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Documentation Skills

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... audiences and appropriate medium, format, style as appropriate ... Selection of appropriate medium (written, audio, video), format, style as per the context ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Documentation Skills


1
Documentation Skills
2
About this workshop
  • To help understand the meaning and the importance
    of documentation
  • To share our skills and experiences in
    documentation
  • To help identify our documentation needs, target
    audiences and appropriate medium, format, style
    as appropriate
  • To enable to document our work
  • Some tips on different methods of information
    collection such as Focus Group Discussion, Key
    Informant Interviews, Case Studies

3
What is it?
  • In general terms, its any communicable material
    (text, video, audio etc.) used to explain some
    attributes of an object, system or procedure
  • Its a tool to help individuals and development
    organisations learn from their own experiences
  • Its an accumulation of our rich experiences to
    widely share with
  • Its an organised, systematic process of note
    taking and recording that could later be used for
    policy advocacy, fund raising and monitoring and
    evaluation
  • Its a key to knowledge management
  • Its an effective source for providing relevant
    information and data that could be used for all
    purposes as appropriate

4
Why is this important?
  • To get our message across
  • To promote and mobilise resources
  • To monitor, evaluate and understand the impact
  • To consciously make changes in our work
  • To use it for advocacy purposes
  • To influence policies and practices
  • To add to institutional memory
  • To capture events, learning and experiences
  • To generate knowledge and be an authority

5
Elements of Documentation
  • Clarity on the subject and overall objective
    (what/why)
  • Complete understanding of the programme
    information (aim, time period, location,
    resources, actors, process, end results)
  • Familiarity with various tools and techniques for
    generating information (FGD, Key Informant
    Interviews, Case Studies, etc)
  • Selection of appropriate medium (written, audio,
    video), format, style as per the context
  • Good facilitation skills
  • Precise, focused, simple and easy to understand
    and use
  • Feeding back to the source
  • Cross-checking, verifying and triangulating
  • Acknowledging the source (plagiarism is
    punishable)

6
Common Skill Gaps
  • Patience (rush/hurry to document)
  • Sensitive to confidentiality
  • Shortsightedness (unaware of its longer term
    use/multiple use/reproduction)
  • Technical skill to produce as per the needs
  • Creativity and innovation (resistance to
    change/newness)
  • Quality/salability/reliability
  • Proper understanding of culture, people,
    location, norms
  • Grounded and human face
  • Progressive learning (field notes, simple
    accounts, recording daily work, field report,
    progress report, professional report)
  • To generate knowledge and be an authority (sort
    of!)

7
Means of documentation
  • Photographs
  • Videos and documentaries
  • Note taking
  • Case studies
  • Reports
  • Articles
  • Journals

8
Focus group discussion (FGD)
  • It is a group discussion of approximately 6-12
    people guided by a facilitator
  • Group members speak freely and spontaneously
    about a certain topic among themselves guided by
    a facilitator
  • It is a qualitative method to get in depth
    information on a certain topic

9
How to conduct a FGD
  • Determine purpose
  • Situation analysis
  • Selection of participants
  • Physical arrangements
  • Preparation of a discussion guide
  • A nominated facilitator or moderator and also a
    recorder
  • Normally within 60-90 minutes
  • Not more than one or two topics

10
Key Informant Interview
  • It is obtaining information from a community
    resident who is in
  • a position to know the community as a whole, or
    the particular portion you are interested in.
  • That community resident can be a professional
    person who works with the group you want more
    information about, or a member of the target
    audience.
  • Key informants can be young or old, or from a
    variety of socio-economic levels or ethnic
    groups.
  • They are an important source of information in a
    research aimed at qualitative assessment.
  • Key informants can be interviewed in an informal
    way, or you can use formal techniques, such as
    written questionnaires, telephone interviews,
    personal interviews etc

11
How to do?
  • Selecting right informant (knowledge and
    analysis)
  • Building rapport
  • Acknowledging the wisdom of the key informant
  • Finding a place for a free and open discussion
  • Exploring unclarities and sensitive information
  • Cross-checking, triangulating and verifying
  • Selecting people from various spectrums

12
Case Study
  • Method for Qualitative research.
  • In-depth, longitudinal examination of a single
    instance or event.
  • A systematic way of looking at events, collecting
    data, analyzing, information, and reporting the
    results.

