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Lifespan Development

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Fetal Age of Viability Stage. Growth Pattern in Embryonic and Fetal Stages ... Age of Viability. Birth Position. 36. Factors Affecting Prenatal Development. 37 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Lifespan Development


1
Lifespan Development
  • Psychology 230
  • Dr. Goralewicz

2
Topic I Introduction / Prenatal Development
  • Life Span Development
  • Definition
  • Changes
  • Influences
  • Developmental Domains (3)
  • Physical
  • Cognitive
  • Emotional

3
Major Issues (4)
  • Continuity vs. Discontinuity
  • Continual
  • Discontinuous
  • Critical vs. Sensitive Periods
  • Critical
  • Sensitive

4
  • Nature vs. Nurture
  • Nature Innate
  • Nurture Environment
  • Nature ? _________________ ? Nurture
  • Behavior
  • Active Vs. Passive
  • Stability

5
Theories of Development
  • Early Theories (3)
  • Medieval ( 600 1600 )
  • Min. Adult
  • John Locke ( 1632 1704 )
  • Tabla Rosa
  • Environment
  • Passive
  • Continuous

6
  • Jean Rousseau ( 1712 1778 )
  • Nobel Savage
  • Natural Morality
  • Discontinuous
  • Charles Darwin The Bridge

7
Modern Theories (5)
  • Psycho Analytic / Dynamic ( 1915 )
  • Sigmund Freud
  • Behavior Inner Focus
  • Stage ? Conflicts
  • Adjustment Resolution

8
Personality Symptoms (3)
  • Id
  • Ego
  • Super Ego

9
Development Stages (5)
  • Oral ( Birth to 15 mo ) Attachment
  • Anal ( 15 mo 3 yrs ) Self Image
  • Phallic ( 3 6 yrs ) Morality Sex ID
  • Latent ( 6 13 yrs ) Gender Roles
  • Genital ( 13 ) Mature Relationships
  • Conflict Fixation
    Unresolved
  • Conflict Defense Mechanisms

10
  • Psycho / Social
  • Erik Erikson ( 1902 1994 )
  • Inter related Dynamics (3)
  • Bio / Physical
  • Life Experiences
  • Social / Cultural / Historical Environ.

11
Developmental Stages (8)
  • Trust Vs. Mistrust (13 15m) Attachments
  • Autonomy Vs. Shame/Doubt (15m 3 y) Self Image
    (I)
  • Initiative / Vs. Guilt (3 6) Self Esteem (S)
  • Industry Vs. Inferiority (6-12) Self Esteem (I)
  • Identity Vs. Role Diffusion (13 20)
    Personality
  • Intimacy Vs. Isolation (early adult)
    Relationships
  • Generativity Vs. Stagnation (m. adult) Role
    Change
  • Ego Integrity Vs. Despair ( l. adult) Death

12
  • Develop Stage Resolution
  • Resolution Continuum
  • Behavioral
  • Pavlov / Skinner
  • Development results from
  • Learning
    Reward
  • Life Exper.
  • Observation
    Punishment

13
  • Cognitive Approach
  • Jean Piaget
  • Thinking develops by Complex Stages (4)
  • Stages are discontinuous
  • Stages
  • Sensori/Motor (B 3) Physical Learning
  • Preoperational (3 6) Symbolic Thought/Play
  • Concrete Operational (6 12) Org. Reason
  • Formal Operational (12 ) Abstract Reason

14
  • Dir. Learning

  • Stage Progress Soc. Transmission
  • Physical
    Maturity
  • Thinking / Thought
  • Schemas
  • Assimilation Accommodation Adaptation

15
Socio Cultural Approach
  • Lev Vygotsky
  • Understanding / Development
  • Problem Solving
  • Significant Others
  • Zone of Proximal Development
  • X ZPD

16
Ecological Approach
  • Uri Bronfenbrenner
  • Levels of Environment influences Development
  • 4 Levels
  • Microsystems
  • Mesosystems
  • Exosystems
  • Macrosystems

17
Prenatal Development
18
Conception
  • Genetics
  • 2 Types of Cells
  • Somatic
  • Germ (Gametes)
  • Somatic Cells
  • Chromosomes
  • Genes
  • 23rd
  • Female
  • Male

19
Mitosis Vs. Meiosis
  • Mitosis Somatic Cells
  • Cell Duplicates Exact Copy
  • Meiosis Gametes
  • Chromosomes ½
  • Mitosis
  • Begin w/46 ? 2w/46
  • Meiosis
  • Begin w/46 ? 2 cells w/23

20
  • Genes
  • Dominant
  • Recessive
  • Genetic Expression
  • Genotype
  • Phenotype
  • Canalization

21
Genetic Expression
  • Genotype
  • Phenotype
  • Canalization

22
Genetic Disorder
  • Chromosomal
  • Dominant Gene
  • Recessive Gene
  • Multi Factor

23
Genetic Counseling
  • Pre Conception
  • Family History
  • Maternal Age
  • Blood/ Skin/ Urine

24
Post Conception
  • Amniocentesis
  • Ultra Sound Sonography
  • Chorionic Villius Sampling
  • Conception

25
Prenatal Stages
  • Introduction
  • Fertilization
  • Definition
  • Zygote
  • Infertility
  • Definition
  • Statistics
  • Causes

