alPHa - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – alPHa PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 9b31d-M2RkZ



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

alPHa

Description:

alPHa – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:43
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 72
Provided by: lawrenc95
Category:
Tags: alpha | sew

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: alPHa


1
Building for Health From Vision to reality
Developing Tools to Evaluate the Health Impacts
of Land Use and Transportation
  • alPHa

Dr. Lawrence Frank, President, LFC, Inc. and
Bombardier Chair Sustainable Transportation
University of British Columbia
www.act-trans.ubc.ca
2
The built environment affects our health
3
Transportation , travel choices and outcomes
4
Working Across Sectors
Dr. Lawrence Frank
5
The Energy Balance Equation
Energy In
Energy Out
Body Weight
6
Obesity Trends Among Canadian Adults HPS, 1985
(BMI ? 30, or 30 lbs overweight for 54 woman)
Source Katzmarzyk PT. Can Med Assoc J
20021661039-1040.
7
Obesity Trends Among Canadian Adults NPHS, 1994
(BMI ? 30, or 30 lbs overweight for 54 woman)
Source Katzmarzyk PT. Can Med Assoc J
20021661039-1040.
8
Obesity Trends Among Canadian Adults CCHS, 2000
(BMI ? 30, or 30 lbs overweight for 54 woman)
Source P.T. Katzmarzyk, Unpublished Results.
Data from Statistics Canada. Health Indicators,
May, 2002.
9
Obesity Trends Among Canadian Adults Provinces
(measured) CCHS, 2004 Territories (self-report)
CCHS, 2002
Data from Statistics Canada.
10
Change is Inevitable. In a progressive Country
change is constant. Benjamin Disraeli, 1867
11
Position Statement on Urban Planning Public
Health
  • Peel Health will provide leadership community
    support to ensure that public health
    considerations are integrated into the future
    urban growth development of the Region so that
    vibrant safe communities are created that
    protect enhance the health of all members of
    the community while increasing their quality of
    life.
  • Seattle / King County - Developing an evidence
    based tool to guide local decision making on land
    use and transportation Investment based on the
    health and climate change impacts

12
Purpose
  • Purpose of this project Develop an
    evidence-based, prototype health assessment tool
    using local data
  • Goal provide greater opportunities for active
    living in the Peel Region. 
  • Priorities can be used at the secondary and
    block plan level (development review) or to
    evaluate broader scale planning / development
    alternatives

13
.
Proximity
2 KM
1 KM
Connect- ivity
14
Blair, et al, 1996 Surgeon Generals Report 10
years ago
15
The Current Evidence
  • An association exists between community design
    and health, environmental, and energy indicators
  • As walkability increases (compact, mixed use,
    connected streets) so does walking, overall
    physical activity, and transit use
  • As walkability increases obesity decreases and so
    does per capita vehicle use and associated air
    pollution, greenhouse gas, and energy consumption

16
Measuring Urban Form
Proximity Density and Land Use Mix
Directness Street Network Connectivity
17
(No Transcript)
18
Low Walkability Postal Code Buffers with High
Proportions of the Elderly
Josh Van Loon and Larry Frank
19
Land Use, Transportation, Air Quality Health
Study
  • King Countys
  • HealthScape
  • Study

20
Walkability
  • Mixed Use
  • Density
  • Street Connectivity
  • Amount of Retail

Census Block Groups
21
(No Transcript)
22
Residential Buffer
23
OZONE - AIR POLLUTION
LIVE
WORK
Volatile Organic Compounds Intersection
Density Where People Live (n2467)
Volatile Organic Compounds and Retail Use Where
People Work (n2467)
Controlled for gender, income, age, total
number of vehicles in the house VOC differences
across quartiles significant (plt0.001
24
The Choice to Walk Larger Numbers Stronger
Relationship
Assessed at Place of Residence
25
A 5 Increase in Walkability is associated with
a
  • 32 increase in minutes of walking and biking
  • A ¼ pt reduction in BMI
  • About ½ kilogram
  • A 6.5 reduction in per capita vehicle miles
    traveled
  • A 5.5 percent reduction in ozone precursors
  • Oxides of Nitrogen and Volatile Organic Compounds

Frank et al 2006. Many Pathways from Land Use to
Health. Journal of the American Planning
Association.
26
Walking for Non-Work Purposes
  • Over a two-day period the odds of someone
    reporting a walk trip increased by
  • 20 percent for each additional park in their 1
    kilometer network buffer
  • 21 percent for each additional educational
    facility within their 1 kilometer network buffer

