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Children's Motivations to Participate in Youth Sports

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Adult supervised non-school youth sports programs are rapidly growing and cater ... Almost 50% of the children ages 5-16 participate in youth sports. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Children's Motivations to Participate in Youth Sports


1
Adult and Child Perceptionsof Childrens
Motivations to Participate in Youth Sports
  • Daniel Frankl, Ph.D.
  • Department of Kinesiology and Nutritional
    science
  • California State University, Los Angeles

2
INTRODUCTION
  • Describing the Problem
  • What has already been done and what have we
    learned from it?
  • Why was there a need for another study on
    attitudes about youth sports programs?

3
The Problem
  • Adult supervised non-school youth sports programs
    are rapidly growing and cater to some 25 million
    kids.
  • Almost 50 of the children ages 5-16 participate
    in youth sports.
  • 90 of parents encourage their children to engage
    in sports.

4
The Problem (continued)
  • 60 of parents are involved in youth sports
    programs.
  • 85 of parents have concerns about youth sports
    programs
  • Physical education professionals have voiced
    serious concerns about non-school adult
    supervised youth sport leagues .

5
HYPOTHESES
  • Over all children, regardless of income or
    ethnicity, will rank self-regulated items (e.g.,
    fun, learning new skills, improving, and
    team work) ahead of other- controlled items
    (e.g., winning, trophies, be popular, and
    get to a higher level of competition).
  • Overall parents, regardless of income or
    ethnicity, will closely predict their childs
    motivations.
  • Children will differ in their motivations to
    participate in youth sports based on age, gender,
    length of involvement, and type of activity.

6
What has already been done and what have we
learned from it?
  • A common sense approach to studying the value of
    youth sports has been to examine childrens
    motivations to join, participate
    enthusiastically, and/or drop out.
  • A number of studies probed childrens motivation
    to participate in youth sports programs
  • Ewing Seefeldt (1990)
  • Gill, Gross, Huddlestone (1981)
  • Gould, Feltz, Weiss, Petlichkoff (1982)
  • Griffin (1978)
  • McElroy Kirkendal (1980)
  • Sapp Haubenstricker (1978)
  • Swell (1992)
  • Wankel Kreisel (1985)

7
McElroy and Kirkendal (1980)
  • 2,000 children, average age 11.9 selected one of
    the following as their most important reason for
    playing a sport
  • to play as well as you can (personal
    performance)
  • to play fairly, by the rules at all times (fair
    play)
  • everyone on the team should get to play (total
    participation)
  • to defeat your opponent or the other team
    (winning orientation)

8
McElroy and Kirkendal (1980)
  • Most Important Reason for Playing Sports

Males Females Winning 13.5 04.6 Pers
onal Perform. 51.0 48.3 Fair Play 24.4
37.6
Total Participation 11.0 09.4
9
American Youth and Sport Participation
StudyEwing Seefeldt (1990)
  • The Athletic Footwear Association commissioned
    Drs. Martha Ewing and Vern Seefeldt of the Youth
    Sport Institute at Michigan State University to
    investigate childrens reasons for participation
    and/or dropping out from nonschool youth
    programs.
  • Boys and girls (N10,000) were asked
  • Why they participate?
  • Why they quit?
  • How they feel about winning?

10
American Youth and Sport Participation
StudyEwing Seefeldt (1990)
  • Highlights of the Study
  • Sport participation, and the desire to
    participate in sports, decline sharply and
    steadily between ages 10 and 18.
  • Fun is a pivotal reason for being in a sport,
    and lack of fun is a leading reason for dropping
    out.
  • Young participants do not consider winning as a
    major benefit of sport competition.
  • Motivations to participate differ greatly within
    and in between athletes.