26
Alternate Approaches To Fert. (3)
  • Artificial Insemination
  • In Vitro Fertilization
  • Surrogate Mothers
  • Results

27
Pre Natal Stages (3)
28
1. Germinal Stage
  • Zygote
  • Conception ? Implantation
  • ( 2 weeks)
  • Mitosis
  • 8 Divisions

  • Differentiation

29
Blastocyst
  • Outer Shell
  • Inner Shell Outer
    Shell
  • Blastocyst ? Fallopian Tube
  • Fallopian ? Uterus ? Implantation

Embryonic Disk
30
2. Embryonic Stage
  • Critical Stage
  • Rapid Differentiation
  • Outer Shell (3 Structures)
  • Amniotic Sac
  • Placenta
  • Umbilical Cord

31
Embryonic Disk
  • Folds ? 3 layers
  • Ectoderm
  • Mesoderm
  • Endoderm

32
Fetal Age of Viability Stage
  • Growth Pattern in Embryonic and Fetal Stages
  • 2 Fetal Growth Patterns (2)
  • Cephalocaudel
  • Proximodistal
  • Simple Functioning/ Development

33
3. Fetal Stage (8th Birth)
  • Size and Weight
  • Differentiated / Operational

34
2nd Trimester (14th week-23rd week)
  • 7 Major Events
  • Cartilage ? Bone
  • Neurons Formed
  • Limbs / Fingers Move
  • Facial Features
  • Genitals
  • Responds to Sound
  • Balance

35
3rd Trimester (24th week-Birth)
  • Responds to Light
  • Age of Viability
  • Birth Position

36
Factors Affecting Prenatal Development
37
These Factors Include
  • 1. Miscarriage
  • 2. Environmental Factors
  • Teratogens
  • Pollution
  • Medicinal Drugs
  • Non-medicinal drugs
  • Alcohol
  • FAS
  • FAE
  • continued

38
  • Nicotine
  • Caffeine
  • Illicit Drugs
  • 3. Maternal Condition
  • Health
  • Illness
  • STD
  • Nutrition
  • Other
  • Age
  • Stress
  • Domestic Violence

39
4. Abortion
  • Definition
  • Reasons

40
Birth
  • Fetus ? Neonate
  • Labor
  • Triggers
  • Hormone
  • Contractions
  • Stages I, II, III
  • Stage I
  • Longest (16-24 hrs)
  • Uterine Contractions
  • Cervix fully open

41
Labor
  • Stage II
  • Approx. 90 min.
  • Head ? Birth Canal
  • Fetus ? Vagina Birth
  • (head)
  • Stage III
  • 5 10 min.
  • Expulsion
  • Post Birth
  • Crying
  • APGAR

42
  • Birth Complications
  • Anoxia
  • Pre Term
  • Post Term
  • Position
  • Infant Mortality

43
Topic II Birth 2 years
  • Physical Development
  • Physical Growth
  • Rapid
  • Pattern
  • Cephalo Caudel
  • Proximal - Distal

44
Sensations Perceptions
  • Functionality (Sensations)
  • Brain Size
  • Plasticity
  • Synapse Formation

45
Sensory Processes
  • State
  • Sleep
  • S I D S
  • Sensory Perception
  • Measurement
  • Habituation
  • Dishabituation

46
Sound Perception
  • Sound Distinction
  • Sound Localization

47
Visual Perception
  • Light Intensity
  • Miopia
  • Color Vision
  • Binocular Vision
  • Pattern Perception
  • Face Perception

48
  • Taste
  • Smell
  • Pain Touch
  • Affordance

49
Motor Skills
  • Reflexes
  • Definition
  • Value
  • Tests
  • Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale
  • Rooting
  • Palomar
  • (This list continues to next slide)

50
  • Babinski
  • Moro
  • Crawling
  • Stepping

51
Gross Motor Landmarks
  • Definition
  • 6 mo
  • 6 10 mo
  • 9 mo
  • 12 mo

52
Fine Motor Landmarks
  • Definition
  • 3 mo
  • 10 12 mo
  • 24 mo

53
  • Nutrition
  • Definition
  • Energy Growth Needs
  • Consequence
  • Malnutrition
  • Definition
  • Consequences
  • Breast Feeding
  • Advantages
  • Incidence
  • Solid Food

54
Cognitive Skills
  • Introduction
  • Age Range Changes
  • External Shift
  • Object Manipulation
  • Repetition
  • Goal Direction
  • Adaptation

55
Object Permanence
  • Integration of Senses
  • Intermodal Perception
  • Cross Modal Perception

56
Cognitive Development
  • Jean Piaget
  • Sensory / Motor Stage (Birth 3)
  • Physical Maturity
  • Greater Mobility
  • Experience w/Environment
  • Affordance
  • Increase Cognitive Development

57
Schema Formation Expansion
  • Schema
  • Definition
  • Schema Expansion
  • Assimilation
  • Adaptation
  • Accommodation

