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A Teachers Toolbox

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Title: A Teachers Toolbox


1
A Teachers Toolbox
How do I hit all levels at once?
multiple ability Strategies for a Multilevel
Classroom
  • Lisette Spraggins
  • Region 14 ESC
  • lspraggins_at_esc14.net

2
Window PaneFold your paper into six sections
3
  • When a carpenter has a new project he reviews his
    tool box to see if he needs new tools to complete
    the project.
  • What should teachers do when their student
    population has changed?

4
NCLB
  • Section 2122 (b)(9)(A) describes training to
    enable teachers to address the needs of students
    with different leaning styles
  • Essentially NCLB is saying build up your tool
    box!!!

5
Do You Know These New Buzz Words ?
  • Inclusion
  • Response to Intervention (RTI)
  • Curriculum Based Measurements (CBM)
  • Science Technology Engineering and Math (STEM)
  • Wrap Around Services
  • Each one of these initiatives will increase the
    need for teachers to build their tool boxes

6
What Goes Around Comes Around
  • Field Trips
  • Learning Objectives
  • Multicultural
  • Checklist
  • Phonics/Decoding
  • Excursions
  • Standards
  • Diverse
  • Rubrics
  • Phonemic Awareness

7
Differentiated Instruction
  • Individualized
  • Personalized

Instruction
The standards are the what and the
differentiation is the how (Tomlinson 1996)
8
Ways
to Differentiate Content
  • Reading Partners / Reading Buddies
  • Read/Summarize
  • Read/Question/Answer
  • Visual Organizer/Summarizer
  • Parallel Reading with Teacher Prompt
  • Choral Reading/Antiphonal Reading
  • Flip Books
  • Split Journals (Double Entry Triple Entry)
  • Books on Tape
  • Highlighter Tape
  • Digests/ Cliff Notes
  • Note-taking Organizers
  • Varied Texts
  • Varied Supplementary Materials
  • Highlighted Texts
  • Think-Pair-Share/Preview-Midview-Postview
  • Tomlinson 00

9
  • When a teacher tries to teach something to the
    entire class at the same time, chances are,
    one-third of the kids already know it one-third
    will get it and the remaining third wont. So
    two-thirds of the children are wasting their
    time.
  • -Lillian Katz
  • ASCD Differentiating Instruction

10
Differentiated Instruction
High Prep
Techniques Layered Curriculum Tiered Assignments
Low prep
Differentiated Strategies Think-Tac-Toe Bingo Cub
ing
11
Begin Slowly Just Begin!
12
  • Differentiated Instruction is changes in the
    pace, level, or kind of instruction in response
    to learners needs, styles or interest
  • Diane Heacox 2005

13
Differentiation of Instructions Four Foundations
  • Glasser /Learning situations
  • Gardner/Multiple intelligences
  • Blooms Taxonomy/Hierarchy of Thinking
  • Products/Resources

14
What are the best learning situations(Dr.
William Glasser)
15
Gardners Multiple Intelligences
16
Blooms Taxonomy
17
Differentiation involvesbecoming more
prescriptive and increasing the match between
student learning needs and their tasks
  • Not all students will do the same activities nor
    will all students do all of the activities.
  • Diane Heacox, Ed.D Differentiating Instruction
    in the Regular Classroom 2004

18
Differentiation is not one more product or
gimmick it is a MIND SET!!Do whatever it
takes to make sure all students succeed in
mastering the content

19
Differentiation Checklist
  • Content/TEKS
  • Preassessment
  • Instruction/Groups
  • Products
  • Student Choices

20
1 Content
  • TEKS
  • A. Knowledge and Skills Statement
  • The Knowledge and Skills Statement focuses on the
    student developing and understanding of a concept
  • Our goal for instruction is to build a solid
    foundation of conceptual understanding and then
    build skills.

