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Settling the Northern Colonies

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Title: Settling the Northern Colonies


1
Chapter 3
  • Settling the Northern Colonies

2
The Protestant Reformation
  • In 1517, Martin Luther nailed his 95 Theses to
    the door of the Wittenberg cathedral igniting the
    Protestant Reformation
  • Stated that all humans were weak and wicked and
    only the predestined could go to heaven.
  • In England, King Henry VIII was breaking his ties
    with the Holy Roman Catholic Church in the 1530s
  • England turned to Protestantism (Calvinism)

3
Martin Luther and the 95 Theses
4
(No Transcript)
5
Puritans and Separatists
  • Puritans Unhappy with the snail-like pace of
    the progress of Protestant Reformation.
  • believed that only visible saints should be
    admitted to church membership.
  • Separatists - vowed to break away from the Church
    of England because the saints would have to sit
    with the damned.

6
Pilgrims
  • Separatist group who originally settled in the
    Netherlands but were frustrated by the
    dutchification of their children
  • King gave Pilgrims permission to settle in
    Virginia.
  • 103 Pilgrims left Holland and sailed for 65 days
    at sea on the Mayflower until they arrived off
    the rocky coast of New England in 1620.
  • 102 arrived (1 died on the journey)
  • Mayflower was blown off course and landed at
    Plymouth.
  • Before exiting the ship Pilgrims signed the
    Mayflower Compact.

7
Mayflower
1.The Rigging 2.The Round House 3.The Half Deck
4.The Great Cabin 5.The Steerage 6.The Capstan
7.The Main Deck 8.'Tween Decks 9.The
Forecastle 10.The Windlass
Photo South Cape Distributors
8
Mayflower Compact
9
William Bradford
  • Bradford is best known as Governor of the
    Plymouth Colony. He emigrated to Plymouth on the
    famous Mayflower in 1620, and was elected to
    office at least 30 times. His works include
  • History of Plymouth Plantation, circa 1650

10
Rough Start for Pilgrims
  • In the winter of 1620-21, only 44 of the 102
    survived.
  • 1621 brought bountiful harvests, though, and the
    first Thanksgiving was celebrated that year.
  • In 1691, Plymouth
  • merged with the Massachusetts Bay Colony.

11
Squanto
  • Native American of the Wampanoag tribe of what is
    now Massachusetts. Also known as Tisquantum, he
    proved an invaluable friend to white settlers in
    New England in the early 17th century. Early in
    his life he was captured and sold as a slave in
    Spain but eventually escaped and went to England.
    When he returned to New England in 1619 as pilot
    for an English sea captain, he escaped and
    discovered that his people had been destroyed by
    a plague. Two years later he helped the starving
    Pilgrims at Plymouth Colony to survive by
    teaching them both fishing and the planting of
    corn. He developed a friendship with the
    Massachusetts settlers and acted as interpreter
    at the Treaty of Plymouth, signed in 1621 between
    the Native American chief Massasoit and Governor
    William Bradford. While guiding a party under
    Bradford around Cape Cod the following year, he
    became ill and died

12
Massachusetts Bay Colony
  • Settled by strict Puritans
  • They had their own charter and total control of
    their colony.
  • It was a well-equipped group of which about
    11,000 people came to Massachusetts.
  • They were led by John Winthrop.
  • Winthrop wanted the Puritans to be a city upon a
    hill.

13
John Winthrop
"....we must consider that we shall be as a City
upon a Hill, (and that) the eyes of all people
are upon us.."
14
Life in Massachusetts Bay
  • Massachusetts prosper in fur trading, fishing,
    and shipbuilding.
  • Religious leaders wielded powerful influence over
    the admission to church membership.
  • Very strict and very religious
  • Strict Calvinist (predestination)
  • Feared democracy because they were afraid of the
    masses

15
Trouble in Mass Bay
  • Anne Hutchinson
  • Believed in antinomianism the belief that
    because of predestination man need not obey
    secular laws.
  • Banished from the colony
  • Roger Williams
  • Believed in freedom of religion, separation of
    church and state and thought they should pay the
    Indians for the land.
  • Banished from the colony for his beliefs
  • Started Rhode Island

16
Williams and Hutchinson
Edwin Austin Abbey's depiction of Anne Hutchinson
on trial appeared in a popular nineteenth-century
history of the United States.Illustration
courtesy of the Harvard College Library coloring
by Bartek Malysa
Roger Williams and the Narragansett
17
Rhode Island
  • Started by Roger Williams
  • Based on complete freedom of religion, even for
    Jews and Catholics
  • Had separation of church and state
  • Most liberal of all English colonies
  • Planted by dissenters and exiles so Rhode Island
    became strongly individualistic and stubbornly
    independent

18
Rhode Island
19
Connecticut
  • Hartford
  • Founded in 1635 by Thomas Hooker who led a group
    of Puritans out of Massachusetts Bay
  • Drafted the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut A
    written constitution guaranteeing the right to
    vote to the substantial citizens (landowners)
  • New Haven
  • Started in 1638
  • Eventually merged with Hartford in 1662