58
Adaptation Schema Expansion (Networks)
  • Learning States
  • Equilibrium
  • disequilibrium

59
  • Piagets Six Substages of Sensorimotor
  • Simple Reflexes (Birth 1mo)
  • Innate Schemas
  • Primary Circular Reaction (PCR) (1 4)
  • Separate ? Integrated Acts
  • Habit Repetition (Circular)
  • Secondary Circular Reaction (SCR) (4 8)
  • External Focus
  • Vocalization
  • Obj. Perman. (Begin)

60
  • Coordination of SCR (8 12mo)
  • Obj. Perman. Solidified
  • Goal Directed Behavior
  • Imitation
  • Anticipation
  • Tertiary Circulation Reaction (TCR) (12 18)
  • Experimentation
  • Integrating Schemas ? Environment
  • Mental Representations (18 24)
  • Symbolic Motor Activity
  • Causality
  • Made Believe Play
  • Deferred Imitation

61
Language Development
  • Behavioral Psychology
  • Imitative
  • Basic Characteristics (4)
  • Phonology
  • B/A/T C/A/T CH/A/T
  • Morphology
  • DESIRE UN/DESIRE
    UN/DESIR/ABLE
  • Semantics
  • Grammar
  • Syntax
  • Pragmatics

62
Language Acquisition
  • Pre language
  • Stages (5)
  • Crying Birth
  • Cooing 2 mo
  • Vocal Play 3 4 mo
  • Babbling 6 mo
  • Conversational Babbling 6 mo

63
Language Development
  • Imitation
  • Conversational Babbling
  • Speech

64
Language Development
  • Receptive Language (8mo 12)
  • Gestural
  • Expressive Language (12mo)
  • Expressive Language Development (3 stages)
  • Holophase One Word Speech
  • Telegraphic Speech Two Word Speech
  • Semantic Pragmatic Speech

65
Emotional/Personal/Social
  • Introduction
  • Innate Emotions
    Emotional Stabilizing
  • Biology
    Temperament
  • Societal Bonds (Genetics)
    Personality

66
Emotions Temperament
  • Emotions
  • Definition
  • Subj
  • Phy. Change Behavior
  • Internal (
    ? )
  • Anger 1st Emotion
  • Happiness
    Attachments
  • Social Smile (6 9wks)
  • Fear
  • 2nd Year Range
  • Destination

67
Temperament
  • Definition
  • Disposition
  • Expression
  • Genetic
  • Temperament
  • Environment
  • (Conditioning)

68
Categories of Infant Attachments
  • Attachment
  • Definition
  • Temp. Types and Infant Attach. (3)
  • Easy Baby 40
  • Difficult Baby 10
  • Slow To Warm Baby 15
  • Consequences of Infant Temp.
  • Goodness of Fit
  • Adaptation

69
Basis of Attachment
  • Bio Needs
  • Synchrony
  • Social Smile
  • Goodness of Fit
  • Development of Attachment (3 Phases)
  • Orienting Signaling (Birth 3 mo)
  • Focusing on The Individual (3 7mo)
  • Secure Base

70
Evaluating Attachments Consequences
  • Methodology
  • Strange Situation
  • Mary Ainsworth
  • Levels of Attachment (4)
  • Secure Attachment (70 )
  • Secure Base
  • Avoidant Attachment (15 20)
  • Ambivalent Attachment (5 10)
  • Disorganized / Disoriented Attachment

71
Conclusions
  • Stability Age 5
  • 5 Disposition
  • Secure Positive Life Chance

72
Stranger Anxiety Separation Anxiety
  • Stranger Anxiety
  • Definition
  • Development
  • Separation Anxiety
  • Definition
  • Development
  • Normalcy

73
Personality Development
  • Personality
  • Definition
  • Emotion
  • Experience
    Personality
  • Temperament

74
Psycho Analytic / Sexual
  • Introduction
  • Unmet needs Conflict
  • Conflict Resolution
  • Or Personality
  • Non Resolution

75
Personality Develops Thru Stages
  • Stages Correlate To Body Parts
  • Change via Maturity
  • Oral Stage (B 1yr)
  • Mouth Needs Gratification
  • Parent ? Environment ? Trust
  • Trust ? Attachment
  • Anal Stage (next slide)

76
Anal Stage (1 yr 2.5)
  • Control of Bowels
  • Control or Societal Regulation
  • Regulation
  • or Self Image
  • Non regulation

77
Psycho / Social( Erik Erikson)
  • Introduction
  • Stage I Trust Vs. Mistrust (Birth 1.5yr)
  • Satisfaction of Basic Need
  • Quality Vs Quantity
  • Safe Secure ? Attachment
  • Confidence ? Exploration
  • Mistrust ? Dependency Withdrawal

78
Stage II Autonomy Vs. Shame/Doubt (1.5 3)
  • Period of Emerg. Independence
  • Parents Provide Compass
  • Patience Latitude
  • Task Success
  • Autonomy Positive Self Image and
  • Self
    Confidence
  • Shame/Doubt Dependence / or
  • Needy Behavior

