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CIS 302 Introduction to Systems Analysis and Design


Describe skills and activities of a project manager during project initiation, ... You must have a combination of knowledge to be successful in this endeavor. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CIS 302 Introduction to Systems Analysis and Design

CIS 302 Introduction to Systems Analysis and
  • Managing the Information Systems Project

Learning Objectives
  • Discuss skills required to be an effective
    project manager
  • Describe skills and activities of a project
    manager during project initiation, planning,
    execution and closedown
  • Explain Gantt and Pert charts
  • Review commercial project management software

Managing the Information Systems Project
  • Focus of project management
  • To ensure that information system projects meet
    customer expectations
  • Delivered in a timely manner
  • Meet constraints and requirements

Managing the Information Systems Project
  • Project Manager
  • Systems Analyst responsible for
  • Project initiation
  • Planning
  • Execution
  • Closing down
  • Requires diverse set of skills
  • Management
  • Leadership
  • Technical
  • Conflict management
  • Customer relations

Project Management Process
  • Project
  • Planned undertaking of related activities to
    reach an objective that has a beginning and an
  • Four Phases
  • Initiation
  • Planning
  • Execution
  • Closing down

Initiating the Project
  • Establish project initiation team
  • Establish relationship with customer
  • Establish project initiation plan
  • Establish management procedures
  • Establish project management environment and

Planning the Project
  • Describe project scope, alternatives and
  • Scope and Feasibility
  • Understand the project
  • What problem is addressed
  • What results are to be achieved
  • Measures of success
  • Completion criteria

Planning the Project
  • Divide the project into manageable tasks
  • Work breakdown structure
  • Gantt chart
  • Estimate resources and create a resource plan.
  • Develop a preliminary schedule
  • Utilize Gantt and PERT charts

Planning the Project
  • Develop a communication plan
  • Outline communication processes among customers,
    team members and management
  • Types of reports
  • Frequency of reports
  • Determine project standards and procedures
  • Specify how deliverables are tested and produced

Planning the Project
  • Identify and assess risk
  • Identify sources of risk
  • Estimate consequences of risk
  • Create a preliminary budget
  • Develop a statement of work
  • Describe what the project will deliver
  • Set a baseline project plan
  • Estimate of projects tasks and resources

Executing the Project
  • Execute baseline project plan
  • Acquire and assign resources
  • Train new team members
  • Keep project on schedule
  • Monitor project progress
  • Adjust resources, budget and/or activities

Executing the Project
  • Manage changes to baseline project plan
  • Slipped completion dates
  • Changes in personnel
  • New activities
  • Maintain project workbook
  • Communicate project status

Closing Down the Project
  • Termination
  • Types of termination
  • Natural
  • Requirements have been met
  • Unnatural
  • Project stopped
  • Documentation
  • Personnel Appraisal

Closing Down the Project
  • Conduct post-project reviews
  • Determine strengths and weaknesses of
  • Project deliverables
  • Project management process
  • Development process
  • Close customer contract

Representing and Scheduling Project Plans
  • Gantt Charts
  • Useful for depicting simple projects or parts of
    large projects
  • Show start and completion dates for individual
  • PERT Charts
  • Show order of activities

Comparison of Gantt and PERT Charts
  • Gantt
  • Visually shows duration of tasks
  • Visually shows time overlap between tasks
  • Visually shows slack time
  • PERT
  • Visually shows dependencies between tasks
  • Visually shows which tasks can be done in
  • Shows slack time by data in rectangles

Gantt and PERT Charts -- How to Proceed
  • Steps
  • Identify each activity
  • Requirements Collection
  • Screen Design
  • Report Design
  • Database Design
  • User documentation
  • Software programming
  • Installation and testing

Gantt and PERT Charts -- Continued
  • Determine time estimates and expected completion
    times for each activity.
  • Determine sequence of activities
  • Determine critical path
  • Sequence of events that will affect the final
    project delivery date

Commercial Project Management Software
  • Many systems are available
  • Three activities required to use
  • Establish project start or end date
  • Enter tasks and assign task relationships
  • Select scheduling method to review project