11
CHILDRENS RANK ORDER OF THE MOST IMPORTANT
REASONS FOR PLAYING THEIR BEST SCHOOL SPORT OR
DROPPING OUT FROM YOUTH SPORTS
  • REASON FOR PLAYING REASON FOR DROPPING OUT
  • 01 TO HAVE FUN 01 I LOST INTEREST
  • 02 TO IMPROVE MY SKILLS 02 I WAS NOT HAVING
    FUN
  • 03 TO STAY IN SHAPE 03 IT TOOK TOO MUCH TIME
  • 04 TO DO SOMETHING 04 COACH WAS A POOR
  • IM GOOD AT TEACHER
  • 05 FOR THE EXCITEMENT OF 05 TOO MUCH PRESSURE
    (WORRY)
  • COMPETITION
  • 06 TO GET EXERCISE 06 WANTED NON-SPORT
    ACTIVITY
  • 07 TO PLAY AS PART OF A 07 I WAS TIRED OF IT
  • TEAM
  • 08 FOR THE CHALLENGE OF 08 NEEDED MORE STUDY
    TIME
  • COMPETITION
  • 09 TO LEARN NEW SKILLS 09 COACH PLAYED
    FAVORITES
  • 10 TO WIN 10 SPORT WAS BORING
  • 11 OVER-EMPHASIS ON WINNING
  • Reproduced from Ewing, M. E., Seefeldt, V.
    (1990). American youth sports participation A
    study of 10,000 students and their feelings about
    sport. North Palm Beach, FL Athletic Footwear
    Association.

12
THE 12 MOST IMPORTANT REASONS I PLAY MY BEST
SCHOOL SPORT
  • BOYS GIRLS
  • 01 TO HAVE FUN 01 TO HAVE FUN
  • 02 TO IMPROVE SKILLS 02 TO STAY IN SHAPE
  • 03 FOR THE EXCITEMENT 03 TO GET EXERCISE
  • OF COMPETITION
  • 04 TO DO SOMETHING 04 TO IMPROVE SKILLS
  • IM GOOD AT
  • 05 TO STAY IN SHAPE 05 TO DO SOMETHING I'M
  • GOOD AT
  • 06 FOR THE CHALLENGE 06 TO BE PART OF A TEAM
  • OF COMPETITION
  • 07 TO BE PART OF A TEAM 07 FOR THE EXCITEMENT
    OF
  • COMPETITION
  • 08 TO WIN 08 TO LEARN NEW SKILLS
  • 09 TO GO TO A HIGHER 09 FOR THE TEAM SPIRIT
  • LEVEL OF COMPETITION
  • 10 TO GET EXERCISE 10 FOR THE CHALLENGE OF
  • COMPETITION
  • 11 TO LEARN NEW SKILLS 11 TO GO TO A HIGHER
    LEVEL

13
THE 6 MOST IMPORTANT CHANGES I WOULD MAKE TO GET
INVOLVED AGAIN IN A SPORT I DROPPED
  • I would play again if
  • BOYS GIRLS
  • 01 PRACTICES WERE 01 PRACTICES WERE
  • MORE FUN MORE FUN
  • 02 I COULD PLAY MORE 02 NO CONFLICT WITH
    STUDIES
  • 03 COACHES UNDERSTOOD 03 COACHES UNDERSTOOD
  • PLAYERS BETTER PLAYERS BETTER
  • 04 NO CONFLICT WITH 04 NO CONFLICT WITH
    SOCIAL
  • STUDIES LIFE
  • 05 COACHES WERE BETTER 05 I COULD PLAY MORE
    TEACHERS
  • 06 NO CONFLICT WITH 06 COACHES WERE BETTER
  • SOCIAL LIFE TEACHERS
  • Reproduced from Ewing, M. E., Seefeldt, V.
    (1990)

14
METHOD
  • Subjects (N566)

Mothers (N108), fathers (N105), boys (N170),
and girls (N171) from the Los Angeles area were
surveyed during the 1996-97 youth leagues season
(Total 554 or 97.88).
Ethnic Distribution
African American (N16 2.87)
Asian (N105 18.85) Latino/Latina (N313 56.19
) Caucasian (N90 16.16) Pacific Islander (N
5 0.90) Native American (N7 1.25) Filipino
(N21 3.77) TOTAL 557 (99.99 / 98.4)
15
Youth Sports (N509 89.93)
Fem. Male
  • Baseball/Softball 32 53 16.7
  • Basketball 48 48 18.8
  • Football 07 31 07.5
  • Soccer 25 73 19.2
  • Volleyball 31 07 07.5
  • Drill team 39 00 07.6
  • Swimming 30 11 08.0
  • Track 07 07 02.7
  • Tennis 33 08 08.0
  • Other 07 12 03.7