21
B. Student Expectation
  • B (A) model addition and subtraction
    situations involving fractions with objects,
    pictures, words and numbers
  • Students will be tested on skills outlined in the
    student expectation statement.
  • There is often a misconception of expectations
    if teachers only read the SE. Which leads to
    isolated skills without the conceptualization
    needed to meet the knowledge and skills
    expectations

22
2PRE-ASSESSMENT The Value of Assessment
or... You cant figure out what to teach em if
you dont know em!
23
Two Views of Assessment --
  • Assessment is for
  • Nurturing
  • Guiding
  • Self-Reflection
  • Feedback
  • Comparison to task
  • Use over multiple activities
  • Assessment is for
  • Gate keeping
  • Judging
  • Right Answers
  • Control
  • Comparison to others
  • Use with single activities

24
THINKING ABOUT ON-GOING ASSESSMENT
  • STUDENT DATA SOURCES
  • Journal entry
  • Short answer test
  • Open response test
  • Home learning
  • Notebook
  • Oral response
  • Portfolio entry
  • Exhibition
  • Culminating product
  • Question writing
  • Problem solving
  • TEACHER DATA MECHANISMS
  • Anecdotal records
  • Observation by checklist
  • Skills checklist
  • Class discussion
  • Small group interaction
  • Teacher student conference
  • Assessment stations
  • Exit cards
  • Problem posing
  • Performance tasks and rubrics

25
2 PreassessmentOptions
  • Textbook Pretest
  • Skill Sheets
  • Student/Teacher Conference - as short as a 5
    minute talk
  • K-N-W Chart - What do I Know, Need to know Want
    to know
  • Journal Prompts - Write what you know about...
  • List - If I say ...
  • What does it make you think of?
  • Product - Draw a bar graph...

26
Preassessment Options
  • Use the graphing calculator to plot...
  • Concept Map...
  • Most difficult problems are
  • ABC list of meaningful words, or concepts
  • PMI (De Bono 1992) Plus-Minus-Interesting
  • Graphing Organizer
  • Venn Diagram

27
Hand Signals for Assessment and Participation
  • Call on me
  • I understand
  • I know a great deal
  • about the topic
  • I dont want to be called on
  • I dont get it
  • I do not know anything about the topic
  • I think I know
  • I am not sure
  • I know a little

Adapted from Susan Fitzell 2006
28
Preassessment is great for students because
  • Motivates students to be attentive and engaged in
    more relevant learning experiences
  • Saves instruction time which prevents boredom

29
3 Instruction Variations
  • Traditional Stand and Deliver
  • Record lecture
  • Text book
  • Graphic novels
  • Alternative novels
  • Student instruction (Preview in advance)
  • Group presentations
  • Outside presenter
  • Video
  • Internet resources
  • PowerPoint presentation

30
  • A Hallmark of an effective differentiated
    classroom .is the use of flexible grouping,
    which accommodates students who are strong in
    some areas and weaker in others
  • Carol Tomlinson

31
FLEXIBLE GROUPING Students are part of many
different groups and also work alone based on
the match of the task to student readiness,
interest, or learning style. Teachers may create
skills-based or interest-based groups that are
heterogeneous or homogeneous in readiness level.
Sometimes students select work groups, and
sometimes teachers select them. Sometimes
student group assignments are purposeful and
sometimes random.
1
3
5
7
9
Teacher and whole class begin exploration of a
topic or concept
Students and teacher come together to share
information and pose questions
The whole class reviews key ideas and extends
their study through sharing
The whole class is introduced to a skill needed
later to make a presentation
The whole class listens to individual study plans
and establishes baseline criteria for success
Students engage in further study using varied
materials based on readiness and learning style
Students work on varied assigned tasks designed
to help them make sense of key ideas at varied
levels of complexity and varied pacing
In small groups selected by students, they apply
key principles to solve teacher-generated
problems related to their study
Students self-select interest areas through which
they will apply and extend their understandings
8
6
4
2
32
Flexible Grouping
  • Heterogeneous Teams-One high performing student,
    two middle, and one low student.
  • Grade papers, list the students who performed the
    highest to the lowest. Split the names in half
    matching the highest with the middle student and
    so on.