  • Skills of an effective project manager
  • Activities of project manager
  • Initiation
  • Planning
  • Execution
  • Closedown
  • Gantt and PERT Charts
  • Commercial PM Software

Project Management An Overview
  • Managing Operations

  • Focus
  • What is a Project?
  • What is Project Management?
  • Project Management Skills
  • Why is Project Management Needed?
  • Checklist for a Doomed Project
  • Leading Contributors to Project Success
  • The Cost of Failure An Example

  • Define a project.
  • Describe the phases of a project.
  • Define project management.
  • List project management skills.
  • Recognize the need for good project management.
  • Identify various reasons for project success and

Course Focus
  • We will focus on
  • IT project management,
  • Skills needed to succeed and,
  • The use of those skills for you career
    enhancement skills
  • As a program Manager, technical or business
    skills alone will not carry the day. You must
    have a combination of knowledge to be successful
    in this endeavor. This course will continue to
    expand and enhance your existing skills in those

Why Businesses Exist.
  • First and foremost, businesses exist to maximize
    the value of their owners equity.
  • Non-profits may have a definition of value that
    is not based on monetary worth, but they do what
    they do to increase that value.
  • Successful businesses never loose this focus nor
    deviate from it in the development and execution
    of their business plans.
  • Methodologies may vary but the goal is constant.

Vision and Strategies
  • Executives are tasked to develop Vision
  • The Project manager is the tool to implement that
  • What is the goal?
  • Is it a strategic business goal or tactical
  • Strategic considerations for the creation of
    Vision are many.
  • The project manager must be given clear
    directions as to what that Vision is and a clear
    understanding of what the end result is.
  • The Project(s) must be defined.

So what makes a Project?
  • Specific objectives defines concisely what you
    are trying to do and what you will deliver….in
    detail. This will be to solve some problem.
  • Schedule define specifically the duration of
    the effort
  • Budget Identify what will be your budget and
    all variables and what you can and cannot
  • Resources Identify who will do the work and
    commitments that those resources will be

So what makes a Project?
  • One-time series of efforts rather than ongoing.
  • To build a web site is usually considered a
    project that consists of multiple tasks.
  • Sample Tasks requiring business leadership
  • Mission statement, Marketing plan, User thread
    definition, Finance, Business case analysis,
  • Sample Tasks requiring technical leadership
  • Content creation, page design, software
    selection, hardware selection, labor estimating,

Characteristics of a Project
  • Sequence or phases of activities
  • Unique (Non-repetitive)
  • Simple and/or Complex
  • Inter-related activities
  • Specific Goal
  • Specific Time-frame
  • Specified Budget
  • Defined Specifications

Project Stages
Who are the Project Players?
  • The Sponsor The individual who has requested
    that the project be undertaken. They usually get
    or provide the funding and face the executives.
  • (Remember the golden rule he who has the gold,
  • The Stakeholders Those who are affected by the
    project and its implementation,
  • The Project Manager The individual responsible
    for the management of the project.
  • Project Team The grunts. Individuals tasked to
    perform the work identified in the project plan.

Why is Project Management Needed?
  • To avoid
  • High Failure rates and High Costs to the
  • 30 of IT projects never reach fruitful
  • Waste75 billion annually
  • 51 exceed budget by 189 and deliver only 74
  • The Project Manager is tasked to avoid these
  • On time, on budget, to specification

Leading Contributors to Project Success
  • Effective Project Management
  • Formal guidelines
  • Accountable sponsors
  • Project management skills
  • Measurement systems
  • Formal priorities
  • Regular communication
  • Clear tracking
  • Automated tools

Why Projects Fail
  • Lack of Scope Control
  • Poor requirements Definition
  • Schedule/Cost overruns

Leading Contributors to Project Failure
  • Undisciplined project management
  • Poor requirements gathering in the initial stages
    of a project.
  • Poor communications between the IT and business
    side leading to different expectations.
  • Uncontrolled changes in project scope…. scope

The Project Manager
  • As a project manager, your execution of corporate
    strategy is accomplished by the efficient
    execution of individual projects.
  • There are tactical and political issues with each
    project. You will need to face them and overcome
    those challenges.
  • The primary skill that you will use is
    communications to those above you and those below
  • Communication requires that you listen as well as

