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Human Intelligence and the Brain p. 2601

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Title: Human Intelligence and the Brain p. 2601


1
Human Intelligence and the Brain p. 260-1
  • Fetuss central nervous system disrupted by (at
    doses much lower than those that cause injury to
    an adults brain)
  • toxic chemical pollutants
  • alcohol
  • drugs
  • cigarette smoke

2
Human Intelligence and the Brain p. 260-2
  • How the fetus is affected depends on
  • developmental stage at the time of exposure
  • type and strength of the drug, environmental
    toxin, or radiation

3
Human Intelligence and the Brain p. 261
  • Cognitive functioning of children living in
    poverty diminished by
  • high rates of maternal prenatal complications
  • reduced access to health-promoting resources
  • increased exposure to lead
  • inadequate nutrition
  • inadequate home-based cognitive stimulation

4
Pollution Lowers IQ
  • Research by Perera et al (2009) reported that
    children of mothers exposed to high levels of
    environmental pollutants during pregnancy have a
    four-point drop in their IQs by age 5
  • The exposure was to substances called polycyclic
    aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a by-product of the
    incomplete burning of gas, diesel, oil, and coal.

5
Pollution Lowers IQ
  • An earlier report found that higher prenatal
    exposure to PAHs is associated with lower weight
    and smaller head size at birth and developmental
    delays at age 3.
  • The developing fetal brain is particularly
    vulnerable to neurotoxic chemicals and exposure
    to pollution could cause direct genetic damage.

6
Pollution Lowers IQ
  • We need to reduce these dangerous emissions by,
    for example, reducing diesel truck idling and
    requiring cleaner fuels.
  • Source Perera, F. P., Li, Z., Whyatt, R.,
    Hoepner, L., Wang, S., Camann, D., Rauh, V.
    (2009). Prenatal airborne polycyclic aromatic
    hydrocarbon exposure and child IQ at age 5 years.
    Pediatrics, 124.
  • (Not in text)

7
Life Outcomes and Intelligence pp. 262-1
  • There is a strong relationship between
    intelligence and life outcomes such as economic
    and social competence.
  • Measures of general intelligence predict
    occupational level and job performance better
    than any other characteristic.
  • Intelligence is also related to health and
    longevity.

8
Life Outcomes and Intelligence pp. 262-2
  • Research shows that children who had scored
    higher on intelligence tests at ages 7, 9, or 11
    had fewer adult hospitalizations than those who
    had scored lower

9
Strengths and Limitations of Intelligence Tests
p. 263-1
  • STRENGTHS
  • Predict success in a wider variety of human
    endeavors better than any other measures
    currently in use
  • Reveal the talents of many individuals and
    improve educational opportunities for gifted
    students by placing them in more stimulating
    programs

10
Strengths and Limitations of Intelligence Tests
p. 263-2
  • Provide standardized ways of comparing a childs
    performance with that of other children of
    similar age
  • Measure a childs ability to compete in society
    in ways that have economic and social
    consequences
  • Provide a profile of cognitive strengths and
    weaknesses

11
Strengths and Limitations of Intelligence Tests
p. 263-3
  • Excellent predictors of scholastic achievement
  • Measure the effects of changes associated with
    special programs, treatments, training, and
    recovery from illness
  • Valuable tools in working with children with
    disabilities

12
Strengths and Limitations of Intelligence Tests
p. 263-4
  • LIMITATIONS
  • Provide only a limited understanding of
    intelligence
  • Used to classify children into stereotyped
    categories, thereby possibly limiting their
    freedom to choose fields of study.
  • Knowledge of their IQ may inhibit childrens
    level of aspiration and affect their self-concept

13
Strengths and Limitations of Intelligence Tests
p. 263-5
  • Do not measure the processes underlying a childs
    responses
  • Misused as measures of innate capacity
  • A single number quantifying IQ does not do
    justice to the multidimensional nature of
    intelligence

14
Strengths and Limitations of Intelligence Tests
p. 263-6
  • Limited in predicting nontest or nonacademic
    intellectual activity
  • Cannot capture the complexity and immediacy of
    real-life situations involving the use of
    intelligence
  • Sample only a select number of conditions under
    which intelligent behavior is revealed

15
Strengths and Limitations of Intelligence Tests
p. 263-7
  • Fail to give credit to unconventional, original,
    or novel responses
  • Reflect abilities valued by our culture,
    including verbal ability, concept formation,
    judgment, reasoning, memory, comprehension, and
    spatial ability, but only measure a part of a
    domain that reflects intelligent behavior

16
Strengths and Limitations of Intelligence Tests
p. 263-8
  • Tendency to overinterpret the IQ and fail to
    focus on the whole child

17
WISC-IV
18
Verbal Comprehension
WISC-IV Structure p.266-1
  • Core Subtests
  • Similarities
  • Vocabulary
  • Comprehension
  • Supplemental Subtests
  • Information
  • Word Reasoning

19
Perceptual Reasoning
WISC-IV Structure p.266-2
  • Core Subtests
  • Block Design
  • Picture Concepts
  • Matrix Reasoning
  • Supplemental Subtest
  • Picture Completion

