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451 Chapter 5: Syntax

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Constituents that can be substituted for one another with loss of grammaticality ... I've got [a date] with Paris Hilton. When [does she] arrive? Key Vocabulary ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 451 Chapter 5: Syntax


1
451 Chapter 5 Syntax
  • Making it stick together…
  • Covering Sections 1-3…

2
Why Syntax?
3
Key Vocab
  • Grammatical ( ungrammatical)
  • Transformational Grammar
  • Universal Grammar
  • Lexicon
  • Computational System
  • Merge
  • Move

4
Get Some Exercise (ex. 1)
  • Grammatical or Ungrammatical?
  • The pilot landed the plane
  • The plane landed
  • The journalist wrote the article
  • The article wrote
  • The instructor told the students to read
  • The instructor suggested the students to read

5
Syntactic Categories
  • Lexical - N, V, Adj, Adv
  • Nonlexical - Articles, Prepositions, etc
  • Identification Strategies
  • Meaning
  • Inflection
  • Distribution

6
Key Vocabulary
  • Constituent
  • Groups and subgroups of words that go
    together
  • Syntactic category
  • Constituents that can be substituted for one
    another with loss of grammaticality
  • NP, PP, Art, Conj, S, VP, Adj, Pro…

7
Get Some Exercise (ex. 2)
  • Identify the category of each word
  • That glass broke suddenly
  • My paintings never seem quite right
  • Dont forget to supplement coming to class with
    reading the textbook doing the exercises

8
Syntactic Category NP
  • _________ was given a flag.
  • The son of Isabel and Sam
  • Isabels son
  • The boy
  • Joe

9
Identify NPs
10
Syntactic Category VP
  • Joe __________________.
  • Finish the sentence

11
Constituency Tests
  • Substitution
  • Pronoun
  • Question Word
  • Relocation
  • Conjunction
  • …. but
  • Ambiguity
  • All for 1 1 for all

12
Phrase Structure Rules
  • Define possible constituent groups
  • What can a ____ look like…
  • NP
  • VP
  • Etc.
  • Enable generalizations
  • Describe constituent groups without long lists
    of possible words…
  • Link to phrase structure trees

13
Phrase Structure Rules English
  • NP ? N Joe
  • NP ? Art N the boy
  • NP ? Art Adj N the smart boy
  • NP ? Art Adj2 N the big smart boy
  • NP ? Pro he
  • NP ? (Art) (Adj) N
  • Pro


14
Phrase Structure Rules Contd
  • NP ? Art (Adj) N
  • the boy smart (not Standard English) (can be
    predicted by the rule…)
  • Spanish
  • el muchacho inteligente (default style)
  • ?el inteligente muchacho (special
    situations?)
  • You tell me… a NP default rule for Spanish

15
Write a rule for Korean (just 1 is OK)
The following data is from Korean.
a) Terry-ka ku yeca-lul coahanta. Terry-NOM th
at girl-ACC likes Terry likes that girl. b)
I noin-i hakkyo ey kassta. this man-NOM school
to went This man went to school. c) Sue-ka
chinkwu eykey chayk-ul ilkessta.
Sue-NOM friend to book-ACC read
Sue read the book to a friend.
16
Key Vocabulary
  • Constituent structure tree
  • AKA Phrase-structure tree
  • Diagram of a phrase or sentence that reduces
    repetition by the use of syntactic category
    labels in the branches of a tree

17
NP ? (Art) (Adj) Noun
Noun Phrase Article Adjective Noun The
smart boy
18
Get Some Exercise (ex. 3)
  • Treeing NPs OtherPs
  • The zoo
  • Always try
  • Very competent