33
Grade Book
  • Tom 88
  • Randy 87

34
Find Someone WhoCubit, Irvine, and Dow, 1999
35
Clock
Partners
12
9
3
6
36
Personality Traits
37
Ways
to Differentiate Product
  • Choices based on readiness, interest, and
    learning profile
  • Timelines
  • Agreements
  • Rubrics
  • Evaluation
  • Refer to product list in handout

38
Record Keeping
  • V A K T

39
5 Student Choice
  • Hypothalamus is the primitive part of the brain
    that is responsible for emotions such as fear,
    anger, aggression.
  • Most noted for the fight or flight response

40
5 Choice
  • Giving student choice enables them to assume some
    responsibility for their learning.
  • Gives them a feeling of power and control in the
    educational environment
  • The choices will most likely match their
    abilities or emotionalbilities
  • Allows student to have a sense of accomplishment
    and success

41
5 Choice
  • Although students are given the ability to make
    choices, ultimately the teacher has the control
    over the activities that are presented.

42
Please remember
True learning occurs when the task difficulty and
skill level are slightly above the student level.
Tiered instruction allows the teacher to create
this learning opportunity for all students. All
tiers should build understanding, challenge
students, be interesting and engaging and be
respectful.
43
Hallmarks of Differentiation
  • Content/TEKS is the foundation
  • Assessment/ Pre-assessment/Rubrics
  • Student centered strategies/activities/assignments
    , all varying to students specific needs
  • Increasing variety (Gardner) while maintaining or
    increasing levels (Blooms) in learning
    activities.
  • Work that is challenging and respectful
  • Opportunities for students to make choices
  • Contracts support students responsibility for
    learning
  • Whole group instruction and flexible
    instructional groups
  • Diane Heacox, Ed.D Differentiating Instruction
    in the Regular Classroom 2004

44
Differentiation Checklist
Re-Cap
  • Content/TEKS
  • Preassessment
  • Instruction/Groups
  • Products
  • Student Choices

45
Complete a Circle Map Variation Pass the Plate
Differentiated Instruction
Thinking Maps www.thinkingmaps.com
46
Writing contracts(review samples in handouts)
  • Learning contracts give students freedom to plan
    their time and yet provide guidelines for
    completing work responsibly.
  • Things to remember
  • The various levels of contracts should look
    alike.
  • The tasks parallel each other across the
    contracts.
  • You can differentiate by skills and/or content
    and by a student's readiness.

47
Four Elements of a Contract
  • Content Component
  • Use Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills
  • Skills Component
  • Preassessment to determine readiness of students
    and pace
  • Time Line
  • Completion date, set review dates, 5-10 days,
    homework expectations
  • Agreement
  • Students agree to use time responsibly, rules
    established, teacher allows student freedom

48
  • Student Contract
  • I, ___________________________, agree to the
    terms and conditions of the
  • following contract as negotiated with
    _____________________________
  • on the _______ day of _____________ in the year
    __________.
  • A. Non-negotiable Items
  • __________________________________
  • B. Negotiable Items
  • 1.________________________________
  • 2.________________________________
  • 3._______________________________

49
  • All tasks will be completed to the best of my
    ability on or before the
  • negotiated due date of _____________________.
  • I agree to put forth my best effort to complete
    the items as listed above.
  • _________________________ (student signature)
  • I agree to provide assistance and advice
    throughout the term of this contract.
  • _________________________ (teacher signature)
  • I will support and assist my student in meeting
    the terms of this contract.
  • _________________________ (parent/guardian
    signature)
  • This contract is valid from ____________ to
    ____________.