20
Working Memory
WISC-IV Structure p.266-3
  • Core Subtests
  • Digit Span
  • Letter-Number Sequencing
  • Supplemental Subtest
  • Arithmetic

21
Processing Speed
WISC-IV Structure p.266-4
  • Core Subtests
  • Coding
  • Symbol Search
  • Supplemental Subtest
  • Cancellation

22
General Ability Index
  • GAI Composed of
  • Similarities
  • Vocabulary
  • Comprehension
  • Block Design
  • Picture Concepts

23
GAI Canadian Norms 1
  • The GAI can be used as a substitute for the FSIQ
    to determine eligibility for special education
    services and placement classification. (p. 3)
  • Increases flexibility, less sensitive to cases
    where WM and PS are discrepant from VC and/or PR
  • Can be compared to FSIQ

24
GAI Canadian Norms 2
  • Not necessarily a more valid estimate than the
    FSIQ
  • WM and PS are vital to a comprehensive evaluation
    of cognitive ability
  • Excluding WM and PS may give misleading result
  • GAI critical values corrected in December 2008
    report from January 2005 report

25
GAI Canadian Norms 3
  • Source Saklofske, D. H., Zhu, J., Raiford, S.
    E., Weiss, L. G., Rolfhus, E., Coalson, D.
    (2005). General Ability Index Canadian norms.
    Technical Report 4.1.2. Retrieved June 10, 2009,
    from http//pearsonassess.ca/hai/images/sample-and
    -technical-reports/wisc-iv-technical-report-number
    -4-4-1-gai-with-canadian-norms.pdf

26
Process Scores p. 267
  • Block Design No Time Bonus
  • Digit Span Forward
  • Digit Span Backward
  • Longest Digit Span Forward
  • Cancellation Random
  • Cancellation Structured
  • Process scores should never be used to compute
    Indexes or the Full Scale IQ.

27
Proration p. 270-1
  • Acceptable Proration
  • If two of the three Verbal Comprehension core
    subtests are valid
  • If two of the three Perceptual Reasoning core
    subtests are valid
  • Not Acceptable Proration
  • For Working Memory or Processing Speed

28
Proration p. 270-2
  • Prorating is similar to using a short form
  • Proration should be avoided whenever possible
    because it violates the standard test procedure
    and introduces unknown measurement error

29
Test-age Equivalents p. 270
  • Serious psychometric problems but may be useful
  • Can be compared with test-age equivalents from
    other tests
  • May help parents, teachers, and others better
    understand a childs level of intellectual
    functioning
  • More research is needed

30
Table 9-4
  • Test-Retest WISCIV Composite Scores for Five Age
    Groups and Total Group
  • See page 274

31
Table 9-7
  • Summary of Special Group Studies with the WISCIV
  • See page 278

32
Table 9-8
  • Average Correlations Between WISCIV Subtests and
    Composites
  • See page 279

33
Table 9-9
  • Relationship of WISCIV Indexes and IQs to Sex,
    Ethnicity, Parental Education, and Geographic
    Region
  • See page 280

34
Table 9-10
  • Factor Loadings of WISCIV Subtests for 11 Age
    Groups and Total Group Following Principal Axis
    Factor Analysis
  • See pages 282-283

35
Table 9-12
  • WISCIV Subtests as Measures of g
  • See page 285

36
Higher Order Confirmatory Factor Analysis p.
285-1
  • Composites
  • Verbal Comprehension appears to measure verbal
    ability, comprehension, knowledge, and
    crystallized intelligence (Gc) (Keith et al.,
    2006, p. 123).
  • Perceptual Reasoning appears to measure fluid
    reasoning (Gf) as well as visual processing (Gv).

37
Higher Order Confirmatory Factor Analysis p.
285-2
  • Composites
  • Working Memory appears to measure a mixture of
    short-term memory skills (Gsm) and fluid
    reasoning (Keith et al., 2006, p. 123).
  • Processing Speed appears to measure processing
    speed (Gs).

38
Table 9-14
  • WISCIV Subtest and Process Score Scaled-Score
    Ranges by Age
  • See page 287

39
Subtest Substitution (Supplemental Subtest for
Core Subtest) p. 301
  • Information or Word Reasoning may be substituted
    for a core Verbal Comprehension subtest.
  • Picture Completion may be substituted for a core
    Perceptual Reasoning subtest.
  • Arithmetic may be substituted for a core Working
    Memory subtest.
  • Cancellation may be substituted for a core
    Processing Speed subtest.

40
Subtest Substitution (Questions) p. 302-1
  • How can the norms based only on the core subtests
    be used when supplemental subtests, which have
    different psychometric properties, are
    substituted for core subtests?
  • What are the reliability and validity of the
    Indexes and Full Scale IQ when a substitution is
    made?

41
Subtest Substitution (Questions) p. 302-2
  • What confidence intervals can be used for the
    Indexes and Full Scale IQ when a substitution is
    made?
  • Why are only two substitutions permitted for the
    Full Scale?
  • Why is only one substitution permitted for each
    Composite?