27
Transit for Work Purposes
  • Over a two-day period the odds of someone
    reporting a transit trip decreased by
  • 16 percent with each ¼ mile increase in the
    distance to transit from the place of residence
  • 32 percent with each ¼ mile increase in the
    distance to transit from the place of employment
  • 45 percent with each additional household vehicle

28
(No Transcript)
29
(No Transcript)
30
Access to jobs
31
Predictors of Obesity

Coefficient

t
-
Ratio

P
-
Value

Age

0.012


0.000

6.00
-
4
.71

0.000

Education

-
0.080

-
4.75

0.000

-
0.057

Income

-
2.04

0.034

Walk Distance

-
0.049

2.875

0.003

Car Time

0.001

-
5.65

0.000

Land Use Mix

-
2.035

3.930

0.000

0.311

Black Male

5.09

0.000

Black Female

0.372

-
11.3

0.000

White Female

-
0.871

-
2.22

0.026

Constant

-
0.497

Frank, L., Andresen, M., and Schmid, T., Obesity
Relationships With Community Design, Physical
Activity, and Time Spent in Cars. American
Journal of Preventive Medicine. June 2004.

32
Obesity Results Driving and Walking
  • Every additional 30 minutes spent driving per day
    translates into a 3 percent increase in the
    likelihood of obesity
  • Time spent driving increases as walkability
    decreases
  • Every additional Kilometer (.6 miles) walked
    translates into 4.8 percent reduction in the
    likelihood of being obese
  • Distances walked increases with walkability

Frank, L., Andresen, M., and Schmid, T., Obesity
Relationships With Community Design, Physical
Activity, and Time Spent in Cars. American
Journal of Preventive Medicine. June 2004.
33
Obesity Results Mixed Use
  • A white male 5 10 on average weighs 190 lbs in
    the least mixed use and 180 lbs in the most mixed
    use environments of Atlanta
  • A 10 pound difference

34
(No Transcript)
35
(No Transcript)
36
Physical Activity Findings
  • Deployed activity monitors on 523 participants
  • People in the most walkable areas of Atlanta are
    2.4 times more likely to meet the 30 minutes per
    day of moderate activity recommended by the U.S.
    Surgeon General
  • 37 in the most and 18 in the least walkable
    areas of the region met this basic requirement

Frank, Lawrence, D., Schmid, Tom, Sallis, James
E., Chapman, James, Saelens, Brian. (2005).
Linking Objectively Measured Activity with
Measured Urban Form. American Journal of
Preventive Medicine. Volume 28, No. 2S.
(see www.act-trans.ubc.ca)
37
LOGISTIC REGRESSION ANALYSES PREDICTING THE ODDS
OF WALKING AT LEAST ONCE OVER 2-DAYS
NS not significant, plt.05 (95), plt.01
(99), plt.001 (99.9)
controlling for socio-demographics and stratified
by age group (Averaged over 2 day period)
Urban Form Relationships with Walk Trip
Frequency and Distance among Youth Lawrence
Frank, PhD, Jacqueline Kerr, PhD, Jim Chapman,
James Sallis, PhD, American Journal of Health
Promotion
plt.05, plt.01, plt.001
38
Nutrition and Transportation Study (NEAT)
  • Energy Balance equation Calories in Vs Out
  • Evaluating Relative effects of physical activity
    and where people go for food on Body Weight
  • Nutrition and Transportation Study (NEAT)
  • Funded by Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (April
    2006-07)
  • Results from the SMARTRAQ Atlanta Study
  • Shows different relationships between physical
    activity and food outlet visitation on Body Mass
    Index

39
Differences Across Gender Ethnicity Reported In
2004
40
WHAT ABOUT WHERE PEOPLE GO FOR FOOD?
  • Using Travel Survey and Physical Activity Data
  • Walkability
  • Physical Activity
  • Food Outlet Visitation
  • OUTCOME BMI

41
(No Transcript)
42
BMI MODELS ACROSS GENDER
43
BMI MODELS ACROSS RACE
44
Causation? Controlling for Neighborhood
Preference
45
Neighborhood Preferences and Trade-Offs
46
Lot Size and Drive Time
Stated Preference (Q3a, Q3b, Q3c)
47
Latent Demand Lot Size and Drive Time
  • 33 of the people who live in neighborhoods that
    are far away (15-18 miles) from work, school, and
    other important destinations would rather live on
    smaller lots and be closer to these destinations.

48
Street Design and Travel Options
Stated Preference (Q8a, Q8b, Q8c)
49
Latent Demand Street Design and Travel Options
  • 34 of the people who live in neighborhoods with
    cul-de-sacs would prefer the increased travel
    options of a connected grid, even if it means
    there are more people from other neighborhoods
    walking and driving on their street.