79
Self Awareness
  • Self Awareness
  • Symbiotic Being
  • Cognitive Development
  • Subjective Self
  • Cog Phy Devel.
  • Individuation
  • Objective Self
  • (Categorical Object)

80
  • Self Regulation
  • Objective Self ? Self Regulation

81
Mutual Regulation
  • Definition
  • Communication
  • (Emotion)
  • Response
  • Social Referencing
  • Subject Self
  • Sense of Agency
  • Object Self
  • Cog. Devel.
    Compliance
  • Sense of Agency
  • Secure Attach.
    Self Control

82
  • Self Control (Rudimentary)
  • Definition
  • Social Awareness (Rudimentary)
  • Progression
  • Sense of Agency
  • Concept of a Compliant Agent
  • Empathy

83
Other Development Factors
  • Day Care
  • Introduction

84
  • Types (3)
  • In Home
  • Definition
  • Advantages
  • Disadvantages
  • Family Day Care
  • Definition
  • Advantages
  • Disadvantages
  • Day Care Center
  • Definition
  • Advantages
  • disadvantages

85
  • Day Care Conclusions
  • Research
  • Factors
  • Child Abuse
  • Forms
  • Abuse
  • Neglect
  • Causes (4)
  • Societal
  • Familial
  • Parental
  • Historical (Cycle of Violence)

86
Consequences
  • Developmental
  • Physical
  • Generational

87
Topic III- Preschooler (2-6 yrs)
  • Physical Development
  • Steady Growth
  • Asynchronous
  • Heredity
  • Body Shape
  • Adult Like
  • Muscle / Bone Density
  • Brain Development
  • Growth Speed
  • Left Hemisphere
  • Lateralization
  • Sex Differences

88
Motor Skills
  • Gross Motor Skills
  • Purpose
  • Balance
  • Walking
  • Sex Differences
  • Fine Motor Skills
  • Development
  • Sex Differences
  • Nutrition
  • Food Need
  • Obesity

89
Cognitive Development
  • Preoperational Stage (3 -6)
  • Piaget
  • Definition / Description
  • Symbolic Thought
  • Symbolic Logical Thought
  • Key Inabilities (5)
  • Centration
  • Row A . . . . . . . . . .
  • Row B . . . . . . . . . .
  • Inaccuracy

90
  • Conservation
  • Transformation
  • Pre Causal Relationships
  • ( Transductive Reasoning )

91
  • Ego Centric Thought
  • POV
  • 5y 6y
  • Assimilation
  • Increase
    Inabilities Fade
  • Accommodation
  • Fading Intuitive Thought
  • Notion
    of Functionality
  • Intuitive Thought
  • Notion
    of Identity

92
Influence of Culture and Environment on
Intelligence
  • Lev Ygotsky
  • Zone of Proximal Development ( ZPD )
  • Definition
  • Performance
  • Performance
  • Scaffolding
  • Diagram on next slide

93
  • ZPD

  • Genetic

  • Scaffolding Competence

  • Competence
  • And new and wider
    ZPD

94
  • Memory
  • Autobiographical
  • Accuracy
  • Scripts
  • Language
  • Syntax Grammar
  • Overgeneralization
  • Private speech
  • Social speech
  • Vocabulary
  • Fast Mapping
  • Factors That Affect Language Development

95
Emotional Development
  • Erik Erikson
  • Stage III Initiative vs. Guilt ( 3y 6y )
  • Intro
  • Definition
  • Conflict Origin
  • Types of Conflict
  • Vertical Relationship
  • Horizontal Relationships

96
Vertical Conflicts
  • Origin
  • Control
  • Too Much
  • Too Little
  • Resolution

97
Parenting Relationships / Attachments
  • Introduction
  • Changing Relationships
  • Parenting Styles (4)
  • Authoritarian
  • Characteristics
  • Results
  • Permissive
  • Characteristics
  • Types
  • Indifferent
  • Indulgent

98
  • Results
  • Indifferent
  • Indulgent
  • Authoritative
  • Characteristics
  • Results
  • Traditional
  • Characteristics
  • Paternal
  • Maternal
  • Results
  • Final Notes on Style

99
Child Abuse
  • Defined
  • Causes
  • Treatment (Child)
  • Intervention
  • Counseling
  • Resilience
  • Definition
  • Characteristics

100
Personal Development
  • Introduction
  • Self Concept Self Identity

  • Self Esteem Self Awareness

101
Self Concept
  • Definition
  • Autobiographical Memory
  • Self Esteem
  • Self Concept Assessment
  • Gender Identity
  • Definition
  • Gender Role Stereotype
  • Definition

102
Gender Identity Development Gender Role Schema
  • Gender I.D. Development
  • Gender Schemas (3 Stages)
  • Gender Identity / Identification (9mo 3yrs)
  • Definition
  • Origin
  • Factors
  • Gender Stability (3yrs 4yrs)
  • Definition
  • Gender Consistency (4yrs 5yrs)
  • Definition

103
Personal/Social/Emotional Development
  • Introduction
  • Self Regulation (Control)
  • Definition
  • Regulation ? Co Regulation ? Self Regulation
  • (Childhood)
    (Adulthood)
  • Self Regulation Development
  • Social Referencing
  • Definition
  • Interpret Others
  • Predict