42
Subtest Substitution (Questions) p. 302-3
  • What evidence is there that Full Scale IQs are
    less reliable and valid when three, four, or five
    substitutions are made?

43
Subtest Substitution (Correlations with
Composites) p. 303-1
  • Verbal Comprehension Index
  • Information .77
  • Word Reasoning .70
  • Similarities .89
  • Vocabulary .91
  • Comprehension .86

44
Subtest Substitution (Correlations with
Composites) p. 303-2
  • Perceptual Reasoning Index
  • Picture Completion .57
  • Block Design .81
  • Matrix Reasoning .77
  • Picture Concepts .84

45
Subtest Substitution (Correlations with
Composites) p. 303-3
  • Working Memory Index
  • Arithmetic .57
  • Digit Span .86
  • LetterNumber Sequencing .86

46
Subtest Substitution (Correlations with
Composites) p. 303-4
  • Processing Speed Index
  • Cancellation .26
  • Coding .88
  • Symbol Search .87

47
Exhibit 9-3
  • Case Study of the Effects of Substitutions on the
    Indexes and the
  • Full Scale IQ
  • See page 304

48
Short Forms p. 307
  • RECOMMENDATION
  • Do not use a short form if you need a
    classification for a clinical or
    psychoeducational purpose or need information for
    programming decisions.

49
Choosing WISC-IV or WPPSI-III p. 308
  • RECOMMENDATION
  • The WISCIV should be used with children 6-0 to
    7-3 years of age at all ability levels.

50
Helpful Tables for Interpreting Wechsler Tests 1
  • Table D-1 Percentile ranks and qualitative
    descriptions (p. 136)
  • Table D-2 Confidence intervals based on
    estimated true scores (p. 137)
  • Table D-3 Interpretive rationales for subtests
    (p. 155)
  • Table D-4 Definitions of CHC subtests (p. 165)

51
Helpful Tables for Interpreting Wechsler Tests 2
  • Table D-5 CHC abilities (p. 166)
  • Table D-6 Interpretive rationales for composites
    and scales (p. 168)
  • Table D-7 Suggested remediation activities (p.
    171)
  • Table D-8 Reporting to parents (p. 172)
  • Table D-9 Modified instructions for hearing
    impaired (p. 175)
  • Table D-10 Physical abilities necessary and
    their adaptation (p. 183)

52
Strengths of the WISC-IV pp. 310-311-1
  • Excellent standardization
  • Good overall psychometric properties
  • Useful diagnostic information
  • Inclusion of Process scores
  • Good administration procedures

53
Strengths of the WISC-IV pp. 310-311-2
  • Good manuals and interesting test materials
  • Helpful scoring criteria
  • Usefulness for children with disabilities
  • Extensive research and clinical literature with
    prior versions of the test

54
Limitations of the WISC-IV p. 311-1
  • No conversion tables for computing Indexes and
    Full Scale IQs when supplemental subtests are
    substituted for core subtests
  • No psychometric basis given for the requirement
    that a child must obtain six raw scores of 1 in
    order for a Full Scale IQ to be computed

55
Limitations of the WISC-IV p. 311-2
  • Use of 1,100 children instead of 2,200 children
    to standardize Arithmetic
  • Limited range of scores for children who are
    extremely low functioning or children who are
    extremely high functioning

56
Limitations of the WISC-IV p. 311-3
  • Limited criterion validity studies.
  • Possible difficulties in scoring responses
  • Somewhat large practice effects
  • Poor quality of some test materials
  • Occasionally confusing guidelines
  • Inclusion of Cancellation as a subtest

57
Examples of Profile Types on WISC-IV p. 367
  • All subtest scaled scores from 14 to 16
  • All subtest scaled scores from 2 to 4
  • All subtest scaled scores from 3 to 16
  • All subtest scaled scores from 8 to 12

58
Interindividual Comparison p. 367
  • Subtest scaled scores of
  • 13 to 19 always indicate a strength
  • 8 to 12 always indicate average ability
  • 1 to 7 always indicate a weakness

59
Developing Hypotheses Based on Significant Index
Differences p. 371-1
  • POSSIBLE HYPOTHESES
  • Interest patterns
  • Cognitive style
  • Deficiencies or strengths in processing
    information
  • Deficiencies or strengths in modes of expression

60
Developing Hypotheses Based on Significant Index
Differences p. 371-2
  • POSSIBLE HYPOTHESES
  • Deficiencies or strengths in the ability to work
    under time pressure (such as the time constraints
    on Perceptual Reasoning subtests)
  • Sensory deficiencies
  • Brain injury

61
Developing Hypotheses Based on Significant Index
Differences p. 371-3
  • POSSIBLE HYPOTHESES
  • Behavioral or emotional problems (such as limited
    motivation, rebelliousness, or anxiety)
  • A home or school environment in which language or
    materials differ from those commonly used in the
    wider culture
  • Temporary inefficiencies

62
Table 11-3
  • Suggested Major Abilities and Background Factors
    Associated with WISCIV Composites
  • See page 373