13
Types of case studies
  • Illustrative case studies
  • Exploratory case studies
  • Critical instance case studies
  • Program implementation case studies
  • Program effects case studies
  • Prospective case studies
  • Cumulative case studies

14
Examples from Nepal
15
  • Advocacy through the HIV Post
  • 'HIV Post, a pioneering effort to make PLWHA
    voices heard.
  • Initially many people were not ready to accept
    the idea to train PLWHA as journalists. It was a
    difficult phase for AAN to convince the
    journalists and PLWHA themselves to accept the
    idea. Despite this AAN decided to run a
    journalist training programme for PLWHA, which
    was a pioneering effort in the country. C o n s c
    i o u s Media Forum, an AAN partner, took the
    responsibility to train PLWHA as j o u r n a l i
    s t s . Initially even PLWHA were not ready to be
    the part of this team. Finally, after constant
    effort, Nava Kiran Plus came forward to be a part
    of this new initiative. After six months, some
    news articles and feature articles initiated by
    the participants themselves started to appear in
    different newspapers. After the end of the
    training, these journalists came up with an idea
    to publish a newspaper entitled, "HIV Post". An
    issue of The HIV Post.

16
  • Since then, HIV Post has been a popular newspaper
    covering HIV and AIDS issues in the country. This
    publication has been instrumental in making the
    government, UN agencies, donors, INGOs and NGOs
    realise the gaps in their programmes and
    policies. The Global Fund debate of HIV Post was
    a path breaking effort to catch the global
    interest in Nepal. World AIDS day was an
    inspiring day for HIV Post when 'The Kathmandu
    Post', one of the most popular English national
    dailies, published HIV Post in its supplement
    free of cost. This has further motivated the
    PLWHA journalist that they can write even in the
    mainstream English newspaper.

17
  • Policy contributions toward protecting the
  • rights of poor farmers
  • Nepal needs to enact legislation on intellectual
    property
  • and plant variety protection which conforms
    with the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual
    Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement of the WTO. In
    view of this requirement, the Ministry of
    Industry, Commerce and Supplies (MoICS), the
    focal ministry for WTO issues in Nepal, and the
    Multilateral Trade Integration and Human
    Development Project of the United Nations
    Development Programme (UNDP) have drafted a bill
    entitled Plant Variety Protection and Farmers'
    Rights, which is to be enacted by 2005. During
    the stakeholder consultation meeting organised by
    these organisations, AAN and its partner SAWTEE
    made critical contributions to the draft and
    convinced the drafters and other stakeholders to
    amend provisions that undermined the interests of
    the Nepalese farmers.

18
  • AAN also prepared and submitted a report called
    'Legal Regime on Nepal's Accession to WTO' to the
    Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Supplies. The
    report was prepared in consultation with the
    legal community in order to identify pragmatic
    options for ratifying WTO membership in the
    absence of an elected parliament. The main ideas
    recommended in the report were adopted by the
    government in the ratification document it
    submitted to the WTO.

19
Radio programme
  • The joint initiative by Punarjivan Kendra,
    ActionAid Nepal, Dharan Municipality, Itahari
    Municipality and Damak Municipality in the year
    2001-2002 could produce some
  • effective results in raising awareness among the
    larger population and organizing PLHA's informal
    group for enhancing rights based campaigns. As a
    result Dharan positive group was formed under the
    initiation of PJK and AAN. Dharan Positive Group
    has been growing organically and it has been
    registered in Social welfare Council in 2006 as
    an independent organization of HIV infected Drug
    users and affected women as well. Dharan Positive
    has 50 positive members. They have been
    conducting mass awareness programs by running
    radio program 'Naya Goreto' broadcasted through
    Saptakoshi FM every week. Naya Goreto is a weekly
    radio program advocating for the rights of PLHA
    and has broadcasted more than 100 episodes till
    now and PJK and DPS claims it to be the first
    initiative in South Asia.

20
  • The best part of the program is that the radio
    anchors are themselves HIV positive who run the
    program on their own, narrating the positive
    lives of the people living with HIV sensitizing
    the communities at large.
  • The program's impact was the increasing number of
    their listeners and hence the formation of
    listener's clubs of youths and students.
  • In a village named as Bara near Dharan, the
    school going children listen the Naya Goreto
    every week. Inspired by the program, they formed
    a small listener's group. This group listens the
    program every week and transfers it to the
    village people by a microphone. Besides the radio
    program, PJK and DPS publish their bulletin
    through which, they share their voices and
    advocate for their rights.
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