104
  • Change Self Change Others
  • Change Agents (Self)
  • Mobility
  • Cognition
  • Understanding Expectations
  • Language Development
  • Goal Changes
  • Self Control Factors
  • Regulations Without Authority
  • Impulse Control
  • Internalization

105
  • Personality
    Social Control
  • Development
  • Self Control
    Social
  • Socialization
    Development

106
Peer Relationships
  • Peer Relationship Play
  • Value of Play
  • Erikson
  • Resolve Stage III Conflicts
  • Define Self Concept
  • Foster Initiative
  • Value of Play (General)
  • 1) Physical Social Skill 2) Social Roles
  • 3) Sex Roles 4) Problem Solving
  • 5) Preparation for School

107
Play Development Stages (5)
  • Social Interaction (15m 2yrs)
  • Parallel Play (2y 3y)
  • Associative Play (3 4)
  • Cooperative Play (4 5)
  • Socio/Dramatic Play (5 6)

108
Basis of Friendship
  • Early Availability
  • Late Qualities

109
Moral Development
  • Introduction
  • Definition
  • Bases
  • Cognitive
  • Social / Behavioral / Cognitive

110
Cognitive ( Piaget )
  • Morality Moral Reasoning
  • Moral Reasoning Development ( 2 Stages )
  • Hetenomous Morality ( Approx 3y )
  • Definition
  • Origins
  • Non Intentionality
  • Immanent Justice
  • Criticism

111
Anti Social Behavior
  • Definition
  • Origins
  • Non Empathy
  • Reduction in Self Emotional Control
  • Operant Conditioning Modeling

112
Expression
  • Aggression ( Bullying )
  • Instrumental
  • Reactive
  • Relational
  • Bullying

113
Behavioral / Social / Cognitive Eclectic
  • Basis (3 Factors)
  • Morality Conditioning
  • Modeling
  • Increase in Cognition ? Abstract Models
  • decrease
    in Heteronomous
  • Abstract Models ? Morality
  • Increase is Intentionality
  • Decline in Immanent Justice

114
Morality Expressions (
Manifestations)
  • Forms ( 2 )
  • Pro Social Behavior
  • Definition
  • Origins ( 3 )
  • Empathy
  • Innate Emotions ( Cognition )
  • Positive Emotions
  • Negative Emotions
  • Operant Conditioning Modeling
  • Parenting
  • Emotional Self Regulation

115
Topic IV Middle Childhood( 6 ll )
  • Physical Growth
  • Growth Rate
  • Variant Size
  • Sex Differences
  • Permanent Teeth
  • Puberty
  • Hormonal Changes
  • Motor Development
  • Fine Motor
  • Increase
  • Myelin
  • Practice

116
  • Gross Motor Skills
  • Increase in Reaction Time
  • Muscle Development
  • Practices
  • Health Issues
  • General Health
  • Acute Vs. Chronic Illness
  • Major Issues
  • Obesity
  • Definition
  • Incidents
  • Etiologies
  • Results

117
  • Asthma
  • Definition
  • Incidence
  • Triggers
  • Emotional ( Psychological ) Health
  • Depression
  • Symptoms
  • Incidence
  • Treatment
  • Special Needs Children
  • Introduction
  • Definition

118
Major Categories ( 4 )
  • Visual Impairment
  • Blindness
  • Types
  • Auditory Impairments
  • Definition
  • Age Factor
  • Speech Impairments
  • Definition
  • Stuttering
  • Definition
  • Etiology
  • Treatment

119
  • Learning Disabilities
  • Introduction
  • Definition
  • Dyslexia
  • Definition
  • Causes
  • Treatment

120
Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
  • Definition
  • Causes
  • Treatment
  • Drug
  • Therapy

121
Cognitive Development
  • Stage III Concrete Operational ( 7 12 )
  • Piaget
  • Introduction
  • Great Leap Forward
  • Real Objects
  • Logic applied to
    Concrete
  • Real Events
  • Rules
  • Logic applied to
    Operational
  • Strategies
  • Symbols

122
Concrete Operational StageWhat a Child Can Do
  • The Three Concrete Operational Qualities
  • Decentration
  • Reversibility
  • Notion of Identity
  • Spatial Reasoning
  • Why Basic
  • Decrease in Centration

123
Basic Element Summary
  • Notion of Identity Decentration
    Decline
  • ?Reversibility
    in
  • Notion of Functionality Spacial Reasoning
    Centration

124
Main Element
  • Conversation
  • Definition
  • Expansion
  • Categorization
  • Seriation
  • Categorization Increased
  • ?
    ? Prioritization
  • Seriation Conservation

125
  • Prioritization ? Ability to plan
  • Ability to plan ? Abstract Thought

126
Information Processing ( Memory )
  • Significant Improvement
  • Schema Network Expansion
  • Brain Maturation
  • Focus
  • Planfulness
  • Hierarchy of Importance
  • Affordance
  • Elaboration
  • Chunking
  • Schema relationships
  • Meta Memory