The Project Manager
  • The key difference between a Program Manager and
    a Project Manager is usually a matter of scope
    and duration, depending on the corporation.
  • A Program Manager usually has duties that are
    more comprehensive than managing, building and
    delivering a single or integrated solution.
  • Program Management often entails managing and
    transitioning a series of projects from inception
    to operational support and management. This
    could cover all aspects of a product line or
    service, from marketing to ILS and everything in

The Project Manager
  • A Project Manager is usually tasked with a more
    limited scope of work with a more finite
  • That duration is scheduled and not necessarily
    subject to market forces as is the case with a
    complete product line or program.
  • The following slides discuss Project Management
    though references will be made to Program
    Management in this context.

Project Management Functions
  • Staffing Planning - A primary function of the
    Project Manager is to perform
  • staffing analysis, staffing acquisition (via HR
    or subcontracts) and/or requirements analysis
  • plan the performance and execution of the
  • Organizing Scheduling Once the staffing and
    planning functions are identified, it is the
    project managers responsibility to organize those
    individuals into teams and schedule their work.
    This includes coordinating their work assignments
    with other Project and managers.

Project Management Functions
  • Directing Controlling day to day operational
    direction is usually needed and required.
  • As the project evolves, these skills become
    increasingly important.
  • Tools and techniques- The organization,
    scheduling and controlling, as well as
    performance capturing and knowledge management
    functions are the responsibility of the Project
  • Providing feed back to executive management is
    key to the overall strategic implementation

Planning Leadership Model
Listen gt Learn gt Help gt Lead
Staffing and Planning
  • Develop a Plan
  • Base the plan on System Development/Life Cycle
    (SDLC) and other process Activities
  • Solicit Resources to Deliver System
  • Planning Considerations
  • What is required?
  • What resources are needed?
  • What is the duration?
  • What are the dependencies?

Organizing and Scheduling
  • Identify the Roles and Responsibilities.
  • Communicate with the Project Team - must
    understand tasks dependencies.
  • Identify the Deliverables.
  • Prepare a Schedule to Match the Deadlines.
  • Add resources
  • Move deadlines
  • Adjust scope

Directing and Controlling
  • PM acts as a Director or Leader
  • Makes Key Decisions
  • Motivates, Rewards - Traits of a Leader
  • Advises, Coordinates, Delegates Appraises
  • Controls the Project...from Orientation to

Directing and Controlling
  • Manage the Project
  • Status reports and reviews - project walk-through
  • Assess skills needed
  • Lead the Project Team
  • Involve team in planning
  • Track project using formal and informal methods
  • Set performance objectives and develop staff

The Project Manager Skills
  • A Project Manager is usually associated with
    having the following skills
  • Detail Oriented.
  • Methodical.
  • Able to multi-task
  • Able to understand technical, business and
    financial issues.
  • Cognizant of political realities of the project.

Project Management for Information Systems
  • So, what is a project?
  • A project has specific objectives, start and end
    dates, and a budget requires resources and has
    a definite life cycle.
  • Who is a project manager?
  • Someone who manages the project, ideally, from
    conception to completion.
  • Common project management software tool include.
  • Microsoft Project http//
  • Primavera http//
  • Others

Project Management Certification Testing
  • As a word of caution. For those who plan to
    eventually get certified as a project manager,
    there are some differences in what the answer the
    certifiers want on a test and the realities of
    the working world.
  • PMI and Gartner think that companies always have
    the project manager engaged during the first
    phases of a project (Requirements gathering).
  • Dont bet on it. Requirements gathered and
    requirement realities my be two different things
    entirely. Dont be complacent.

Project Management for Information Systems
  • An IT project is different from non-IT project
    management because of the following
  • the work is harder to specify,
  • Requirements are more difficult to gather and,
  • designers are often the implementers.
  • The two key factors that can make a project
    successful are
  • Regular communication with all participants and
    sponsors and,
  • Tracking resources and their tasks

Most Projects Fail
  • 30 of IT projects never reach fruitful
  • 75 billion is wasted annually.
  • 51 of projects exceed budget by 189 and deliver
    only 74 functionality.
  • Reasons for this include
  • Undisciplined project management.
  • Poor communication between IT and business side.
  • Other reasons?