63
Table 11-6
  • Suggested Abilities and Background Factors
    Associated with WISCIV Subtests
  • See page 380

64
Successive Level Approach to Interpreting the
WISC-IV p. 387
  • Level 1Full Scale IQ
  • Level 2Indexes
  • Level 3Subtests within each Composite
  • Level 4Intersubtest variability (subtest
    scaled-score differences and Process scaled-score
    differences)
  • Level 5Intrasubtest variability
  • Level 6Qualitative analysis

65
Steps in Analyzing a Protocol pp. 387-388
  • AREAS TO ANALYZE
  • Reliability and validity
  • Composites
  • Statistically significant differences
  • Qualitative features

66
WISC-IV Full Scale IQ and Indexes p. 390
  • WISC-IV Full Scale IQ is not an arithmetic
    average of the four Indexes
  • EXAMPLES
  • VCI 100, PRI 100, WMI 99, and PSI 100
    Full Scale IQ 101
  • VCI 61, PRI 61, WMI 62, and PSI 62 Full
    Scale IQ 52
  • VCI 140, PRI 141, WMI 141, and PSI 141
    Full Scale IQ 151

67
(No Transcript)
68
WAIS-IV
69
Verbal Comprehension
WAIS-IV Structure 1
  • Core Subtests
  • Similarities
  • Vocabulary
  • Information
  • Supplemental Subtest
  • Comprehension

70
Perceptual Reasoning
WAIS-IV Structure 2
  • Core Subtests
  • Block Design
  • Matrix Reasoning
  • Visual Puzzles
  • Supplemental Subtests
  • Figure Weights
  • Picture Completion

71
Working Memory
WAIS-IV Structure 3
  • Core Subtests
  • Digit Span
  • Arithmetic
  • Supplemental Subtest
  • Letter-Number Sequencing

72
Processing Speed
WAIS-IV Structure 4
  • Core Subtests
  • Symbol Search
  • Coding
  • Supplemental Subtest
  • Cancellation

73
WAIS-IV Age Declines 1
  • Greatest Declines after Age 70
  • Processing Speed Symbol Search and Coding
  • Perceptual Reasoning Visual Puzzles, Block
    Design, Matrix Reasoning, and Picture Completion

74
WAIS-IV Age Declines 2
  • Least Declines after Age 70
  • Verbal Comprehension Vocabulary, Information,
    Similarities and Comprehension
  • Working Memory Digit Span and Arithmetic

75
WAIS-IV Special Group Studies 1
76
WAIS-IV Special Group Studies 2
77
WAIS-IV Special Group Studies 3
78
WAIS-IV Measures of g 1
  • GOOD
  • Vocabulary
  • Similarities
  • Comprehension
  • Arithmetic
  • Information
  • Figure Weights
  • Digit Span

79
WAIS-IV Measures of g 2
  • FAIR
  • Block Design
  • Matrix Reasoning
  • Visual Puzzles
  • Letter-Number Sequencing
  • Coding
  • Picture Completion
  • Symbol Search

80
WAIS-IV Measures of g 3
  • POOR
  • Cancellation

81
Average Correlations Between WAIS-IV Subtests and
Full Scales 1
82
Average Correlations Between WAIS-IV Subtests and
Full Scales 2
83
Average Correlations Between WAIS-IV Subtests and
Full Scales 3
84
Average Correlations Between WAIS-IV Subtests and
Full Scales 4
85
WAIS-IV New Subtests 1
  • Visual Puzzles
  • Description Consists of having the individual
    select the three puzzle pieces, from a choice of
    six pieces, that when combined form a completed
    puzzle.
  • Abilities measured Visual processing, Spatial
    relations, Closure speed, Visualization

86
(No Transcript)
87
WAIS-IV New Subtests 2
  • Visual Puzzles (Continued)
  • Reliability .89
  • Correlation with Perceptual Reasoning .86
  • Correlation with Full Scale .70

88
WAIS-IV New Subtests 3
  • Figure Weights
  • Description
  • Consists of individually presented pictures of a
    scale with weights on one side and missing
    weights on the other side.
  • Individual must balance the scale by selecting
    from five response options that one that will
    balance the scale.

89
(No Transcript)
90
WAIS-IV New Subtests 4
  • Figure Weights (Cont.)
  • Abilities measured Fluid reasoning, Visual
    processing, Induction, Quantitative reasoning,
    Visualization

91
WAIS-IV New Subtests 3
  • Cancellation
  • Description
  • Consists of two, two-page spreads of colored
    shapes.
  • Individual must mark certain colors and shapes as
    directed by the examiner.