127
Language Development
  • Vocabulary Increases
  • Improvements in Grammar, Syntax and Pragmatics
  • Language Behavior
  • Bi lingualism
  • Immersion
  • Benefits

128
Personal / Social / Moral Development
  • Personal Development
  • Definition Dimensions
  • Family ? Interlocking Dimensions
  • Self
  • Surface ? Inner
  • Stage IV Industry Vs. Inferiority
  • Erik Erikson

129
Introduction
  • Self ? Dimensions
  • Positive Resolution Self Esteem
  • ( Positive Self Image)
  • Negative Resolution Inferiority Pessimism
  • Self Concept ? Refined Solidified

130
Self Esteem
  • Critical Period
  • Segmented
  • Definition
  • Positive Aspects
  • Negative Aspects
  • Cycle of Failure
  • Period Self Esteem

131
Components of Self Esteem ( 2 )
  • Social Comparisons
  • Downward Social Comparisons
  • Attribution
  • Definition

132
  • Ability to Perform
  • Attribution
    ? Self Esteem
  • Social Comparison

  • Looping
  • Attribution can be Positive or Negative


133
Positive
  • Mastery Orientation
  • Definition
  • Achievement Motivation
  • Definition
  • Confidence
  • Looping

134
Negative
  • Learned Helplessness
  • Definition
  • Fixture of Character
  • Looping

135
Support For Positive Self Esteem
  • Attribute Retaining
  • Self Efficacy
  • Mastery Vs. Grades
  • Encouragement
  • Minimize Comparisons
  • Credit for Success
  • Non Personal Corrections

136
Social RelationshipFamily
  • Parents
  • Time
  • Regulation ? Co Regulation
  • Definition
  • Factors
  • Cognition
  • Internalization
  • Attachments
  • Parenting Style
  • Parents Vs. Social Comparison

137
Siblings
  • General
  • Sibling Rivalry
  • Birth Order
  • First
  • Middle
  • Later
  • Only Child
  • Other Family Issues

138
Self Care ( Latch Key )
  • Emotions
  • Self Esteem
  • Divorce
  • Statistics
  • Adjustment Issues
  • Outcomes
  • Blended Family
  • Definition
  • Adjustment Issues

139
Peer Social Relationships
  • Social Cognition
  • Definition
  • Formation
  • Compliant Increase in Cognition
  • Agency Social Interaction
    Social Cognition
  • Operant Conditioning

140
  • Social Cognition


  • Appropriate
  • Cognitive Development Social Strategy
    Emotional Adjustment Social


  • Behavior
  • Personality Development
  • Appropriate Social Behavior ? True
    Friendship

141
Peer Relationship Development
  • Value of Peers
  • Peer Group Development Stages (3)
  • William Damon
  • Stage I (4y 7y)
  • Mirror Image
  • Proximity ? Ability To Share
  • Personal Charact. Minimal

142
  • Stage II (7y 10y)
  • Personal Traits Increase
  • Operant Conditioning ? Reward
  • Trust Begins
  • Stage III (10y)
  • Trust ? Intimacy Loyalty
  • Closeness
  • Disclosure
  • Loyalty ? Exclusivity

143
Begin Stage III
  • Refinement
  • Gender Segregation
  • Deepening
  • Family Vs. Peer Group

144
Gender Segregation
  • Peer Group
  • Definition
  • Exclusivity ? Peer Groups
  • Peer Group ? Gender Specific
  • Gender Differences

145
Male Peer Groups
  • Larger
  • Hierarchy / Shared Activities
  • Fluid Sub Groups
  • Less Stable
  • Female Peer Groups
  • Small
  • Best Friends
  • Intimacy Trust

146
Popularity
  • Introduction
  • Exclusivity
  • Definition
  • Characteristics (2)
  • Social Competence
  • Definition
  • Basis
  • Traits
    Interrelated
  • Social Problem Solving
  • Definition
  • Basis
  • Social Competence/Problem Solving can be taught

147
Unpopularity
  • Definition
  • Consequences
  • General
  • Bullying

148
Emotional / Moral Development
  • Emotional Development
  • (Piaget)
  • Cogn. Devel. Lang. Devel. Parent. Style
    Emot. Reg.

  • Oper. Condit. Co-Self Reg
  • Pers. Devel. Self Esteem Peer Interact.
    Soc. Beh.
  • (Erikson)

149
  • Emot. Reg.
  • Co Self Reg. Emot. Stabil. Proper Response
    to Stimuli
  • Soc. Beh.