19
Using Trees Ambiguity
  • The son of Isabel and Sam
  • You tell me… Where is the break for each
    meaning?

20
Ambiguity Illustrated
  • NP
  • NP PP
  • Art N P NP
  • N Conj. N
  • the son of Isabel and Sam

21
Ambiguity Illustrated Contd
  • NP
  • NP Conj NP
  • NP PP NP
  • art N Prep N N
  • The son of Isabel and Sam

22
Ambiguity Resolved
  • The trees disambiguate the meaning…
  • …of course, they do other stuff too…

23
Verb Phrases Sentences
  • More Rules Trees…

24
You tell me
  • John found a ball.
  • John found a ball in the grass.
  • John found.
  • John found in the grass.
  • A VP phrase-structure rule would be
  • VP ? Vt NP (PP)

25
Key Vocabulary New
  • Subcategorization
  • Restricts how lexical items can occur
  • Examples
  • Transitive Verb VP ? Vt (adj) NP
  • Find, love, destroy
  • Intransitive Verb VP ? Vi (adv)
  • Die, sleep

26
Key Vocabulary Review
  • Phrase Structure Rules
  • Specify grammatical ways of putting sentences
    together
  • Lexical insertion rules
  • Match syntactic categories with words or
    morphemes at the bottom of a tree

27
Joe got a flag
  • IP
  • NP VP
  • N I NP
  • pst Vt Det N
  • Joe got a flag

28
Diagram THIS! (ex. 4-5)
Start with Play ball (Beware the subject
here…) then try Youre going down, Roberts
29
Get Some Exercise (ex. 6-7)
  • Are these constituents? Use Substitution
    Movement tests…
  • Ive got a date with Paris Hilton
  • When does she arrive?

30
Key Vocabulary
  • Transformational rule
  • an operation that moves, deletes, or inserts a
    category
  • a rule that applies to a syntactic tree to yield
    a new syntactic tree.

31
Transformations
32
Transformations (Movement)
IP NP VP I V
- pst
That seat is taken
  • CP
  • C
  • Is
  • Questions
  • Yes / No
  • Wh-
  • Do Insertion
  • CP Complement Phrase
  • Surface Underlying Structures…

X
33
Another Transformation?
  • What is the underlying sentence?
  • What should the tree look like after
    transformation?



34
Complement Clauses (ex. 9)
  • Key words (English)
  • That
  • Whether
  • If …
  • This is the house that Jack built…
  • Sentence embedded in a sentence
  • Universal

35
Transformation Safari
  • Find at least one TRANSFORMATION from a
    naturally occurring source
  • Y/N?
  • WH-?
  • DO insertion
  • Relative
  • Passive
  • Copy (or print screen) and bring to class

36
Get Some Exercise (ex. 10-11)
  • Diagram the following sentences
  • Who should the director call?
  • Who should call the director?
  • HINT Only one of the sentences has visible
    movement…

37
Additional Notes (value of trees)
  • Structure Dependent Rules
  • Surface words ? important
  • Transformational rules ? constituents
  • Head NP agrees with Main VP
  • Regardless of intervening structures
  • Regardless of transformations

38
Internalized Syntax allows us to
  • produce and understand an infinite set of
    utterances
  • distinguish between grammatical and ungrammatical
    strings
  • interpret certain strings as well-formed
    grammatically but ill-formed semantically
  • interpret certain strings as well-formed
    semantically but ill-formed grammatically
  • understand the full meaning of a sentence from a
    string of words, which may not contain all the
    words necessary for an accurate interpretation
  • perceive when two or more strings are synonymous
    (paraphrase)
  • perceive structural ambiguity in a grammatical
    string
  • account for grammatical and logical relations
    within a sentence
  • Just Do It Provide examples for each of the
    above…

39
Additional Structures (section 5…)
  • Coordination
  • Pulls two parts together
  • Relatives
  • Tells more about an NP
  • Passives
  • Changes the focus
  • De-emphasizes or obscures the actor

40
Exercises
  • Recommended
  • 1-7, 9-11
  • You can skip 8 12-14
  • Explore the poetry on pages 198-200…

41
Tomorrow
  • Chapter 6 Semantics
  • Understand trees,
  • Focus on concepts
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