Dont Forget
  • E-business isnt just technology!
  • Simply having a working site doesnt mean the
    project was a success.
  • Need to consider
  • Market reaction.
  • Response to customer needs.
  • On-time delivery, within budget and quality
  • Other ideas?

  • Program management
  • Components of a project
  • The interrelation of tasks

Project Management
  • Scope Management

Week 4 - Learning Objectives Scope Management
  • You should be able to
  • Discuss the relationship between scope and
    project failure
  • Explain how projects are initiated and selected
  • Define activities, inputs, and outputs of scope
    initiation, planning, definition, verification
  • Prepare a project charter
  • Prepare a WBS

Scope Management
  • Processes needed to ensure that
  • project includes all required work
  • project includes only required work
  • Product scope
  • features and functions of product deliverables
  • measured against product requirements
  • Project scope
  • work that must be done to deliver them
  • measured against project plan

Scope Management Processes
  • Project Initiation
  • commitment to next phase
  • Scope Planning
  • written scope statement
  • Scope Definition WBS
  • Scope Verification formal acceptance
  • Scope Change Control

Scope Initiation
  • New project, or, commitment to next phase of
    existing project
  • Inputs
  • product description/business need
  • strategic plan/goals
  • project selection criteria methods
  • expert judgment, historical information

Strategic Planning, Leading to Project Selection
  • Business strategy and goals
  • IT systems help companies compete
  • Identify and prioritize opportunities

Selected Projects
Business Needs
Business Goals
Methods for Project Selection
  • Organizational Need Perspective
  • Perceived need?
  • Likelihood of funding?
  • Willingness to support?
  • Source, time, impact, priority
  • problem
  • opportunity
  • directive
  • Financial Perspective

Financial Perspective
  • Cost/benefit analysis
  • NPV - net present value
  • ROI - return on investment
  • Payback analysis
  • Limitations difficulty of estimating
  • Weighted scoring model
  • incorporates multiple criteria

Weighted Scoring Model
  • Determine criteria
  • Weight criteria by importance
  • Score each project on each criterion
  • Multiply scores by weights
  • Get overall score for each project
  • Select project with highest score
  • What-if analysis may be helpful

Scope Initiation Outputs
  • Project Charter
  • Conceptual baseline
  • Project Manager selected
  • Constraints
  • factors that will limit the teams options
  • e.g., fixed budget
  • e.g., contractual provisions
  • Assumptions

Project Charter
  • Charter Components
  • title, date
  • project manager
  • scope statement
  • summary of approach
  • roles and responsibilities matrix
  • sign-off
  • comments (assumptions, constraints)
  • Formalizes existence of project
  • Provides direction on objectives
  • Signoff by key project stakeholders

Scope Planning
  • Inputs to planning outputs of initiation
  • description and charter
  • constraints and assumptions
  • product description and analysis
  • cost/benefit analysis

Scope Planning Outputs
  • Written Scope Statement
  • justification business need
  • product description
  • project deliverables
  • quantifiable criteria for success
  • Common understanding of project

Scope Definition
  • Decomposition of project into more manageable
  • sufficiently detailed for tasks, estimation
  • Helps improve estimation accuracy
  • Defines a baseline for measurement and control
  • Clarifies responsibilities

Work Breakdown Structure
  • Analysis of work needed to complete project
  • Hierarchical breakdown of tasks
  • Provides basis for planning and change control
  • Can be organized around products or phases
  • Work package is lowest, detailed level
  • Requires involvement of project team and
  • Helps identify needed coordination

Approaches to Preparing a WBS
  • Use formal templates if available
  • Use previous similar projects WBS
  • Top-down
  • iteratively add levels of detail
  • Bottom-up
  • team members identify detailed tasks
  • tasks are aggregated and summarized
  • creates buy-in by project team
  • Combination

WBS Principles
  • A unit of work appears only once
  • Each unit of work responsibility is assigned to
    one person
  • Clear scope of each unit of work
  • WBS reflects how work will be done
  • serves project team first
  • Must be flexible to accommodate changes