150
Moral Development
  • Definition
  • Introduction
  • Progression Levels (3) Lawrence Kohlberg
  • Continuum
  • Level I (3y) Level II (12y)
    Post Conventional (12)
  • Stage I Stage II
    Stage IV
  • Pre Conventional -Conventional
    -Morality of Contract
  • Obedience -Internalization
    -Rules Reg.
  • Expect. are met - Approval
    - Agreement
  • Gain rewards - Respect
  • Avoid punish. Stage III -
    Modification
  • Oper. Condit. - Maint. Soc. Order
    (Stage V on next slide)

151
  • Stage I Stage II Stage V ( written
    under Modification in last column)
  • Universal Ethics
  • Personal
  • Conflict
  • Heteronomous Morality

  • Distributive
  • Immanent Justice
    Justice

152
Distributive Justice
  • Definition
  • Progression Continuum
  • Equity
  • Merit
  • Special Needs
  • Special Needs
  • Merit
  • Equity

153
School Environment
  • Importance
  • Time
  • Adult Authority Figure
  • Social Comparisons
  • Importance Factors ? Self Esteem
  • Pride
  • Shame
  • Teacher Expectancy Effect
  • Definition
  • Self Fulfulling Prophecy
  • Transmission
  • Effect

154
Topic V- Adolescence (11-20yrs)
  • Introduction
  • Physical Development
  • Physical Changes
  • Females
  • Males

155
  • Puberty
  • Definition
  • Introduction
  • Hormonal Activities
  • Primary Sex Characteristics
  • Secondary Sex Characteristics

156
Primary Secondary Sex Characteristics
  • Primary Sex Characteristics
  • Females
  • Menarche
  • Males
  • Spermarche
  • Secondary Sex Characteristics
  • Females
  • Males

157
Effects of Puberty (Females/Males)
  • General
  • Females
  • Teen Pregnancy
  • Statistics
  • Consequences
  • Prevention
  • Males
  • Early Maturing
  • Late Maturing
  • Final Notes

158
Other Issues
  • Nutrition/Early Disorders
  • STD
  • Risk Behavior

159
Cognitive Development
  • Introduction
  • Piaget Process
  • Peak Function

160
Piaget- Formal Operational Thought
  • Introduction
  • Key Elements (3)
  • Abstract Thought
  • Prepositional Thought
  • Symbolic Thought
  • Systematic Problem Solving
  • Logical Thought
  • Hypothetic- deductive reasoning
  • Advance Problem Solving

161
  • Post Formal Thought
  • Piaget and Beyond
  • Post Formal Thought Characteristics
  • Adaptive Cognition
  • Acceptance of Contradiction
  • Dialectical Thinking
  • Problem Solving and Problem Finding
  • Expertise
  • Creativity
  • Final Thoughts on Cognitive Development

162
Information Processing Model
  • Introduction
  • Variation of Piaget
  • Brain Development
  • Schemas Develop
  • Meta Cognition
  • Cognitive Self Regulation

163
Personal/ Emotional/ Social Development
  • Introduction
  • Individuation
  • Ruthellen Josselyn
  • Differentiation
  • Experimentation
  • Rapproachment
  • Consolidation

164
Cognitive Development
  • Introduction
  • Prefrontal Lobe Growth
  • Cognitive Development Conflict

165
Origin of Conflict (3)
  • 1. Intellectual
  • Academic
  • Abstract
    Personal
  • Independent Environment
    Striving For
  • 2. Physical
    Emotional Maturity
  • Adult Size New Expectations
    Personal Economic
  • 3. Sexuality
    Independence

166
Formal OperationsStage IV (Piaget)
  • Introduction
  • Last Stage Most Controversial
  • Formal Operations Elements (3)
  • Abstract Thinking
    Experience
  • Prepositional Thought
  • Imagine Future Consequence
  • Idealized Thought
  • Symbolic Thought
  • Symbolic Problem Solving
  • Methodologies Alternatives

Inc r e as i ng
167
  • Logical Thought Experience
  • Formal Operations
  • Metacognition
  • Hypothetic Deductive
  • Reasoning
  • Advanced Problem Solving

I n c r e a s i n g
168
Information Processing Model
  • Piaget
  • Brain Develop. ? Capacity Increases ? Attention
  • Focuses ? Speed Increase
  • Schemas Develop
  • Expand
  • Knowledge begets Knowledge

169
  • Cognition Develops
  • Ability to think about the thinking process
  • Modify it Develop effective Problem Solving
    strategies
  • Cognitive Self Regulation
  • Moment to moment monitoring, evaluation, and
    redirection of thinking

170
Personal/ Emotional/ Social Development
  • Introduction
  • Who am I
  • Identity Shift ( Outer ? Inner )
  • Personality Development
  • Ruthellen Josselson
  • Adolescence Search For Individuation
  • Individuation 4 Stages
  • Differentiation ( 11 13 )
  • Experimentation ( 14 16 )
  • Identity Search
  • Rectitude ( Idealized Thought )
  • Lack of Caution

171
  • Rapproachment ( 16 18 )
  • Bargain / Challenge / Conciliation
  • Consolidation ( 18 )
  • Solidification
  • Interdependence

172
Stage V Identity Vs Role Diffusion / Confusion
  • Identity
  • Well Organized Concept of Self
  • Values
  • Beliefs Commitment
  • Goals

173
  • Change Ungluing
  • Cognitive
  • Physical Types of Change
  • Sexual
  • Ungluing Confusion and Conflict
  • Confusion / Conflict Moritorium
  • Moritorium

174
  • Childhood ? Ungluing ? Moritorium

  • Diffusion

  • Unsuccessful ?