20
Connecticut
Thomas Hooker sculpture by Frances L. Wadsworth
(1950), located east of the State House. Image
scanned from The Colonial History of Hartford -
U.S. Bicentennial Edition, by William DeLoss Love
(1974).
21
Puritans Vs. Indians
  • Before the Puritans had arrived in 1620, an
    epidemic had swept through the Indians, killing
    over three quarters of them.
  • In 1637, after mounting tensions exploded,
    English settlers and the powerful Pequot tribe
    fought in the Pequot War, in which the English
    set fire to a Pequot village on Connecticuts
    Mystic River, annihilating the Indians and
    bringing about forty years of tentative peace.
  • In 1675, Metacom (called King Philip by the
    English) united neighboring Indians in a
    last-ditched attack that failed.
  • The King Philips War slowed colonial western
    march but only temporarily

22
Metacom
  • Metacom, known as King Philip, was chief of the
    Wampanoag Indians and son of Massasoit, who lived
    peacefully with the settlers since the arrival of
    the Pilgrims. King Philip, however, saw that
    whites were expanding into Indian territory, and
    made plans to resist. King Philip and a band of
    Wampanoags vandalized a frontier community in the
    17th century, had begun. Although the
    Narragansett and Nipmuck Indians joined forces
    with the Wampanoags, King Philip sensed defeat
    and fled into the forest. The near annihilation
    of the Narragansett Indians in 1676 ended
    hostilities, leaving six hundred colonists and
    even more Indians, including King Philip, dead.

23
New England Confederation
  • First seeds of colonial unity
  • In 1643, four colonies banded together to form
    the New England Confederation.
  • Massachusetts Bay
  • Plymouth
  • New Haven
  • Hartford
  • A group of semiautonomous commonwealths that
    dealt with defense against Indians, French and
    Dutch

24
Dominion of New England
  • In 1686, the Dominion of New England was created
    to bolster the colonial defense against Indians
  • Also and attempt to tie the colonies closer to
    Britain by enforcing the Navigation Acts.
  • Head of the Dominion was Sir Edmund Andros, who
    was autocratic and set many unpopular rules

Sir Edmund Andros
25
Glorious Revolution
  • William and Mary took over power in England
  • Never again was England ruled by a monarchy
  • Parliamentary rule
  • Salutary neglect followed

William and Mary
26
Northern (New England) Colonies
  • Massachusetts
  • Rhode Island
  • Connecticut
  • New Hampshire
  • Settled for Religious reasons
  • Trade, shipbuilding, fishing were main source of
    income
  • Fiercely independent
  • Rocky infertile soil
  • Subsistence farms

27
New York (New Netherlands)
  • Originally settled by the Dutch
  • Based their claim on the voyage of Henry Hudson,
    an English explored sailing on a Dutch ship in
    1609
  • The Dutch East India Company was established,
    with an army of 10,000 men and a fleet of 190
    ships
  • The Dutch gave patroonships (large areas of land)
    to promoters who agreed to settle at least 50
    people on them.
  • Indian attack was always a problem. Built wall
    to keep them safe (Wall Street today)
  • New Amsterdam was capital (New York City)

28
This painting shows New Amsterdam in 1664 and was
painted at that time. The painting shows
buildings clustered at the tip of Manhattan
Island, which was the center of activity for the
growing city until the mid-nineteenth century.
The Dutch West India Company settled New
Amsterdam in 1624 as a permanent trading post.
The company encouraged settlement in the new town
and transported whole families. The initial
purpose of the colony was commerce, and the
settlement welcomed a diverse group of immigrants
from many countries, eventually becoming known as
a bustling and tolerant settlement. In 1665, New
Amsterdam fell to the English and became New
York. Source From the Bettman Archives.
29
Manhattan Island Today
30
Englands Conquest of New York
  • In 1664, Charles II granted the area of
    modern-day New York to his brother, the Duke of
    York, and that year, British troops landed and
    defeated the Dutch, kicking them out, without
    much violence.
  • Peter Stuyvesant surrendered and England took over

Peter Stuyvesant
31
New York
32
Pennsylvania
  • Started by William Penn and his Quaker followers
  • Penn called it a Holy Experiment All
    religions were welcome, except Catholics and Jews
  • Philadelphia was the capital City of Brotherly
    Love
  • It was the best advertised of all the colonies.
  • Very good relations with local Indians
  • Pennsylvania attracted a great variety of people
    from all races, class, and religion.

33
Penn Receiving the Charter
34
Quakers
  • Feared God
  • They quaked under deep religious emotion.
  • Abhorred strife and warfare and refused military
    service
  • First in the colonies to oppose slavery
  • Persecuted in England

35
William Penn and the Indians of Pennsylvania
36
Map of Pennsylvania
37
New Jersey
  • Started in 1664 when two noble proprietors
    received the area from the Duke of York.
  • Settled by many Quakers

38
Delaware
  • Settled by Swedish
  • Named after Lord De La Warr, the harsh military
    govenor who had arrived in Virginia in 1610
  • Granted its won assembly in 1703

39
Middle Colonies
  • Pennsylvania
  • New York
  • New Jersey
  • Delaward
  • Fertile soil Breadbasket of the colonies
  • Religious toleration
  • Racially diverse
  • Settled by Dutch, Swedish, English, Spanish,
    Irish, and Scots-Irish
  • Better farming techniques
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