16
Parent Income (N213 84.04)
N
  • Under 10,000 11 06.14
  • 10,000-14,999 05 02.79
  • 15,000-19,999 06 03.35
  • 20,000-24,999 07 03.91
  • 25,000-29,999 15 08.38
  • 30,000-34,999 13 07.26
  • 35,000-39,999 22 12.29
  • 40,000-44,999 18 10.06
  • 45,000-49,999 24 13.41
  • Over 50,000 58 32.40
  • Total 179 99.99

15
17
Instrument
  • Child and parent forms each including 18
    statements about participation in ones best
    sport outside school were used (adapted from
    the AFA 1990, landmark study). Participants
    checked each item on a 1-7 (not at all important
    /.../ of utmost importance) Likert scale.
  • Participants were also asked to select the one
    MOST important reason from the 18 original
    statements (see handout).

16
18
Procedures
  • A uniform format explaining what needs to be done
    was used
  • Data was collected from children and their
    parents whenever possible
  • Yellow forms were handed out to children 5-18
    (investigator read statements to non-readers a
    Spanish translation was available when needed).
    Children were instructed to establish a quick
    gut feeling about each item and then proceed and
    carefully mark their choice.

17
19
Procedures
  • Parents completed a Blue form and were
    instructed to, without consulting with their
    child, indicate what ...to their best knowledge
    their childs choice would have been for all
    items.
  • Participants were instructed to simply copy the
    ONE statement they felt was MOST important, or
    add a new reason.
  • Data was collected court-side on practice days
    and forms were coded for parent/child match
    pairing (no names).

20
RESULTS
DAD BOY
MOM GIRL 01 Q14 (6.30) Q14
(6.14) Q14 (6.22) Q14 (6.19)
02 Q07 (5.84) Q01 (5.81) Q07 (5.99)
Q04 (6.00) 03 Q01 (5.65) Q07 (5.68)
Q05 (5.87) Q01 (5.88)
04 Q05 (5.65) Q09 (5.66) Q11 (5.86)
Q07 (5.87) 05 Q18 (5.52) Q06 (5.64)
Q08 (5.62) Q18 (5.83)
Q14 -- To have fun Q7 -- To learn new skills Q1
-- To improve her/his skills Q4 -- To stay in sha
pe
Q5 -- To play as part of a team
Q11 -- To get exercise Q6 -- For the excitement o
f competition Q8 -- To meet new friends Q9 -- To
do something he/she is good at
Q18 -- For the team spirit
21
RESULTS
DAD BOY MOM
GIRL 10 Q03 (5.52) 11 1
2 13 Q02 (4.88)
Q03 (4.78)
14
Q16 (4.70) Q16 (4.71) 15 Q16 (4.60)
Q10 (4.76) Q13 (4.56) Q12 (4.56)
16 Q03 (4.38) Q16 (4.56) Q10 (3.91)
Q02 (4.40) 17 Q10 (3.92) Q12 (4.49)
Q03 (3.87) Q10 (4.27)
18 Q17 (3.83) Q17 (4.44) Q17 (3.58)
Q17 (3.64)
Q2 -- To be with her/his friends
Q3 -- To win Q10 -- For trophies and recognition
Q12 -- To feel important
Q13 -- For the challenge of competition
Q16 -- He/she likes the coaches
Q17 --To be popular by being a good athlete
22
Discussion
  • To have fun was the clear first choice for
    Moms, Dads, Girls and Boys.
  • To learn new skills was the second choice for
    Dads Moms, and 3rd 4th for Boys and Girls
    respectively. The findings by earlier studies
    (e.g., Ewing Seefeldt, 1990 McElroy
    Kirkendal, 1980) were replicated in this study.
  • Winning came in 10th place for Boys, 13th for
    Girls, 16th for Dads and 17th for Moms. This
    finding is very consistent with the existing
    literature.

