodgement of CertaintyAppreciative
  • From Negotiation to Narrative (Stories)
  • From Common Ground to Higher Ground
  • Retrospective Consensus
  • Inspired Action on Behalf of the Whole
  • Chaordic Organizing

66
How People Feel About the Initiative
  • The World Context
  • The surprise of friendship
  • Unifying power of going to sacred places
  • Continuity,long term
  • From friendship dialogue to action
  • Enormous potential
  • Many requests

67
What do we mean by principles?
  • That shared body of beliefs--about our
    relationships and organizing-- that are necessary
    for realization of Purpose, and will be used to
    design and guide practices, structures, etc.
  • The foundational body of belief as in-- We hold
    these truths to be self evident, that all people
    are created equal
  • Not platitudes, not specific practices

68
Example Principles
  • Authority is vested in and decisions are made at
    the most local level possible, and includes all
    relevant and affected parties.
  • Members have the right to organize in any manner,
    at any scale, in any area, and around any issue
    or activity using any practice, which is
    consistent with the Purpose and Principles.

69
Sample Principles
  • Deliberations and decisions shall be made at
    every level by bodies and methods that fairly
    represent the diversity of affected interests and
    are not dominated by any.

70
(No Transcript)
71
Chaordic Organiztions
  • Enables exists to empower constituent parts
  • Self- organizing at the most local level
  • Powered from the periphery, unified not by
    structures but Purpose and Principles
  • Combine cooperation and competition
  • Compatible with infinite diversity, complexity,
    speed, change--internet like
  • Liberates ingenuity, initiative, and judgement
  • Cannot be managed, but only led

72
A 2 Hour Intro of AI
  • 900-915 Opening excitement time to re-think
    organization and change.objectives
  • 915-950 Mini-Ai.pairs4 quesitons
  • 950-1000 Quick debriefadjectives
  • 1000-1015 Beyond PS to AI (slide)
  • 1015-1030 The 4-D cycle examples, emphasize
    topics show a tangible interview guide
  • 1030-1045 Envisioning potentials at xyz
  • 1045-1100 Enough interest to develop full
    proposal.?

73
Destiny Creating a Positive Change Network
  • GTE How to Invite 67,000 people to create a new
    culture?
  • Storytelling and hope
  • Ai at the front line
  • The zealots are coming
  • Labor management an impasse
  • The positive change networkongoing!!

74
The PCN What is it?
  • Special invitation call to people to be change
    leaders
  • Ai program on positive change
  • Many applications
  • Self-organizing...
  • Connected in knowledge sharing

75
(No Transcript)
76
Ideas for your paper.
  • Propositions/principles of ideal organization of
    the future
  • McKinnsey 7-S model
  • Chaordic Model

77
What Matters Most?
  • Being a student of organization alive
  • Power of the unconditional positive question
  • Relational basis of knowing communicamus ergo
    sum
  • Our positive images of the future lead our
    positive actionswords create worlds, nothing so
    practical
  • Yoga with the positive change core
  • Ai accelerates the non-linear interaction of the
    positive--a convergence zone for sudden
    dialogic repatterning
  • The best in peoplewholeness heals
  • Letting go of deficit based change vocabularies
  • AI is not a thing in its infancy (5 ) many
    questions...

78
Being a Coach(turn to person next to you)
  • What do you do best already--from an appreciative
    perspective? The way you work with people?
  • What would you like to do more of.(work or
    home)?
  • One AI project (small or big) you would like to
    experiment with and do?
  • Beliefs you have about yourself will help you
    succeed?

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Success Factors
  • Great AI training
  • e-Knowledge management
  • Strategic business opportunities
  • Annual summit (face-to-face)

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Impact Areas
  • Reduce cycle time of change--change ready
  • Cost efficient leadership education
  • A positive culture
  • Rapid whole-system mobilization capability for
    strategic planning
  • The power of digital storytelling
  • Measurable change in unit performance and company
    morale

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Leadership as Storytelling Creating Learning
Organizations
  • Storytelling is the single most powerful form of
    human communication

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The Power of Stories
  • Stories stick like glue
  • Make information easier to rememberWhole brain
  • Make information more believable than statistics
  • Builds identities and fosters relationships
  • Medium for conveying values and visions
  • Creating pictures in the mind
  • Leaders as storytellersgolden innovations


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What is a positive or negative story?
  • Do people walk away better off having heard the
    story?
  • Is the organization better off or damaged n some
    way by the telling of the story?
  • Is the outcome of the story or -- ?
  • Healthy internal dialogue 21

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AI 4-D Cycle
  • Discovery
  • Opportunity Context
  • Positive Core
  • Destiny
  • People/Members
  • Structures
  • Practices
  • Dream
  • Purpose
  • Vision

Affirmative Topic
  • Design
  • Constitutional Propositions
  • Relationship Organization


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Applications Appreciative Inquiry
  • Strategic change... Org Summit
  • Core business redesign
  • Qualitysurveysculture change
  • Customer partnerships
  • Labor-management relations
  • Transformation of measurements
  • Knowledge exchange the PCN
  • Business ecosystem analysis...
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