50
Stepping StonesAnne M. Beninghof
  • Novelty increases the brains capacity to recall
    information
  • Create a pathway into the classroom by placing
    footprints with prompts pertaining to content
  • Ask the students read/answer the prompts as walk
    in the walk into the classroom.
  • Vocabulary, historical dates and events, math
    problems,

51
Bubble-Wrap ResponseAnne M. Beninghof
  • Give students a strip of bubble wrap
  • Ask simple yes/no or agree/disagree questions
  • Tell students to pop the bubble if the answer is
    yes/agree and to remain silent if the answer is
    no
  • Variation
  • Have students generate questions
  • Have them pop a bubble when they hear special
    information (i.e. parts of speech)

52
Directions for Tic-Tac-ToeDiane Heacox SDE DI
National Conference 2005
  • Identify TEKS/KUDOs
  • 2. Focus on content, process, product
  • Consider students multiple intelligences, and
    learning modalities. Also use the Blooms
    Taxonomy to create questions and the product list
    to develop activities
  • 4. Insert questions/activities in a Tic-Tac-Toe
    Grid

53
Directions for Tic-Tac-Toe
  • May use Post-it notes to strategically place
    activities for desired outcomes
  • May consider making the center area as a basic
    activity for all students
  • Can arrange activities in a way that all students
    have an opportunity for a challenging activity
  • Consider rubrics to grade each activity

54
Language Arts Tic-Tac-Toe
55
Math
  • Identify actual problems

Problems 5-10
Problems 1-5
56
Math
  • Select Blooms or learning styles

Use manipulative to represent the problem
If you replaced operation from addition to
subtraction what will happen
Actual Math Problem
Draw a representation of the problem
Explain how you solved the problem to a classmate
57
Same Concept
  • Tic-Tac-Toe
  • Bingo
  • Cubing
  • Just add more activities!

58
Cubing
  • Cubing is a strategy that requires students to
    think on multiple levels.
  • Things to remember
  • You must have more than one cube
  • Cubes can be differentiated by student readiness,
    interest, or learning profile.
  • Each side of the cube should have a command such
    as describe, compare, analyze, etc., and a
    prompting question or statement underneath

59
Bingo
  • Similar to Tic-Tac-Toe except you add more
    problems/activities
  • Dont forget your
  • Free center!!!

60
Glove BallonsAnne M. Beninghof
  • Write on a latex glove
  • Who, What, When, Where, Why
  • OR
  • Setting, Character, Action, Main Idea, Detail
  • Noun, Verb, Adjective, Adverb, Preposition
  • Throw and the student has to catch the ballon by
    a finger and answer the question
  • Teacher lead with the whole class or small groups

61
TIEREDINSTRUCTION
One size does not fit all!
62
Tiered Activities What constitutes a Tiered
Assignment?
  • A focus on a key concept
  • Adjustment of the task to the students' ability
    level
  • Adjustment of the number of steps to the
    students' productivity level
  • Students working with appropriately challenging
    tasks
  • Result Respectable work for everyone
  • (Use the Blooms and Product List)

63
IDENTIFY OUTCOMES WHAT SHOULD THE STUDENTS KNOW,
UNDERSTAND, OR BE ABLE TO DO?
THINK ABOUT YOUR STUDENTS PRE-ASSESS READINESS,
INTEREST, OR LEARNING PROFILE
INITIATING ACTIVITIES USE AS COMMON EXPERIENCE
FOR WHOLE CLASS
GROUP 1 TASK Below level task
GROUP 2 TASK On level task
GROUP 3 TASK Above level task
64
Planning Tiered Assignments
Concept to be Understood OR Skill to be Mastered
Create on-level task first then adjust up and
down.
Below-Level Task
On-Level Task
Above-Level Task
Adjusting the Task
65
Guidelines for developing tiered instruction.
Clone the activity to provide different versions
at different levels of difficulty. To help
produce the clones use The Equalizer and Bloom
Taxonomy. Match the students to a version of the
task based upon student interest, readiness, or
learning profile
66
The Equalizer
5. Smaller Leap
1. Foundational
Transformational
Greater Leap
6. More Structured
More Open
2. Concrete
Abstract
7. Clearly Defined Problems
Fuzzy Problems
3. Simple
Complex
8. Less Independence
Greater Independence
4. Fewer Facets
Multi-facets
9. Slower
Quicker
67
When Tiering
  • Adjust---
  • Level of Complexity
  • (Equalizer)
  • Amount of Structure
  • Materials
  • Time/Pace
  • Number of Steps
  • Form of Expression
  • Level of Dependence