Scope Verification
  • Formal acceptance by stakeholders
  • Inputs
  • Work results from execution of project plan
  • Product documentation
  • Inspection
  • Outputs
  • documented level of completion
  • documented acceptance

Scope Control and Project Failure
  • Project failure often due to scope getting out of
  • Did not understand requirements
  • Or, allowed requirements to grow
  • On average, project scope increases 4-fold
  • Requirements (scope) creep
  • users see potential for automation, ask for more
  • users want new system for current jobs

Reducing IT Project Scope Creep
  • User involvement
  • project selection ensure sponsor
  • easy access to project information
  • users as member(s) of project team
  • regular meetings with users
  • co-location with users
  • focus on completion dates
  • prototyping, use cases, JAD, CASE

Project Considerations
  • Is infrastructure setup part of your project?
  • Assumptions
  • What are you counting on?
  • These can be critical to identify
  • Resources expected equip/people, approvals
  • Availability of partners, connections
  • Delineate key limits
  • System load expect an maximum of 100 users

  • Predictions are hard, especially about the
    future, Yogi Berra
  • 2 Types Lucky or Lousy?

Planning, Estimating, Scheduling
  • Whats the difference?
  • Plan Identify activities. No specific start and
    end dates.
  • Estimating Determining the size duration of
  • Schedule Adds specific start and end dates,
    relationships, and resources.

Project Planning A 12 Step Program
  • Set goal and scope
  • Select lifecycle
  • Set org./team form
  • Start team selection
  • Determine risks
  • Create WBS
  • Identify tasks
  • Estimate size
  • Estimate effort
  • Identify task dependencies
  • Assign resources
  • Schedule work

How To Schedule
  • 1. Identify what needs to be done
  • Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
  • 2. Identify how much (the size)
  • Size estimation techniques
  • 3. Identify the dependency between tasks
  • Dependency graph, network diagram
  • 4. Estimate total duration of the work to be done
  • The actual schedule

WBS Estimation
  • How did you feel when I asked
  • How long will your project take?
  • Not an easy answer to give right?
  • At least not if I were are real customer on a
    real project
  • How can you manage that issue?

Partitioning Your Project
  • You need to decompose your project into
    manageable chunks
  • ALL projects need this step
  • Divide Conquer
  • Two main causes of project failure
  • Forgetting something critical
  • Ballpark estimates become targets
  • How does partitioning help this?

Work Breakdown Structure WBS
  • Hierarchical list of projects work activities
  • 2 Formats
  • Outline (indented format)
  • Graphical Tree (Organizational Chart)
  • Uses a decimal numbering system
  • Ex 3.1.5
  • 0 is typically top level
  • Includes
  • Development, Mgmt., and project support tasks
  • Shows is contained in relationships
  • Does not show dependencies or durations

  • Contract WBS (CWBS)
  • First 2 or 3 levels
  • High-level tracking
  • Project WBS (PWBS)
  • Defined by PM and team members
  • Tasks tied to deliverables
  • Lowest level tracking

A Full WBS Structure
  • Up to six levels (3-6 usually) such as
  • Upper 3 can be used by customer for reporting (if
    part of RFP/RFQ)
  • Different level can be applied to different uses
  • Ex Level 1 authorizations 2 budgets 3

WBS Chart Example
WBS Outline Example
0.0 Retail Web Site 1.0 Project Management 2.0
Requirements Gathering 3.0 Analysis Design 4.0
Site Software Development 4.1 HTML Design and
Creation 4.2 Backend Software 4.2.1 Database
Implementation 4.2.2 Middleware
Development 4.2.3 Security Subsystems 4.2.4
Catalog Engine 4.2.5 Transaction
Processing 4.3 Graphics and Interface 4.4
Content Creation 5.0 Testing and Production
WBS Types
  • Process WBS
  • a.k.a Activity-oriented
  • Ex Requirements, Analysis, Design, Testing
  • Typically used by PM
  • Product WBS
  • a.k.a. Entity-oriented
  • Ex Financial engine, Interface system, DB
  • Typically used by engineering manager
  • Hybrid WBS both above
  • This is not unusual
  • Ex Lifecycle phases at high level with component
    or feature-specifics within phases
  • Rationale processes produce products