  • Moritorium
  • Moritorium ? Exploration
  • Successful ? Integrated View of

  • Self

175
Diffusion Results
  • Avoidance of Closeness
  • Time Diffusion Negative
  • Industry Diffusion Identity

176
Integrated View of Self
  • Acceptance of Changes
  • Cognitive
  • Physical
  • Sexual
  • Personal Identity Direction
  • Integrated View of Self Factors
  • Proper Guidance Encouragement
  • Economics
  • Cultural Experiences

177
Personality Identity Status (James Marcia)
  • Introduction
  • Adolescence Identity Development
  • 2 parts
  • Crisis
  • Commitment
  • Crisis Commitment
  • Lack of
    Commitment
  • 4 Statuses

178
  • Moritorium
  • Crisis in Progress
  • Redefinition
  • Failure to Define ? Anxiety Conflict
  • or Choose
  • Identity Foreclosure ( Premature Commitment )
  • Commitment w/o Crisis
  • Acceptance w/o Exploration
  • Results in
  • Dogmatic
  • Intolerant
  • Inflexible

179
  • Identity Diffusion
  • Exploration ? No Commitment
  • Possible Start or End of a Crisis
  • Results in
  • No firm Sense of Self
  • External Locus of Control
  • Drug use Crime
  • Identity Achievement
  • Crisis ? Commitment
  • Results
  • Firm Sense of Self Moral Reasoning

180
  • Crisis Moritorium
    Foreclosure Role Diffusion
  • Diffusion and/or

  • Crisis Continues
  • Achievement Commitment
  • Commitment ? Proper Support
  • Too Much Pressure ? Premature Adoption
  • Negative Adoption
  • Too Little Role Diffusion (Continued Crisis)

I d e n t i t y
181
Commitment Environment
  • Parents
  • Peers
  • Economics
  • Circumstances

182
Moral Development
  • Lawrence Kohlberg
  • Review
  • Level I-Preconventional
  • Level II-Conventional
  • Level III (12 )
  • Stage IV Morality of Contract
  • Rules Regulations Moral Contract
  • Individual Rights
  • Democratically Accept Laws
  • Modification

183
Stage VI Morality of Conscious
  • Universal ethics and principles
  • Ethics Principles Transcends Societal Rules and
    Regulations (Laws)
  • Ethics of Disobedience

184
Distributive Justice
  • Definition
  • Continuum
  • Distributive Justices Special Needs
    Level III
  • Immanent Justice Merit
    Level II
  • Heteronomous Justice Equality
    Level I

185
Final Notes
  • Moral Progression
  • Concrete ? Abstract
  • Relationship between
  • Morals Eriksons Conflicts
  • Morality is based on Practicality
  • Practicality Cognition
  • Experience

186
Development of Emotional Self
  • Introduction
  • Cognition (Piaget)

  • Emotional
  • Personal Self (Josselyn, Marcia Erikson)
    Self
  • Emotional Self ? Emotional Self Regulation
  • Emotional Self Regulation ? Emotional Stability

187
Emotional Development
  • Cognition ? Metacognition
  • Metacognition ? Egocentric Thought

  • or
  • Egocentrism

188
  • Egocentrism Self
    Absorption
  • Lack of Experience Lack of Logic
  • Behavioral Results
  • Critical Behavior
    Rebellious
  • Unwillingness to Accept
  • Criticism
    Argumentative
  • Fault Finding
    Behavior

189
Egocentrism ? Perceptual Distortions (2)
  • Imaginary Audiences
  • Focus of Attention
  • Results
  • Impulsive Behavior
  • Concern w/ Appearance
  • Cliquishness
  • Personal Fable
  • Distorted Personal Image
  • Uniqueness

190
  • Imaginary Audiences
    Health/Life
  • Heroic
    Compromising
  • Personal Fable Image
    Behavior

191
Decline of Egocentrism
  • Cognition
    Coherent System

  • of
  • Personal Development
    Self
  • Segmentation New/Diverse
    Measurement
  • Self Esteem

192
Peer Groups
  • Role of Peers
  • Role Clarification
  • Value Classification
  • Buffer Support
  • Breakdown of Egocentrism
  • Vehicle of Transition

193
Types of Peer Groups (2)
  • Cliques
  • Definition
  • Gender (Sex) Cleavage ? Mixed Groups
  • Purpose
  • Crowds
  • Definition
  • Purpose
  • Late Adolescence and Peer Groups

194
Peer Pressure and The Generation Gap
  • Definitions
  • Peer Pressure
  • Generation Gap
  • Effect
  • Formidable Vs. Less Formidable
  • Rationale

195
Family Relationship (Parents)
  • Autonomy Vs. Connection Attachments
  • Introduction
  • Characteristics
  • Autonomy

196
Types of Autonomy (4)
  • Functional
  • Attitudinal
  • Emotional
  • Conflictual

197
Paradigm Shift
  • Asymmetrical Balanced
  • Gradual
  • Final Notes

198
Psychological Issues
  • Depression
  • Maj. Depressive Disorder Vs. Dysthemia
  • Definition
  • Incidence
  • Causes
  • Males Vs. Females
  • Suicide
  • Introduction
  • Cluster Suicide
  • Causes / Risks
  • Signs

Slide 199
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