92
(No Transcript)
93
WAIS-IV New Subtests 5
  • Cancellation (Cont.)
  • Reliability .74
  • Correlation with Processing Speed .49
  • Correlation with Full Scale .44

94
WPPSI-III
95
WPPSI-III Structure for Ages 2-6 to 3-11 p.
404-1
Verbal
  • Core Subtests
  • Receptive Vocabulary
  • Information
  • Supplemental Subtest
  • Picture Naming

96
WPPSI-III Structure for Ages 2-6 to 3-11 p.
404-2
Performance
  • Core Subtests
  • Block Design
  • Object Assembly

97
WPPSI-III Structure for Ages 2-6 to 3-11 p.
404-3
General Language Composite
  • Receptive Vocabulary
  • Picture Naming

98
WPPSI-III Structure for Ages 4-0 to 7-3 p.
405-1
Verbal
  • Core Subtests
  • Information
  • Vocabulary
  • Word Reasoning
  • Supplemental Subtests
  • Comprehension
  • Similarities

99
WPPSI-III Structure for Ages 4-0 to 7-3 p.
405-2
Performance
  • Core Subtests
  • Block Design
  • Matrix Reasoning
  • Picture Concepts
  • Supplemental Subtests
  • Picture Completion
  • Object Assembly

100
WPPSI-III Structure for Ages 4-0 to 7-3 p.
405-3
Processing Speed
  • Core Subtest
  • Coding
  • Supplemental Subtest
  • Symbol Search

101
WPPSI-III Structure for Ages 4-0 to 7-3 p.
405-4
General Language Composite
  • Optional Subtests
  • Receptive Vocabulary
  • Picture Naming

102
Table 12-2
  • Range of and Average Internal Consistency
    Reliabilities, Test-Retest Reliabilities, and
    Standard Errors of Measurement for 14 WPPSIIII
    Subtests and Five Composites
  • See page 408

103
Table 12-3
  • Range and Median Internal Consistency
    Reliabilities of WPPSIIII Subtests and
    Composites in Each of the Nine Ages Groups and
    the Average
  • See page 409

104
Table 12-4
  • Test-Retest WPPSIIII Composite Scores for Three
    Age Groups and Total Group
  • See page 410

105
Table 12-6
  • Summary of WPPSIIII Criterion Validity Studies
  • See page 412

106
Table 12-7
  • Summary of Special Group Studies with the
    WPPSIIII
  • See page 413

107
Table 12-8
  • Average Correlations Between WPPSIIII Subtests
    and Composites for Ages 2-6 to 3-11
  • See page 414

108
Table 12-9
  • Average Correlations Between WPPSIIII Subtests
    and Composites for Ages 4-0 to 7-3
  • See page 415

109
Table 12-10
  • Relationship of WPPSIIII IQs and Composite
    Scores to Sex, Ethnicity, Parental Education, and
    Geographic Region
  • See page 416

110
Table 12-11
  • Factor Loadings of WPPSIIII Subtests for Ages
    2-6 to 3-11 Following Principal Axis Factor
    Analysis
  • See page 417

111
Table 12-12
  • Factor Loadings of WPPSIIII Subtests for Ages
    4-0 to 7-31 Following Principal Axis Factor
    Analysis
  • See page 418

112
Table 12-14
  • WPPSIIII Subtests as Measures of g
  • See page 420

113
Table 12-16
  • WPPSIIII Subtest and Scaled-Score Ranges by Age
  • See page 422

114
Table 12-17
  • WPPSIIII IQ Ranges for Verbal, Performance, Full
    Scale, and Processing Speed Composites, for Ages
    2-6 to 3-11 and 4-0 to 7-3
  • See page 423

115
Strengths of the WPPSI-III pp. 435-436
  • Excellent standardization
  • Good overall psychometric properties
  • Useful diagnostic information
  • Good administration procedures
  • Good manuals and interesting test materials
  • Helpful scoring criteria
  • Usefulness for children with some disabilities

116
Limitations on the WPPSI-III p. 436-1
  • Severely limited breadth of coverage at ages 2-6
    to 3-11
  • Limited breadth of coverage at ages 4-0 to 7-3
  • No conversion tables for computing Composite
    scores and Full Scale IQs when supplemental
    subtests are substituted for core subtests

117
Limitations on the WPPSI-III p. 436-2
  • No psychometric basis for the requirement that a
    child must obtain a certain number of raw scores
    of 1 in order for a Full Scale IQ to be computed
  • Limited range of scores for children who are
    extremely low functioning or children who are
    extremely high functioning

118
Limitations on the WPPSI-III p. 436-3
  • Variable ranges of subtest scaled scores at ages
    4-0 to 7-3
  • Limited criterion validity studies
  • Possible difficulties in scoring responses
  • Somewhat large practice effects
  • Poor quality of some test materials
  • Occasional confusing guidelines

119
Table 13-1
  • Suggested Major Abilities and Background Factors
    Associated with WPPSIIII Composites
  • See page 482

120
Table 13-2
  • Suggested Abilities and Background Factors
    Associated with WPPSIIII Subtests
  • See page 485

121
(No Transcript)
122
STANFORD-BINET FIFTH EDITION
  • CHAPTER 16

123
SB5 Structure
  • Full Scale, Factor Indexes, Subtests, and
    Activities on SB5
  • See page 569

124
SB5 Special Terms pp. 568-569
  • Routing procedure Administering the Nonverbal
    Fluid Reasoning subtest and Verbal Knowledge
    subtest
  • Testlet All items on a subtest at one particular
    level of difficulty
  • Activity All items of a particular type

