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TERRORISM

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Type of Terrorism? U.S.-Mexican DRUG WAR. Type of Terrorism? LONDON Bombings. July 7, 2005 ... It expands another Fourth Amendment exception for spying that collects ' ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: TERRORISM


1
TERRORISM
  • Criminology 2009

2
Definition of Terrorism
  • Premeditated, politically motivated violence
    perpetuated against noncombatant targets by
    subnational groups or clandestine agents, usually
    intended to influence an audience (Siegel, 261)

3
Contemporary Forms of TERRORISM
  • REVOLUTIONARY Terrorism
  • Use violence to frighten those in power their
    supporters in order to REPLACE the existing
    government.
  • POLITICAL Terrorism
  • Directed at people or groups who oppose the
    terrorists political or religious ideology or
    whom the terrorists define as outsiders.
    Political terrorists do not want to REPLACE
    government but SHAPE it to fit their views.

4
Contemporary Forms of TERRORISM
  • NATIONALIST Terrorism
  • Promotes the interest of a minority ethnic or
    religious group that believes it has been
    persecuted under majority rule and wishes to
    carve out its own independent homeland.
  • CAUSE-BASED Terrorism
  • Terrorism that espouses a particular social or
    religious cause and uses violence to attract
    followers to their standard. They do not want to
    set up their own homeland or government, rather,
    they want to impose their social and religious
    code on the world.

5
Contemporary Forms of TERRORISM
  • ENVIRONMENTAL Terrorism
  • Terrorism in responses to actions by governments
    or businesses that are seen as environmentally
    threatening
  • STATE SPONSORED Terrorism
  • When a repressive government regime forces its
    citizens into obedience, oppresses minorities,
    and stifles political dissent (think Death
    Squads)
  • CRIMINAL Terrorism
  • When terrorists become involved in COMMON LAW
    crimes (drug dealing, kidnapping, pirating, etc.)

6
Type of Terrorism?
  • DARFUR
  • The War in Darfur is a conflict that is in the
    Darfur region of western Sudan. Unlike the Second
    Sudanese Civil War, the current lines of conflict
    are seen by some to be ethnic, rather than
    religious. However, a United Nations report
    states that the various tribes under attack by
    the Sudanese troops and Janjaweed (chiefly the
    Fur, Masalit and Zaghawa tribes) do not appear to
    have a distinct ethnicity from their attackers.
    There is controversy over whether or not the
    conflict involves a genocide.

7
Type of Terrorism?
  • Earth Liberation Front burning of SUVs.

8
Type of Terrorism?
  • Mumbai, India
  • The 2008 Mumbai attacks were more than ten
    coordinated shooting and bombing attacks across
    Mumbai, India's financial capital and its largest
    city.
  • Ajmal Amir Kasab, the only attacker who was
    captured alive, disclosed that the attackers were
    members of Lashkar-e-Taiba, the Pakistan-based
    militant organization, considered a terrorist
    organization by India, the United States, and the
    United Kingdom, among others. The Indian
    Government said that the attackers came from
    Pakistan, and their controllers were in Pakistan.

9
Type of Terrorism?
U.S.-Mexican DRUG WAR
10
Type of Terrorism?
  • LONDON Bombings
  • July 7, 2005
  • London bombings (also called the 7/7 bombings)
    were a series of coordinated suicide bomb attacks
    on London's public transport system during the
    morning rush hour. Carried out by British
    Muslims, the suicide bombings were motivated by
    Islamic extremism, and ostensibly Britain's
    involvement in the Iraq War and other conflicts.

11
Type of Terrorism?
  • OK City Bombings
  • The Oklahoma City bombing occurred on April?19,
    1995 which resulted in the destruction of the
    Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, a government
    office complex in downtown Oklahoma City,
    Oklahoma. The attack claimed 168?lives and left
    over 800?people injured. It was the largest
    terrorist attack on American soil in history
    before the September 11 attacks. It remains the
    deadliest act of domestic terrorism in American
    history.
  • Within days, McVeigh and Terry Nichols were both
    arrested for their roles in the bombing.
    Investigators determined that they were
    sympathizers of a militia movement and that their
    motive was to retaliate against the government's
    handling of the Waco and Ruby Ridge incidents
    (the bombing occurred on the anniversary of the
    Waco incident).

12
Type of Terrorism?
September 11, 2001
13
Responses to Terrorism
  • The U.S.A. PATRIOT ACT (USAPA)
  • Law that gives enforcement agencies a freer hand
    to investigate and apprehend suspected
    terrorists.
  • 1.Records searches. It expands the government's
    ability to look at records on an individual's
    activity being held by a third parties.
  • 2.Secret searches. It expands the government's
    ability to search private property without notice
    to the owner.
  • 3.Intelligence searches. It expands a narrow
    exception to the Fourth Amendment that had been
    created for the collection of foreign
    intelligence information
  • 4."Trap and trace" searches. It expands another
    Fourth Amendment exception for spying that
    collects "addressing" information about the
    origin and destination of communications, as
    opposed to the content.
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