Visual Systems in Simulation Applications - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Visual Systems in Simulation Applications PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: a3299-ZThlY



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Visual Systems in Simulation Applications

Description:

Time-of-Day. Weather. Maritime. Sensor Simulation. 33 ... Old Dominion University (VA) University of Central Florida. 54. Educational Paths to Simulation ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:499
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 64
Provided by: michae1126
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Visual Systems in Simulation Applications


1
Visual Systems in Simulation Applications
  • A Brief History and Primer

Michael Coleman AVT Simulation
2
Michael Coleman - Vitae
  • Visual Systems Engineer, AVT Simulation
  • 14 years of simulation industry experience
  • AVT
  • Raydon
  • Evans and Sutherland
  • CSC
  • Southwest Research Institute
  • B. S. Computer Science, Trinity University, 1996
  • Graduate Certificate, Project Engineering, UCF,
    2005
  • M.S., Modeling and Simulation, University of
    Central Florida, 2008

3
Outline
  • History
  • Visual System Components
  • Displays
  • Image Generators
  • Databases

4
History of Visual Systems in Simulation
5
Dawn of Simulation
  • 1929 Link Aviation Trainer
  • Instrument flying in adverse weather
  • No visual system
  • Later placed in painted rooms

6
Early Visual Systems
  • 1950s-1960s
  • Closed-circuit video and film
  • Model boards

7
Computer Graphics in Simulation
  • 1964 - GE system for Apollo program
  • 1972 McDonnell Douglas VITAL II certified for
    training commercial airline night landings
  • Visual simulation technology largely advanced by
    commercial aviation in the 1970s

8
Commercial Simulation Technology
  • 1970s - Raster/calligraphic systems
  • Collimated mirror displays and motion platforms

9
Military Simulation Technology
  • 1980s saw technology being advanced by military
    market
  • Raster-based displays
  • Domes and head-mounted systems

10
Visual Systems Today
  • Technology driven by consumer entertainment
    industry
  • PC-based graphics
  • Off-the-shelf projection technologies

11
Visual Systems Concepts
12
Visual System Components
  • Display
  • Image Generator
  • Database

13
Displays
14
Display
  • For flight simulation, display requirements drive
    visual system design
  • Military target detection requirements
  • Commercial FAA guidelines
  • Display may include night vision and infrared
    devices as well as out-the-window (OTW)

15
OTW Display Components
  • Dome
  • Faceted dome
  • Mirror / back projection screen
  • Head-mounted

16
Display Projection Technology
  • In the past, simulation requirements advanced
    projector technology (CRT, calligraphic lights)
  • Technology now driven by entertainment industry
    (HDTV, digital projection, LCoS)

17
Sensor Displays
  • Forward-Looking InfraRed (FLIR)
  • Auto-acquisition modes
  • Auto-tracking modes
  • Night Vision Goggles (NVG)
  • Stimulated (actual goggles)
  • Simulated (dedicated IG channel/computer)

18
A Few Display Parameters
  • Field of View
  • Resolution
  • Luminance
  • Contrast
  • Collimation
  • Screen Characteristics

Black, 2003
19
Field of View
  • Volume subtended by light reaching the eyepoint
  • Physical FOV
  • Orientation of eyepoint relative to display
    device (monitor, dome surface, head-mounted
    display)
  • Measured by theodolite

20
Viewing Volume
21
Viewing Volume
  • The viewing volume frustum captures everything
    drawn by the image generator between near
    clipping plane (screen surface) and far clipping
    plane (horizon)
  • Critical that the viewing volume matches the
    physical field of view in simulation and training
    applications
  • Minification objects appear smaller than actual
    size
  • Magnification
  • FOV not overly critical in gaming industry

22
Measurement of Resolution
  • Units Arc-minutes per optical line pair
    (arcmin/OLP)
  • Ability to separate two or more small objects
  • Not the same as video format or line standard
    (720p, 1080i, etc.)
  • Determination of number of lines that can be seen
    given a number of pixels (considering Kell
    factor, MTF)

23
Johnsons Criteria
  • Industry standard for determining resolution
    requirements
  • Number of OLP required for
  • Detection
  • Orientation
  • Recognition
  • Identification

24
Johnsons Criteria
25
Resolution Applications
  • Once resolution requirements (Johnsons criteria)
    and FOV requirements are known, one can determine
  • Number of lines to be displayed
  • Number of lines to be drawn by IG
  • Number / type of display required
  • Number / type of IG required

26
Resolution Example
27
Resolution Example
28
Resolution Theory and Practice
  • Eye-limiting resolution 1 arcmin per OLP
  • Not practical for entire dome (12 up to 40
    diameter) display
  • Number of projectors (cost, maintenance)
  • Number of IG channels

29
Resolution Compromises
  • Overlay/target projectors
  • Area-of-interest
  • Head-tracked AOI
  • IG/Database approaches

30
Image Generators (IGs)
31
Image Generators
  • The graphics computers
  • Also provide for interaction of vehicles and
    people with the virtual world (collisions, etc.)