Process WBS
WBS Types
  • Less frequently used alternatives
  • Organizational WBS
  • Research, Product Design, Engineering, Operations
  • Can be useful for highly cross-functional
  • Geographical WBS
  • Can be useful with distributed teams
  • NYC team, San Jose team, Off-shore team

Work Packages
  • Generic term for discrete tasks with definable
    end results
  • Typically the leaves on the tree
  • The one-to-two rule
  • Often at 1 or 2 persons for 1 or 2 weeks
  • Basis for monitoring and reporting progress
  • Can be tied to budget items (charge numbers)
  • Resources (personnel) assigned
  • Ideally shorter rather than longer
  • Longer makes in-progress estimates needed
  • These are more subjective than done
  • 2-3 weeks maximum for software projects
  • 1 day minimum (occasionally a half day)
  • Not so small as to micro-manage

  • List of Activities, not Things
  • List of items can come from many sources
  • SOW, Proposal, brainstorming, stakeholders, team
  • Describe activities using bullet language
  • Meaningful but terse labels
  • All WBS paths do not have to go to the same level
  • Do not plan more detail than you can manage

WBS Methodology
  • PM must map activities to chosen lifecycle
  • Each lifecycle has different sets of activities
  • Integral process activities occur for all
  • Planning, configuration, testing
  • Operations and maintenance phases are not
    normally in plan (considered post-project)
  • Some models are straightened for WBS
  • Spiral and other iterative models
  • Linear sequence several times
  • Deliverables of tasks vary by methodology

WBS Techniques
  • Top-Down
  • Bottom-Up
  • Analogy
  • Rolling Wave
  • 1st pass go 1-3 levels deep
  • Gather more requirements or data
  • Add more detail later
  • Post-its on a wall

WBS Techniques
  • Top-down
  • Start at highest level
  • Systematically develop increasing level of detail
  • Best if
  • The problem is well understood
  • Technology and methodology are not new
  • This is similar to an earlier project or problem
  • But is also applied in majority of situations

WBS Techniques
  • Bottom-up
  • Start at lowest level tasks
  • Aggregate into summaries and higher levels
  • Cons
  • Time consuming
  • Needs more requirements complete
  • Pros
  • Detailed

WBS Techniques
  • Analogy
  • Base WBS upon that of a similar project
  • Use a template
  • Analogy also can be estimation basis
  • Pros
  • Based on past actual experience
  • Cons
  • Needs comparable project

WBS Techniques
  • Brainstorming
  • Generate all activities you can think of that
    need to be done
  • Group them into categories
  • Both Top-down and Brainstorming can be used on
    the same WBS
  • Remember to get the people who will be doing the
    work involved (buy-in matters!)

WBS Basis of Many Things
  • Network scheduling
  • Costing
  • Risk analysis
  • Organizational structure
  • Control
  • Measurement

WBS Guidelines Part 1
  • Should be easy to understand
  • Some companies have corporate standards for these
  • Some top-level items, like Project Mgmt. are in
    WBS for each project
  • Others vary by project
  • What often hurts most is whats missing
  • Break down until you can generate accurate time
    cost estimates
  • Ensure each element corresponds to a deliverable

WBS Guidelines Part 2
  • How detailed should it be?
  • Not as detailed as the final MS-Project plan
  • Each level should have no more than 7 items
  • It can evolve over time
  • What tool should you use?
  • Excel, Word, Project
  • Org chart diagramming tool (Visio, etc)
  • Specialized commercial apps
  • Re-use a template if you have one

  • Very difficult to do, but needed often
  • Created, used or refined during
  • Strategic planning
  • Feasibility study and/or SOW
  • Proposals
  • Vendor and sub-contractor evaluation
  • Project planning (iteratively)
  • Basic process
  • Estimate the size of the product
  • Estimate the effort (man-months)
  • Estimate the schedule
  • NOTE Not all of these steps are always
    explicitly performed

  • Remember, an exact estimate is an oxymoron
  • Estimate how long will it take you to get home
    from class tonight
  • On what basis did you do that?
  • Experience right?
  • Likely as an average probability
  • For most software projects there is no such
  • Most software estimations are off by 25-100