125
Table 16-2
  • Average Internal Consistency Reliability
    Coefficients, Test-Retest Reliability
    Coefficients, and Standard Errors of Measurement
    for SB5 Subtests, Factor Indexes, and IQs
  • See page 571

126
Table 16-3
  • Range of Internal Consistency Reliabilities of
    SB5 Subtests for 23 Age Groups and Total Group
  • See page 572

127
Table 16-5
  • Summary of SB5 Criterion Validity Studies
  • See page 574

128
SB5 Factor Analysis (p. 575)
  • Several Factor Analytic studies find
  • Strong support for a general factor
  • One study gave no support for either a two-factor
    model or five-factor model
  • One study gave some support for a verbal and
    nonverbal factor at younger ages but not at older
    ages

129
Table 16-6
  • Summary of Special Group Studies with the SB5
  • See page 576

130
Table 16-7
  • Average Correlations Between SB5 Subtests, Factor
    Indexes, and IQs
  • See page 577

131
Table 16-8
  • SB5 Subtests as Measures of g
  • See page 577

132
Table 16-10
  • SB5 Subtest Scaled-Score Ranges by Age
  • See page 579

133
Table 16-11
  • Range of SB5 Factor Index Scores, Nonverbal IQs,
    Verbal IQs, and Full Scale IQs by Age
  • See page 580

134
Successive Level Approach to Interpreting the SB5
p. 597
  • Level 1Full Scale IQ
  • Level 2Nonverbal IQ and Verbal IQ
  • Level 3Factor Index scores
  • Level 4Subtest within Domains
  • Level 5Intersubtest variability
  • Level 6Qualitative analysis

135
Steps in Analyzing a Protocol pp. 598-599
  • AREAS TO ANALYZE
  • Reliability and validity
  • Composites
  • Significant differences
  • Qualitative features

136
Helpful Tables for Interpreting SB5
  • Table E-1 Interpretive rationales for subtests
    (p. 188)
  • Table E-2 Definitions of CHC factors (p. 192)
  • Table E-3 CHC subtests (p. 193)
  • Table E-4 CHC factors (p. 194)

137
Strengths of the SB5 p. 599
  • Excellent standardization
  • Good reliability and concurrent validity
  • Good Technical Manual and Interpretive Manual
  • Good test materials
  • Usefulness for individuals with some disabilities

138
Limitations of the SB5 p. 599
  • Questionable construct validity
  • Complex, flexible, and somewhat imprecise
    administrative procedures
  • Complex organization of the test
  • Inconvenient location of administrative guidelines

139
DAS-II
  • CHAPTER 17

140
DAS-II Structure p. 606
  • Early Years Battery
  • Lower-level Ages 2-6 to 3-5
  • Upper-level Ages 3-6 to 6-11
  • School-Age Battery
  • Ages 7-0 to 17-11

141
DAS-II Terms Referring to Age Ranges p. 610-1
  • Usual age range Ages at which a subtest is
    ordinarily administered
  • Extended age range Ages at which a core subtest
    is administered for additional diagnostic
    information. Use
  • To substitute for a spoiled subtest
  • When children have difficulty passing subtests
    appropriate for their age
  • When children continue to pass all or most of the
    items appropriate for their age

142
DAS-II Terms Referring to Age Ranges p. 610-2
  • Out-of-level age range Ages at which a subtest
    can be administered to children who function at
    unusually high or low levels for their age
    (usually diagnostic subtests)

143
Table 17-1
  • Usual, Extended, and Out-of-Level Age Ranges of
    Core and Diagnostic Subtests on the DASII
  • See page 606

144
Figure 17-1
  • Structure of Core Clusters on
  • the DASII Early Years Battery
  • See page 609

145
Figure 17-2
  • Structure of Core Clusters
  • on the DASII School-Age Battery
  • See page 609

146
Figure 17-3
  • Structure of Diagnostic Clusters on the DASII
    Early Years Battery
  • See page 610

147
Figure 17-4
  • Structure of Diagnostic Clusters on the DASII
    School-Age Battery
  • See page 611

148
Table 17-3
  • Average Internal Consistency Reliabilities,
    Standard Errors of Measurement, and Test-Retest
    Reliabilities for 20 DASII Subtests, Six
    Clusters, and Two Composites
  • See page 614

149
Table 17-4
  • Range and Median Internal Consistency
    Reliabilities of DASII Early Years Battery
    Subtests at Seven Age Groups and the Average
  • See page 615

150
Table 17-5
  • Range and Median Internal Consistency
    Reliabilities of DASII School-Age Battery
    Subtests at 11 Age Groups and the Average
  • See page 615

151
Table 17-7
  • Summary of Criterion Validity Studies Comparing
    DASII with Other Measures of Intelligence
  • See page 617

152
Table 17-8
  • Summary of Criterion Validity Studies Comparing
    DASII with Measures of Achievement
  • See page 618