68
What can be tiered?
  • Assignments
  • Activities
  • Homework
  • Learning Centers
  • Experiments
  • Materials
  • Assessments
  • Writing Prompts


69
Character Map
Character Name____________
How the character looks ____________ ____________
____________ ____________ ____________ ___________
_
How the character thinks or acts ____________ ____
________ ____________ ____________ ____________
Most important thing to know about the
character ________________________________________
__________________________________________________
_________________________
70
Character Map
Character Name____________
What the character says or does ____________ _____
_______ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___
_________
What the character really MEANS to say or
do ____________ ____________ ____________ ________
____ ____________
What the character would mostly like us to know
about him or her _________________________________
__________________________________________________
__
71
Character Map
Character Name____________
Clues the author gives us about the
character ____________ ____________ ____________ _
___________
Why the author gives THESE clues ____________ ____
________ ____________ ____________ ____________
The authors bottom line about this character
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__
72
RAFT
73
RAFT
  • R ROLE OF THE WRITER who are you?. . . a
    soldier, a single parent, a blood cell, a
    calorie, a famous person, or a ripped-off
    consumer?
  • A AUDIENCE to whom is this written?. . . a
    parent, a child, a famous person, a historical
    person, or a store manager?
  • F FORMAT what form will it take? . . . a
    letter, a journal, a speech, a memo?
  • T TOPIC STRONG VERB Topics will be related
    to the concept or unit being taught. Verbs should
    plead, convince, or clarify. Example Persuade a
    store manager to give you a refund on defective
    merchandise.
  • http//www.writingfix.com/WAC/Writing_Across_Curri
    culum_RAFTS_Math.htm

74
RAFTCarol Tomlinson
75
RAFT Activities
Language Arts Literature
Science
History
Math
Format based on the work of Doug Buehl cited in
Teaching Reading in the Content Areas If Not Me
Then Who? Billmeyer and Martin, 1998
76
Lets Make a RAFT Together!!
  • Role Minnie Mouse
  • Audience Donald Duck
  • Format Instruction manual
  • Topic Order of operations

77
Find Someone Who
  • Partner 4
  • Create a
  • One RAFT

78
Layered Curriculum
  • Layered Curriculum is an exciting and effective
    student-centered teaching method.
  • The 3 layer model of differentiated instruction
    encourages complex thinking and holds students
    highly accountable for their learning.
  • (http//help4teachers.com/index.htm)

79
Five steps to create a layered curriculum cont.
  • Students are presented with the lesson objectives
    and the layered curriculum menu
  • Each layer has a variety of assignment options to
    meet the content/TEKS expectations
  • Each assignment has a point value based on time
    and complexity of assignment
  • (Recommended time for unit two weeks)

80
Five steps to create a layered curriculum
http//help4teachers.com/how.htm
  • First layer C Set an expectation for the number
    of activities each student will be responsible
    for to earn a C (hence the name C layer)
  • Generate a variety of basic assignments that
    meets the needs of all of your students.
  • There should be three times the number of
    activities expected, created to give students a
    variety of options

81
Five steps to create a layered curriculum cont.
  • Create a second layer B This layer will
    require more complex activities. Once students
    have mastered layer C they can use their
    knowledge to advance the next level (middle layer
    Blooms).
  • Typically this layer only requires students to
    complete one assignment to receive a grade of B.

