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Systems Engineering


Systems Engineering. Goddard's GPR Guideline, Mission Concept Studies, and ... to sail beyond the sunset, and the baths. of all the western stars, until I die. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Systems Engineering

Systems Engineering Goddard's GPR Guideline,
Mission Concept Studies, and Support Tools
John Azzolini Systems Engineering Services and
Advanced Concepts Branch September 2005
  • A Brief Overview Of GPR 7120.5A Concepts
  • An Examination Of The Pre-phase A Concept Study
    To Illustrate The Guidelines
  • A Demonstration Of A Systems Engineering
    Validation Support Tool

Overview of GPR 7120.5A
  • What is the GPR?
  • A practical definition of what should be done as
    a part of good systems engineering practice
  • Based on the NASA Systems Engineering Handbook
  • Incorporates principles of industry systems
    engineering standards
  • Why do we have it?
  • Correct deficiencies in the execution of systems
    engineering. (Many of the root causes of
    Aerospace Industry failures were traced to poor
    systems engineering)
  • Describe what constitutes good systems
  • Improve uniformity of systems engineering in
    completeness and quality
  • How can it be useful?
  • Serves as a set of reminders for what should be
  • Provides guidance for establishing a project
    unique systems engineering plan
  • Provide common understanding and expectations
    within the Goddard systems engineering community

Overview of GPR 7120.5A
  • Principles
  • Encourage a Team Approach
  • Cover full mission life-cycle
  • Define the whats
  • Show product maturity over life-cycle
  • Stress Validation
  • Keep good practices of the past

Overview of GPR 7120.5A
  • Document Contents
  • Preface Purpose, Applicability, Authority,
    References, Cancellation, Safety, Training,
    Records, Metrics, Definitions
  • Roles and Responsibilities
  • Communications
  • Key Systems Engineering Functions
  • Configuration Management and Documentation
  • Systems Engineering Management Plan
  • App A - Systems Engineering Requirements
  • App B - System Engineering Management Plan
  • App C - Tailoring Guidelines

Overview of GPR 7120.5A
  • Roles And Responsibilities
  • Project or study manager teams with Mission
    Systems Engineer
  • Mission Systems Engineer coordinates and
    facilitates team
  • SEMP describes details

Overview of GPR 7120.5A
Overview of GPR 7120.5A
  • Communications
  • Systems Engineering is a Team Activity
  • The Mission System Engineer facilitates and
    coordinates team effort
  • Solutions converge when decisions are made
  • Validation is the job of all team members

Overview of GPR 7120.5A
The organization of information, to understand
our goals,
  • Key Systems Engineering Functions
  • Understanding the Objectives
  • Operations Concept Development
  • Architecture and Design Development
  • Requirements Identification and Management
  • Validation and Verification
  • Interfaces and ICDs
  • Mission Environments
  • Technical Resource Budget Tracking
  • Risk Management
  • System Milestone Reviews

and to systematically achieve them .
Overview of GPR 7120.5A
Maintaining information which accurately reflects
our decisions
  • Configuration Management and Documentation
  • Identify information products which must be
  • Use project CM system to maintain
  • Single point of configuration
  • Change control at the appropriate time

to assure integrated success .
Overview of GPR 7120.5A
Plans are nothing -
  • Systems Engineering Management Plan
  • What, who, when, where, how
  • An active plan, it is updated and used to plan
  • Products defined
  • Tasks defined
  • Schedule maintained
  • Costs maintained

planning is everything Dwight Eisenhower.
(No Transcript)
Mission Concept Study
  • Back to the SE functions
  • Understanding the Objectives
  • Operations Concept Development
  • Architecture and Design Development
  • Requirements Identification and Management
  • Validation and Verification
  • Interfaces and ICDs
  • Mission Environments
  • Technical Resource Budget Tracking
  • Risk Management
  • System Milestone Reviews
  • What is known? What needs to be known?
  • Lets start at the very beginning

Mission Concept Study
All the worst mistakes
  • Mission Objectives
  • Mission Needs is a better term

are made the first day Anon.
Mission Concept Study
Mission Needs for Other NASA Mission Types
Mission Concept Study
Design Specification and Validation Flows
Mission Concept Study
Mission Design
  • Payload Concept

depends on payload design.
Mission Concept Study
Partitioning of functionality
  • Mission Design

between space and ground is made here.
Mission Concept Study
And now
  • System Design

Instrument Accommodation Requirements
Mission System Requirements
Spacecraft Design Ground System Design Launch
Mission Architecture
Mission Operations Concept
system design can proceed.
Mission Concept Study
A continuing validation of products
Verification and Validation
  • Validation -
  • Assuring that the design is correct (Did we
    build the right system?)
  • Validation of mission needs flow-down (flow of
    authority) (necessary)
  • Validation of design compliance to needs
  • Functionality
  • Performance Analysis
  • Verification -
  • Assuring that the implementation is correct (Did
    we build the system right?)
  • Testing, analysis, and inspection
  • Verification of function and performance
  • Verification of implementation
  • Verification of operations
  • Note Many people (erroneously, in my opinion)
    call end-item operational verification
    Validation Pshaw!

keeps the team coordinated.
Mission Concept Study
Putting it all together
Mission Needs
Mission Design
System Design
for a complete validation of design.
Mission Concept Study
Good interface requirements and interface
control documents
Interface Requirements and ICDs
Interface Requirements Functional Performance Stan
dards Compliance Interface Control
Documents Function Form Specifications
Properties Covered Mechanical Electrical Thermal P
ower Ground
allow decoupling of implementation efforts.
Mission Concept Study
Determine mission environments early
Mission Environments
  • Launch Environment
  • GEVS
  • Mechanical Sine, Sine Sweep, Acoustic
  • Electrical - EMI, EMC
  • Shock
  • External RF
  • External Space Environment
  • Atomic Oxygen
  • Radiation TID
  • Radiation SEE
  • Thermal Cycling
  • Power Cycling
  • Internal Environment
  • Grounding
  • Noise
  • Power Surges

and apply uniformly.
Mission Concept Study
Everything depends on
  • Mission Technical Resources
  • Mass Affects launch margin, ACS, propellant
  • Power Affects mass, thermal dissipation
  • Thermal Affects Alignment, Life, calibration
  • Attitude Affects measurement resolution, image
  • Position Affects orbit dependent aspect
  • Data Affects bandwidth, link margin, storage
  • RF Affects power, mass
  • Essentially all the things where margins are

everything old systems engineering adage.
Mission Concept Study
Mission risks
  • Mission Risks
  • Safety Risks
  • Hazard analyses are the prime method to identify
    safety risks
  • Project management should understand and manage
    safety risks
  • Performance Risks
  • FMEA, FTA, RBD and PRA are good tools here
  • Sound design practices, simple robust designs,
    and adequate peer review
  • High to low risks often on a logarithmic scale
  • Project management should understand and manage
    performance risks
  • Programmatic Risks
  • Schedule, Cost
  • Classical FMEA, FTA, RBD do not apply here,
  • Communication and continuous assessment of
  • High to low risks often on a linear scale
  • Element lead and/or project management has
    responsibility for managing programmatic risks

are of three distinct types.
Mission Concept Study
  • Product Maturity and Reviews

A Systems EngineeringValidation Support Tool
Caveat A fool with a tool is still a fool
In closing
. . . Come my friends, tis not too late to seek
a newer world.Push off, and sitting well in
order smitethe surrounding furrows for my
purpose holdsto sail beyond the sunset, and the
bathsof all the western stars, until I die. -
A. Lord Tennyson, Ulysses