153
Table 17-9
  • Summary of Special Group Studies
  • with the DASII
  • See page 619

154
Table 17-10
  • Average Correlations Between DASII Subtests and
    Clusters and GCA
  • See page 620

155
DAS-II Factor Analysis (pp. 621-622-1)
  • Lower-level Early Years Battery
  • Three factors found that are difficult to define
  • Upper-level Early Years Battery
  • Seven factors found but some are difficult to
    define
  • Clear support for Verbal, Nonverbal, Spatial,
    Working Memory and Processing Speed
  • No support for School readiness

156
DAS-II Factor Analysis (pp. 621-622-2)
  • School-Age Battery
  • Six factors found but some are difficult to
    define
  • Clear support for Verbal and Working Memory
    factors
  • Nonverbal Reasoning factor joined with Special
    Ability factor
  • Processing Speed factor not clear
  • Visual-memory factor not clear

157
Table 17-11
  • DASII Subtests as Measures of g
  • See page 622

158
Table 17-12
  • Ages at Which Core and Diagnostic Subtests Have a
    Full Range of T Scores (10 to 90)
  • See page 623

159
Proration on DAS-II p. 623
  • We strongly recommend not prorating, because the
    childs score on the missing subtest might have
    been much higher or lower than scores on the
    other subtests in the Composite

160
Table 17-13
  • DASII Cluster T-Score Ranges by Lowest and
    Highest Ages in the Respective Battery
  • See page 624

161
Helpful Tables for Interpreting DAS-II
  • Table F-1 Interpretive rationales for subtests
    (p. 202)
  • Table F-2 Definitions of CHC factors (p. 210)
  • Table F-3 CHC core subtests (p. 212)
  • Table F-4 CHC diagnostic subtests (p. 213)
  • Table F-5 Interpreting composites and clusters
    (p. 214)

162
DAS-II Profile Analysis p. 659
  • CATEGORIZATION OF SUBTEST SCALED SCORES
  • 60 to 90 always indicate a strength
  • 41 to 59 always indicate average ability
  • 10 to 40 always indicate a weakness

163
Table 17-14
  • Suggested Major Abilities and Background Factors
    Associated with DASII Clusters and Composites
  • See page 660

164
Table 17-15
  • Suggested Major Abilities and Background Factors
    Associated with DASII Core Subtests
  • See page 661

165
Table 17-16
  • Suggested Major Abilities and Background Factors
    Associated with DASII Diagnostic Subtests
  • See page 662

166
Developing Hypotheses Based on Significant
Cluster Score Differences p. 665-1
  • POSSIBLE HYPOTHESES
  • Interest patterns
  • Cognitive style
  • Deficiencies or strengths in processing
    information
  • Deficiencies or strengths in modes of expression

167
Developing Hypotheses Based on Significant
Cluster Score Differences p. 665-2
  • POSSIBLE HYPOTHESES
  • Deficiencies or strengths in the ability to work
    under time pressure
  • Sensory or motor deficiencies
  • Brain injury

168
Developing Hypotheses Based on Significant
Cluster Score Differences p. 665-3
  • POSSIBLE HYPOTHESES
  • Behavioral or emotional problems (such as limited
    motivation, rebelliousness, or anxiety)
  • A home or school environment in which language or
    materials differ from those commonly used in the
    wider culture
  • Temporary inefficiencies

169
Strengths of the DAS-II pp. 667-668-1
  • Excellent standardization
  • Good overall psychometric properties
  • Useful diagnostic information
  • Good administration procedures
  • Good manuals and interesting test materials

170
Strengths of the DAS-II pp. 667-668-2
  • Helpful scoring criteria
  • Usefulness for children with hearing disabilities
  • Norms for very high or very low functioning
    children

171
Limitations of the DAS-II p. 668
  • Severely limited breadth of coverage at ages 2-6
    to 3-5
  • Lack of a comparable battery throughout the age
    ranges covered
  • Variable range of scores
  • Difficulty in scoring responses
  • Only two subtests per cluster
  • Complexity of the organization of the test,
    administration guidelines, and Record Form

172
SPECIALIZED MEASURES
  • CHAPTER 18

173
Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler
Development-Third Edition p. 677
  • FIVE SCALES
  • Cognitive Scale
  • Language Scale
  • Motor Scale
  • Social-Emotional Scale
  • Adaptive Behavior Scale

174
KABC-II pp. 682-683
  • FIVE SCALES
  • Sequential Processing/Short-Term Memory Scale
  • Simultaneous Processing/Visual Processing Scale
  • Planning Ability/Fluid Reasoning Scale
  • Learning Ability/Long-Term Storage and Retrieval
    Scale
  • Knowledge Scale/Crystallized Ability Scale

175
KBIT-2 pp. 684-685
  • STRUCTURE
  • Verbal Score
  • Verbal Knowledge
  • Riddles
  • Nonverbal Score
  • Matrices

176
RIAS p. 688-1
  • STRUCTURE
  • Verbal Intelligence
  • Guess What
  • Verbal Reasoning
  • Nonverbal Intelligence
  • Odd-Item Out
  • Whats Missing

177
RIAS p. 688-2
  • STRUCTURE
  • Composite Memory
  • Verbal Memory
  • Nonverbal Memory
  • Composite Intelligence Index Verbal
    Intelligence Nonverbal Intelligence