82
Five steps to create a layered curriculum cont.
  • 4. The final layer requires the most challenging,
    complex, critical thinking assignment (highest
    level of Blooms). This is typically one
    assignment

83
Five steps to create a layered curriculum cont.
  • The final step in the process is the oral defense
    of the students assignments. This requires a
    one-to-one discussion between the teacher and the
    student where the student demonstrates their
    learning.
  • The teacher may use a set of questions that meet
    the pre-arranged objectives for the activities
  • http//help4teachers.com/samples.htm
  • Refer to handout for examples

84
What does that look like in the classroom?
  • Day 1 Whole class instruction 2-3 choices of C
    layer
  • Day 2 Whole class instruction 2-3 choices on C
    layer
  • Day 3 Whole class instruction 2-3 choices on C
    layer
  • Day 4 Whole class instruction work on B layer
    assignment
  • Day 5 Whole class instruction work on B layer
    assignment
  • Adjust according to time, comfort, topic

85
Differentiation websites
  • Tiered Curriculum Project
  • http//ideanet.doe.state.in.us/exceptional/gt/tier
    ed_curriculum//
  • Differentiation
  • http//www.openc.k12.or.us/reaching/tag/dcsamples.
    html
  • Blooms http//www.teachers.ash.org.au/researchskil
    ls/dalton.htm
  • Layered Curriculum
  • http//help4teachers.com/

86
Resources
  • Model Differentiated Elementary Science
    Lessonshttp//www.mcps.k12.md.us/curriculum/scien
    ce/elem/modeldiff.htmAnchor-Crime-17304
  • Differentiated Curriculum Samples
  • http//www.openc.k12.or.us/reaching/tag/dcsamp
    les.html
  • Tiered Lesson on Writing a Persuasive Essay
  • http//208.246.68.104/training_resources/document
    s/TieredActivity.doc
  • Tiered Lesson Plans
  • http//www.manhattan.k12.ca.us/staff/pware/diff/

87
Resources
  • Examples of Tiered Lesson Plans created by Jordan
    School District Teachers
  • http//t4.jordan.k12.ut.us/teacher_resources/diffe
    rent/diffindex.htmlLessons
  • Tiered Lesson in Symmetry for 2nd Grade
  • http//www.wilmette39.org/CD39/iagc05tier/2ndgrade
    example.htm
  • Sample Chapter 2nd Grade Plants From
    Differentiation in Practice
  • http//www.ascd.org/portal/site/ascd/template.chap
    ter/menuitem.b71d101a2f7c208cdeb3ffdb62108a0c/?cha
    pterMgmtIdaea286b18fcaff00VgnVCM1000003d01a8c0RCR
    D
  • Sample Chapter 5th 9th Grades What Makes a
    Region? From Differentiation in Practice
  • http//www.ascd.org/portal/site/ascd/template.chap
    ter/menuitem.b71d101a2f7c208cdeb3ffdb62108a0c/?cha
    pterMgmtId32f186b18fcaff00VgnVCM1000003d01a8c0RCR
    D
  • Open ended questions in math
  • http//books.heinemann.com/math/construct.cfm

88
Resources
  • Raft samples http//www.earth.uni.edu/EECP/mid/mod
    3_la.html
  • http//web.grps.k12.mi.us/academics/5E/raft.html
  • http//www.greece.k12.ny.us/instruction/ela/6-12/R
    eading/Reading20Strategies/RAFT.htm

89
Resources
  • Beninghof, Anne M. (2006). Engage All Students
    Through Differentiation www.crystalsprings.com
  • Fitzell, Susan Successful Inclusion
    sfitzell_at_aimhieducational.com
  • Heacox, Diane. (2001). Differentiating
    Instruction in the Regular Classroom How to
    Reach and Teach All Learners, Grades 3-12.
    www.freespirit.com
  • Tomlinson, Carol. (2003). Differentiation in
    Practice A Resource Guide for Differentiating
    Curriculum, Grades 5-9. www.ascd.org
  • Tomlinson, Carol. (2001). How to Differentiate
    Instruction in Mixed-Ability Classrooms.
    www.ascd.org

90
  • "In the end, all learners need your energy, your
    heart and your mind. They have that in common
    because they are young humans. How they need you
    however, differs. Unless we understand and
    respond to those differences, we fail many
    learners."
  • Tomlinson, C.A. (2001). How to differentiate
    instruction in mixed ability classrooms (2nd
    Ed.). Alexandria, VA ASCD.
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