50
Prefers a Walkable Community Design
Maximum
2
1
Built Environment
High Walkability
Low Walkability
Neighborhood Preferences
3
4
Minimum
Prefers Auto - Based Community Design
51
(No Transcript)
52
PREFERENCE VS NEIGHBORHOOD DESIGN
53
Lawrence Frank and Co., Inc.
54
Next Steps
  • Applying the research
  • To land development decisions
  • To transportation investment decisions
  • Development of an evidence based cost / benefit
    model
  • Creating a Health Impact Assessment Tool
  • Across multiple outcomes
  • Physical activity and obesity links with disease
    onset
  • Vehicle emissions and air quality links with
    respiratory based ailments
  • Bottom line
  • Increases in health care and environmental costs
    warrant careful investigation into ways to
    proactively reduce adverse health impacts of land
    development and transportation investment actions

55
Application of Research Results to a Tool for
the Region of Peel
56
Next Steps for Peel
Evidence / Best Practices Review (Nov 2007
April 2008)
Stakeholder Meetings / Forums (November 2007
May 2008)
  • Develop methodological framework (Spring 2008)
  • Database development (Spring Summer 2008)
  • Descriptive Analysis (Fall 2008)
  • Development of prototype model (Fall 2008)

57
Springbrook Community Subarea 2 Block Plan
58
Local Health Outcome Data
  • Primary Data Source Canadian Community Health
    Survey (CCHS)
  • Sampled over 2,000 Peel Region residents
  • Relevant topics/questions include
  • Height / weight / BMI / obese or overweight
    status
  • Physical activity / walking and bicycling /
    sedentary activities
  • Chronic conditions associated with obesity
    diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease
  • Mental health
  • Respiratory Illness
  • Could use regional travel surveys as secondary
    data source to estimate walk/bike/transit trips
    and other transportation patterns

59
Peel Region Transportation (2001)
Source Peel Data Centre http//www.region.peel.o
n.ca/planning/pdc/data/transportation/tomorrow/tri
ps-by-mode.htm
60
Alternatives Analysis The Chino Pilot
  • Applied results of our past research to
    alternative development scenarios for 3
    neighborhoods in Chino
  • Goal scale similar to Peel Region project

61
Riverside Drive Alternative 1
  • Trend Scenario

62
Riverside Drive Alternative 2
  • Residential Emphasis Scenario

63
Riverside Drive Alternative 3
  • Mixed-Use Node Scenario

64
Riverside Drive Results
65
Alternatives Analysis, part 2 King County, WA
HealthScape project and the PLACE3S model
  • Goal
  • Create a tool that can evaluate potential health
    and climate change impacts of land development
    actions
  • Comprehensive plans
  • Changes in development regulations
  • Changes in neighborhood plans
  • Transit-Oriented Development

66
Base The PLACE3S Model
  • Developed by the Sacramento Area Council of
    Governments (SACOG) / California Energy
    Commission
  • Web-based application
  • Parcel-based modeling structure
  • Outputs can be fed back into regional travel
    model
  • Works at a number of scales neighborhood level
    to regional
  • Already measures impacts on a variety of
    indicators energy, transportation,
    jobs/economic development

67
PLACE3S Model Development Process
  • Build statistical models that express the
    relationship between urban form measures and the
    outcomes (CO2 from transport, physical activity,
    BMI)
  • PLACE3S can calculate change in these urban form
    measures for development alternatives
  • Outcomes will be added as PLACE3S indicators

68
BOTH WHERE GROWTH GOES HOW IT IS DESGINED
MATTERS
69
Zoning and Health
  • Zoning was enabled by provinces and states for
    local governments to control land use to promote
    the health, safety and welfare of the public
    (1926).
  • Euclidean zoning was conceived as a way to
    ensure the separation of noxious unhealthy uses
    from where people lived.
  • Over three quarters of a century later, the
    separation of residential, retail, commercial,
    and industrial uses is a standard zoning
    practice.

70
Impact Fees / Permitting Indirect Source Rule
San Joaquin Air Pollution Control District, CA
  • Evaluates project level emissions from
    development
  • Proposed developments must mitigate impacts of
    emissions over threshold or pay impact fees
  • URBEMIS model used to predict emissions /
    estimate impacts of mitigation strategies
  • Mitigation strategies include compact
    development, mixed land uses, interconnected
    street networks, sidewalks bike paths,
    transit-oriented project design/location.

71
Nothing Great Was Ever Achieved Without
Enthusiasm Ralph Waldo Emerson
About PowerShow.com