178
RIAS Validity p. 689
  • Factor analysis by Nelson, Canivez, Lindstron,
    and Hatt (2007) reported the following
  • No verbal factor
  • No nonverbal factor
  • No memory factor
  • RIAS has a general intelligence factor

179
WISC-IV Integrated pp. 693-696
  • FOUR DOMAINS
  • Verbal
  • Perceptual
  • Working Memory
  • Processing Speed

180
WISC-IV Integrated p. 695
  • EXAMPLES OF RESTRICTED RANGES OF SCALED SCORES
    (Possible range of 1 to 19)
  • Picture Vocabulary Multiple Choice has a
    scaled-score range of 1 to 15 at ages 15-4 to
    15-7
  • Elithorn Mazes No Time Bonus has a scaled-score
    range of 3 to 16 at ages 10-8 to 10-11 and a
    scaled-score range of 1 to 13 at ages 14-8 to
    14-11

181
WISC-IV Integrated p. 695
  • LetterNumber Sequencing Process Approach has a
    scaled-score range of 6 to 19 at ages 7-0 to 7-3

182
WISC-IV Integrated Comment p. 696
  • Like a normed testing-of-limits
  • Not an independent instrument for assessing
    overall cognitive ability
  • Does not provide an in-depth evaluation of
    neuropsychological functioning
  • Be aware of low reliabilities and restricted
    ranges of scaled scores for some subtests

183
Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability p. 696
  • SIX SUBTESTS
  • Matrices
  • Coding
  • Object Assembly
  • Recognition
  • Spatial Span
  • Picture Arrangement

184
WJ III COG p. 698-1
NONUNIFORM RANGE OF STANDARD SCORES
  • Example 1 A 15-year-old with 1 point on 14 tests
  • GIA 1
  • Auditory Working Memory 27
  • Analysis-Synthesis 40

185
WJ III COG p. 698-2
NONUNIFORM RANGE OF STANDARD SCORES
  • Example 2 A 15-year-old with the highest score
    on 14 tests
  • GIA 177
  • Concept Formation 129
  • Incomplete Words 200

186
WJ III COG p. 700
  • ITEM GRADIENTS
  • Research by Krasa (2007)
  • Results
  • Only 7 of 20 cognitive tests have adequate item
    gradients
  • Remaining 13 tests are too steeply graded
  • Conclusion
  • The 13 tests provide less sensitive measures of
    ability

187
Informal Assessment of Multiple Intelligences p.
700
  • See Table G-7 on page 243 in the Resource Guide

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191
REPORT WRITING
  • CHAPTER 19

192
Table 19-1
  • Questions and Topics to Consider in Preparing a
    Psychological or Psychoeducational Report
  • See page 706

193
Recommendations p. 714-1
  • QUESTIONS
  • Representativeness of findings
  • Generalizability of findings
  • Consideration of all relevant factors
  • Childs eligibility for special programs
  • Type of intervention program needed
  • Goals of intervention program

194
Recommendations p. 714-2
  • Using childs strengths
  • Involving family members
  • Possibility of implementing recommendations
  • Who will carry out recommendations?
  • Clarity of recommendations

195
Recommendations p. 714-3
  • Detailed sufficiently?
  • Further evaluations?
  • Follow-up evaluations?

196
Table 19-3
  • Examples of School-Based Interventions
  • See page 729

197
Table 19-5
  • Checklist for Accuracy and Completeness of an
    Assessment Report
  • See page 743

198
Table 19-6
  • Evaluation Form for Psychological or
    Psychoeducational Reports
  • See page 752

199
Spelling Chequer p.742-1
  • Eye halve a spelling chequer
  • It came with my pea sea
  • It plainly marques four my revue
  • Miss steaks eye kin knot sea.
  • Eye strike a key and type a word
  • And weight four it two say
  • Weather eye am wrong oar write
  • It shows me strait a weigh.

200
Spelling Chequer p.742-2
  • As soon as a mist ache is maid
  • It nose bee fore two long
  • And eye can put the error rite
  • Its rare lea ever wrong.
  • Eye have run this poem threw it
  • I am shore your pleased two no
  • Its letter perfect awl the weigh
  • My chequer tolled me sew.

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Children Learn What They Live by Dorothy Law
Nolte 1
  • If children live with criticism,    
               They learn to condemn.           If
    children live with hostility,                They
    learn to fight.           If children live with
    ridicule,                They learn to be
    shy.           If children live with shame,     
              They learn to feel guilty.           If
    children live with encouragement,               
    They learn confidence.

205
Children Learn What They Live by Dorothy Law
Nolte 2
  • If children live with
    tolerance,                They learn to be
    patient.           If children live with
    praise,                They learn to
    appreciate.           If children live with
    acceptance,                They learn to
    love.           If children live with
    approval,                They learn to like
    themselves.

206
Children Learn What They Live by Dorothy Law
Nolte 3
  • If children live with
    honesty,                They learn
    truthfulness.           If children live with
    security,                They learn to have faith
    in
  • themselves and others.       
       If children live with friendliness,           
    They learn the world is a nice
  • place in which to live.
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