32
IG Capabilities
  • Mission Functions
  • Height-above-terrain (HAT)
  • Collision detection (terrain / objects)
  • Line-of-Sight
  • Environment
  • Time-of-Day
  • Weather
  • Maritime
  • Sensor Simulation

33
Sensor Simulation
34
IG Architecture
  • Traditionally, proprietary software required to
    exploit proprietary hardware
  • Today, runtime / scene graph packages run on
    any suitably equipped PC
  • Linux, Windows
  • OpenGL, Direct3D APIs
  • Similar to (if not) game engines

35
IG Database Rendering
  • Traditional Image Generators
  • 3,000 triangles or else
  • Overload management to guarantee frame rate
  • Today, PC graphics cards have different limits
  • Millions of polys per 60 Hz frame (estimated)
  • Textures, internal structure important
  • Limited overload management

36
Beyond the standard PC
  • 40 PC-IGs per trainer not uncommon
  • Display/Monitor synchronization (genlock)
  • Backward compatibility with old legacy systems

37
Traditional IG (circa 1998)
38
PC-IG (circa 2005)
39
Databases
40
Databases
  • Virtual representation of real-world (or
    geotypical) locations
  • Terrain
  • Culture
  • Texture
  • Models
  • Correlated databases for sensors and other
    systems

41
Database Gaming Areas
  • Flight simulation databases hundreds of
    geocells (square degrees) to whole-earth
  • Ground vehicle simulation hundreds of
    kilometers on a side
  • PC, console games hundreds of meters

42
Database Engineering
  • One size does not fit all
  • IG limitations restrict terrain and culture
    fidelity, number of models
  • Flight simulation databases typically
    texture-based (satellite imagery)
  • Ground warfare databases typically culture-based
  • As much an art as it is a science

43
(No Transcript)
44
Database Terrain
  • Much data now freely available
  • Before PC graphics, terrain triangle count was
    critical

45
Database Culture
  • From 2-D data
  • Extraction from imagery
  • Cut into terrain and/or placed atop imagery

46
Database Imagery
  • One meter per pixel (or better) for areas of
    interest
  • Care must be taken in using imagery from
    different sources (cloud cover, time of year,
    etc.)

47
Database Models
  • Vehicles and people
  • Buildings on terrain
  • Some game industry tools used

48
Correlated Databases
  • Other versions of the database for other
    computers in the simulation
  • Correlated databases should be generated
    simultaneously with the visual database
  • Correlation issues must be considered when
    designing the visual database

49
Correlated Databases
  • Visual Database vs. Radar Database

Spuhl, 2003
50
Industry Trends
  • Vertical consolidation of visual system and
    component providers by prime contractors
  • FlightSafety buys Glass Mountain Optics (Jan.
    2009)
  • Rockwell Collins buys ES (2006), SEOS (2008)
  • CAE forms Presagis from Multigen-Paradigm, Terrex
    and others (2007)

51
Industry Trends
  • Databases become major cost components due to
    advent of PC graphics and digital projection
  • Databases remain labor-intensive, but re-use
    efforts gaining
  • Increased use of technology from entertainment
    industry
  • Increase in application of serious games to
    training tasks

52
Simulation Industry
  • Prime Contractors
  • Boeing
  • Lockheed Martin
  • L-3 Link
  • Rockwell Collins
  • FlightSafety
  • Visual Systems providers
  • Aechelon (IG, databases)
  • Quantum3D (IG, databases)
  • Barco (projectors, displays)
  • VDC (projectors, displays)

53
Educational Paths in Simulation
  • University of Utah
  • University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
  • Texas AM University
  • Old Dominion University (VA)
  • University of Central Florida

54
Educational Paths to Simulation
  • Display Systems
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Physics/Optics
  • Electrical Engineering
  • Image Generation
  • Electrical Engineering
  • Computer Science
  • Database
  • Computer Science
  • Geography/Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
  • Graphic Arts
  • Digital Media

55
Discussion
56
Notes
  • Adapted from presentation to IDS 5717C, UCF,
    March 2006
  • References include those consulted for March 2006
    presentation

57
References
  • http//www.link.com/history.html
  • http//accad.osu.edu/waynec/history/lesson13.html
  • Weinberg, R. Computer Graphics in Support of
    Space Shuttle Simulation. SIGGRAPH, August
    1978, p. 83

58
References
  • Visual Systems Technology Seminar, Evans and
    Sutherland, October 2002
  • http//homepage.ntlworld.com/bleep/SimHist9.html
  • http//www.aechelon.com/media/images_pcnova2.html
  • http//www.sgbent.com/MR1-224.htm

59
References
  • Black, S. Fundamentals of Display Systems for
    Visual Simulation. IMAGE 2003 tutorial
  • http//www.sogitec.fr/en/solutions/projecteurs_cib
    le.htm
  • Introduction to the Hardware Graphics Pipeline,
    http//download.nvidia.com/developer/presentations
    /2004/Eurographics/EG_04_IntroductionToGPU.pdf

60
References
  • http//www.caci.com/mtl/tools/practiss.shtml
  • http//www.peostri.army.mil/PM-CATT/CCTT_Graphics.
    jsp
  • http//www.aechelon.com/products/databases/swus/ve
    gas.html

61
References
  • http//www.terrex.com/groundpics.htm
  • Spuhl, K. Sensor Simulation Fundamentals
    Correlation Considerations When Simulating Sensor
    and Visual Imagery. IMAGE 2003 tutorial
  • http//gis.washington.edu/esrm250/lessons/create_f
    _layers/exercise/index.htmlcreate_line_theme

62
References
  • http//www.terrex.com/aterrain.htm
  • http//www.spaceimaging.com/products/ikonos/index.
    htm
  • http//www.multigen.com/products/database/creator/
    more.shtml

63
References
  • http//www.facets3dmodels.com/
  • http//www.terrex.com/saf.htm
  • http//www.link.com/simusphere.html
  • http//vdcds.com/products/calligraphics.html
  • http//news.sel.sony.com/en/press_room/b2b/broadca
    st_production/display_systems/release/8816.html
  • http//www.leica-geosystems.com/metrology/en/ndef/
    lgs_788.htm
  • http//www.lighthouse3d.com/opengl/viewfrustum/ind
    ex.php?gaplanes
About PowerShow.com