  • Target vs. Committed Dates
  • Target Proposed by business or marketing
  • Do not commit to this too soon!
  • Committed Team agrees to this
  • After youve developed a schedule

Estimation Methodologies
  • Top-down
  • Bottom-up
  • Analogy
  • Expert Judgment
  • Priced to Win
  • Parametric or Algorithmic Method
  • Using formulas and equations

Top-down Estimation
  • Based on overall characteristics of project
  • Some of the others can be types of top-down
    (Analogy, Expert Judgment, and Algorithmic
  • Advantages
  • Easy to calculate
  • Effective early on (like initial cost estimates)
  • Disadvantages
  • Some models are questionable or may not fit
  • Less accurate because it doesnt look at details

Bottom-up Estimation
  • Create WBS
  • Add from the bottom-up
  • Advantages
  • Works well if activities well understood
  • Disadvantages
  • Specific activities not always known
  • More time consuming

Expert Judgment
  • Use somebody who has recent experience on a
    similar project
  • You get a guesstimate
  • Accuracy depends on their real expertise
  • Comparable application(s) must be accurately
  • Systematic
  • Can use a weighted-average of opinions

Estimation by Analogy
  • Use past project
  • Must be sufficiently similar (technology, type,
  • Find comparable attributes (ex of
  • Can create a function
  • Advantages
  • Based on actual historical data
  • Disadvantages
  • Difficulty matching project types
  • Prior data may have been mis-measured
  • How to measure differences no two exactly same

Priced to Win
  • Just follow other estimates
  • Save on doing full estimate
  • Needs information on other estimates (or prices)
  • Purchaser must closely watch trade-offs
  • Priced to lose?

Algorithmic Measures
  • Lines of Code (LOC)
  • Function points
  • Feature points or object points
  • Other possible
  • Number of bubbles on a DFD
  • Number of of ERD entities
  • Number of processes on a structure chart
  • LOC and function points most common
  • (of the algorithmic approaches)
  • Majority of projects use none of the above

Code-based Estimates
  • LOC Advantages
  • Commonly understood metric
  • Permits specific comparison
  • Actuals easily measured
  • LOC Disadvantages
  • Difficult to estimate early in cycle
  • Counts vary by language
  • Many costs not considered (ex requirements)
  • Programmers may be rewarded based on this
  • Can use defects/ LOC
  • Code generators produce excess code

LOC Estimate Issues
  • How do you know how many in advance?
  • What about different languages?
  • What about programmer style?
  • Stat avg. programmer productivity 3,000 LOC/yr
  • Most algorithmic approaches are more effective
    after requirements (or have to be after)

Code Reuse Estimation
  • Does not come for free
  • Code types New, Modified, Reused
  • If code is more than 50 modified, its new
  • Reuse factors have wide range
  • Reused code takes 30 effort of new
  • Modified is 60 of new
  • Integration effort with reused code almost as
    expensive as with new code

Effort Estimation
  • Now that you know the size, determine the
    effort needed to build it
  • Various models empirical, mathematical,
  • Expressed in units of duration
  • Man-months (or staff-months now)

  • COnstructive COst MOdel
  • Allows for the type of application, size, and
    Cost Drivers
  • Outputs in Person Months
  • Cost drivers using High/Med/Low include
  • Motivation
  • Ability of team
  • Application experience
  • Biggest weakness?
  • Requires input of a product size estimate in LOC

Estimation Issues
  • Quality estimations needed early but information
    is limited
  • Precise estimation data available at end but not
  • Or is it? What about the next project?
  • Best estimates are based on past experience
  • Politics of estimation
  • You may anticipate a cut by upper management
  • For many software projects there is little or
  • Technologies change
  • Historical data unavailable
  • Wide variance in project experiences/types
  • Subjective nature of software estimation

Know Your Deadlines
  • Are they Real Deadlines?
  • Tied to an external event
  • Have to be met for project to be a success
  • Ex end of financial year, contractual deadline,
  • Or Artificial Deadlines?
  • Set by arbitrary authority
  • May have some flexibility (if pushed)

Other Estimation Notes
  • Remember manage expectations
  • Parkinsons Law
  • Work expands to fill the time available
  • The Student Syndrome
  • Procrastination until the last minute (cram)