23
Discussion
  • To stay in shape and To get exercise were top
    choices for Girls and Moms. When asked to
    indicate what they liked least about their best
    sport, many Girls indicated their dislike of
    exercising, sweating, and getting tired. It
    appears that Girls in this study felt pressured
    to choose To stay in shape but did not like to
    engage in activities that lead to improved
    physical fitness. Societal pressures on girls to
    look a certain way are apparent.

24
  • Over all children, regardless of income or
    ethnicity, will rank self-regulated items (e.g.,
    fun, learning new skills, improving, and
    team work) ahead of other- controlled items
    (e.g., winning, trophies, be popular, and
    get to a higher level of competition).

25
Conclusions
  • If it aint fun children wont play.
  • For kids to have fun they must improve their
    skills.
  • Parents seem to want what we the experts
    consider appropriate. So lets work together.
  • Fun, improving skills, playing as a team,
    getting in shape, are all universally endorsed
    by all levels of analysis. So lets concentrate
    on the content of the programs and not the
    ethnic, social, and or economic factors.
  • Coaches seem to try too hard. Lets get involved
    and show them the way!

26
  • Questions
  • Comments

27
List of Reasons for Participation
  • To improve her/his skills
  • To be with her/his friends
  • To win
  • To stay in shape
  • To play as part of a team
  • For the excitement of competition
  • To learn new skills
  • To meet new friends
  • To do something he/she is good at

28
List of Reasons for Participation
  • For trophies and recognition
  • To get exercise
  • To feel important
  • For the challenge of competition
  • To have fun
  • To get to a higher level of competition
  • He/she likes the coaches
  • To be popular by being a good athlete
  • For the team spirit

29
Overall Reason for Participation in Youth Sports
  • Of all the reasons listed above, what is the MOST
    important reason for your child playing in
    her/his best sport outside of school? Please
    write the reason on the lines below
  • ____________________________
  • ____________________________

30
Strongest Reason for not Participating in Youth
Sports
  • What do you like least about playing in your best
    sport outside of school? Please write the reason
    on the lines below
  • ____________________________
  • ____________________________

31
References
  • Ewing, M. E. Seefeldt, V. (1990). American
    youth and sports participation A study of 10,000
    students and their feelings about sport. North
    Palm Beach, FL Athletic Footwear Association.
    (Sponsored by Athletic Footwear Association __
    AFA, 200 Castlewood Drive, North Palm Beach,
    Florida 33408 Gregg Hartley, Executive Director,
    phone 407 840_1161).
  • Gill, D., Gross, J. B., Huddlestone, S. (1981).
    Participation motivation in youth sport.
    International Journal in Sport Psychology, 14,
    1-14.

32
References
  • Gould, D., Feltz, D. L., Weiss, M.,
    Petlichkoff, L. M. (1982). Participating motives
    in competitive youth swimmers. In T. Orlick, J.
    T. Partington, J. H. Salmela (Eds.) Mental
    training for coaches and athletes (pp. 57-58).
    Ottawa Coaching Association of Canada.
  • Griffin (1978). Why children participate in youth
    sports. Paper presented at American Alliance for
    Health, Physical Education and Recreation
    (AAHPER) Convention, Kansas City, Missouri.

33
References
  • Orlick, T. (1974). The athletic dropoutA high
    price of inefficiency. CAHPER Journal,
    Nov.-Dec., 21-27.
  • Pooley, J. (1981). Dropouts from sports A case
    study of boys age-group soccer. Paper presented
    at American Alliance for Health, Physical
    Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD)
    Convention, Boston, Massachusetts.

34
References
  • Sapp, M., Haubenstricker, J. (1978). Motivation
    for joining and reasons for not continuing in
    youth sports programs in Michigan. Paper
    presented at American Alliance for Health,
    Physical Education and Recreation (AAHPER)
    Convention, Kansas City, Missouri.
  • Teenagers motivations for sports participation
    help predict lifelong habits. (1990). North Palm
    Beach, FL Athletic Footware Association.

35
References
  • Wankel, L. M., Kreisel, P. (1985). Factors
    underlying enjoyment of youth sports Sport and
    age group comparisons. Journal of Sport
    Psychology, 7, 51-64.
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