Kelly Lekan - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Kelly Lekan PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: a440b-M2E1N



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Kelly Lekan

Description:

Home to a huge assortment of plant and animal life ... The Economic Benefits Associated with Florida's Artificial Reefs. ... Macmillian Publishing, New York. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:38
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 18
Provided by: leka8
Category:
Tags: kelly | lekan

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Kelly Lekan


1
REEFS
  • Kelly Lekan

2
Early Reefs
  • First appearance of reefs around 570 million
    years ago.
  • The first reefs formed were made of
    cyanobacteria.
  • Were found living around 3.5 billion years ago
  • Reefs formed by trapping in sediment, and
    secreting calcium carbonate
  • Formed stromatolites
  • Reefs were then formed by rugose and tabulate
    corals
  • Disappeared during the Devonian

3
Modern Day Reefs
  • Coral reef building started during the Triassic
    period
  • Bivalve reefs took over, and then corals became
    the dominate reef builders after the Cretaceous
    extinction

4
Coral Reefs
  • Rainforests of the Ocean
  • One of the most biologically diverse regions
  • Huge array of species of plant and animal life

5
Formation Environment
  • Form in tropical and semitropical areas
  • Water temperatures between 16 and 30 degrees
    Celsius
  • Exist within 30 degrees latitude north and south
    of the equator
  • Shallow, clear water
  • Normal salinity free of suspended matter

6
(No Transcript)
7
Reef Formation
  • Corals and zooxanthellae algae
  • Work together in a symbiotic relationship to
    build reefs
  • Corals live in colonies
  • Polyps
  • Secrete a hard exoskeleton of calcium carbonate
    which serves as a base for the reef
  • Reefs build by the deposition of calcium
    carbonate
  • Upper layer is the living layer of the polyps,
    and when calcium carbonate is secreted, it leaves
    behind another layer

8
Types of Reefs
  • Fringing Reefs
  • Most common type
  • Project directly offshore of islands or
    continents
  • Grow in shallower waters
  • Barrier Reefs
  • Occur offshore
  • Separated by a bay or lagoon
  • Atolls
  • Develop when islands, volcanic, sink and the
    surrounding reef remains

9
Fringing Reef
Barrier Reef
Atoll
10
Keys to the Past
  • Plate tectonics
  • Rise and fall of sea level
  • Extinctions/Interruptive events

11
Plate Movement
  • Plate movement can be seen through the
    distribution of corals throughout the world
  • When one super continent existed, the Tethys Sea
    ran through the middle of every continent
  • After American split from Africa and Asia, the
    Atlantic Ocean formed, and two major areas of
    coral reef development were formed
  • Caribbean region and the Indo-West Pacific region
  • The distribution of corals today fits the idea of
    plate tectonics and continental drift

12
Sea Level Rise and Fall
  • Reefs only grow in warm, clear, shallow water
  • Sea level fluctuation can be studied by the
    existence or non-existence of coral reefs
  • The position of fossil reefs in geologic strata
    are an accurate indicator of sea level at the
    time of formation of the reef, because reefs will
    always grow to the level of low tide (Reef
    Education Network 2001)
  • 17 cycles of sea level rise and fall over the
    last two million years
  • Can interpret past environments by the formation
    of reefs

13
Extinctions and Interruptive Events
  • Reef formations altered by three major extinction
    events
  • End of the Permian, Triassic, Cretaceous
  • Change in global temperature and a drop in sea
    level that effected a decrease in reef
    development
  • Core drilling of reefs
  • Can look at fossils in reefs and determine
    periods of growth and decline of reefs

14
Significance of Reefs
  • Biologic significance
  • Home to a huge assortment of plant and animal
    life
  • Contain 25 of all marine life
  • Economic significance
  • Fishing
  • Tourists
  • 375 billion contributed to the U.S. economy
    annually
  • Artificial Reefs

15
Threats to Reefs
  • Natural
  • Weather
  • Natural Disasters
  • Humans
  • The biggest threat to reefs!
  • Fishing with explosives
  • Pollution
  • Global Warming
  • Coral Bleaching

16
References
  • Adams, Chuck, Lindberg, Bill, Stevely, John.
    2006. The Economic Benefits Associated with
    Floridas Artificial Reefs. University of
    Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural
    Sciences. http//edis.ifas.ufl.edu/FE649
  • Agardy, Tundi. 2004. Americas Coral Reefs
    Awash with Problems. Issues in Science and
    Technology. http//www.findarticles.com/p/article
    s/mi_qa3622/is_200401/ai_n9371079/print
  • Exploring the Environment Coral Reefs. 2004.
    Wheeling Jesuit University/NASA supported
    Classroom of the Future. http//www.cotf.edu/ete/
    modules/coralreef/CRmain.html
  • Reef Education Network. 2001. Life and Times
    Origins. University of Sydney and Tech Talk
    Australia. http//www.reef.edu.au/contents/lt/fr_
    origins.html
  • Solcomhouse. Coral Reefs. http//www.solcomhouse
    .com/coralreef.htm
  • Thurman, H.V. 1993. Essentials of Oceanography.
    Macmillian Publishing, New York. 4th Edition,
    p. 336-341. http//www.geology.iupui.edu/academic
    s/CLASSES/g130/reefs/EO.htm
  • Underwater Science Program. 2002. Artificial
    Reefs of the Florida Keys. Indiana University.
    http//www.indiana.edu/scuba/artificial.html
  • United States Environmental Protection Agency.
    2007. Coral Reef Protection About Coral Reefs.
    http//www.epa.gov/owow/oceans/coral/about.html
  • United States Geological Survey. 2005. Coral
    Reef Facts. http//coralreefs.wr.usgs.gov/facts1.
    html
  • Weisburd, Steve. 1986. Artificial Reefs.
    Science News. http//www.findarticles.com/p/artic
    les/mi_m1200/is_v130/ai_4326693/print
  • Wood, Rachel. 2002. Dodging mass extinctions
    all around, species were dying off. But in this
    Devonian reef, like went on. Why? Natural
    History. http//www.findarticles.com/p/articles/m
    i_m1134/is_01_111/ai_95357574/print

17
Images
  • http//www.solcomhouse.com/coralreef.htm image
    slide 1
  • http//www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/coralreef/CRcoralr
    eefs.html image slide 1
  • www.mbgnet.net/salt/coral/faq.htm image slide 3
  • www.cdnn.info/news/article/a020412.html image
    slide 4
  • http//www.solcomhouse.com/coralreef.htm image
    slide 6
  • http//www.geology.iupui.edu/academics/CLASSES/g13
    0/reefs/EO.htm image slide 7
  • http//www.solcomhouse.com/coralreef.htm images
    slide 8
  • http//www.solcomhouse.com/coralreef.htm images
    slide 9
  • www.dailycal.org/printable.php?id3993 image
    slide 14
  • www.gasdetection.com/news2/health_news_digest...
    Image slide 14
  • www.science.uts.edu.au/.../karin_ulstrup.html
    image slide 15
About PowerShow.com