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AIRMISTFOAM AND UNDERBALANCED DRILLING TECHNOLOGY

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1960 - AEC Foam, Nuclear Holes. 1965 - Aerated U.S.. 1968 - Chevron Foam, California. ... Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: AIRMISTFOAM AND UNDERBALANCED DRILLING TECHNOLOGY


1
Candidate Selection
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
2
Under-Balanced Fluids
  • Air (N2, Gas)
  • Mist
  • Gaseated
  • Foam
  • Oil
  • Water
  • Mud

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
3
Subjects Covered
  • Candidate Selection
  • Flow Drilling
  • Aerated
  • Foam
  • Air/Gas/N2
  • Completions

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
4
Reasons for UB Drilling
  • 1. Limit lost circulation
  • 2. Improve drilling rate
  • 3. Avoid differential sticking
  • 4. Protect reservoir

Other benefits are not reasons.
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
5
Results
  • Improve the rate of return on investment.

(Broadened Scope)
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
6
Candidate Selection
  • Historical Perspective

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
7
Cable Tools
  • The first underbalanced drillers.
  • No skin damage.
  • Great production.

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
8
UB History
  • 1938 - California Gas Drilling.
  • 1948 - Aerated, Big Lake Texas.
  • 1960 - AEC Foam, Nuclear Holes.
  • 1965 - Aerated U.S.
  • 1968 - Chevron Foam, California.
  • 1986 - Aerated Canada.
  • 192? - Russia, Where? What?

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
9
Underbalanced Drilling Areas 2000
Lost Circulation. Drilling Rate Reservoir
Protection Geothermal
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
10
Number of Underbalanced Wells in Canada
1500
1600
1400
1200
1000
Total Number of Wells
800
525
600
330
400
230
120
200
30
0
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
Year
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
11
New Subject Underbalance Fluids Summary
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
12
Drilling Fluid Densities
1.2
1.0
0
2.0
0.5
.4
2.3
0.002
Types of Drilling Fluids and Their Relative
Densities
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
13
Categories of UB Drilling
  • Air and gas drilling.
  • Mist drilling.
  • Foam drilling.
  • Gaseated drilling.
  • Flow drilling.

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
14
Gas Drilling
  • First commercial UB drilling was with gas in the
    U.S. (1940s)

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
15
Gas Drilling Common Drilling Gases
  • Air.
  • Natural gas.
  • Nitrogen.
  • Engine exhaust (Nitrogen).

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
16
Gas Drilling, Producing 3MM SCF/day
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
17
Western Air Drilling, 1954
First Widespread use came with development of
portable air compressors.
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
18
Advantages of Gas Drilling
  • Increase drilling rate.
  • No lost circulation
  • No differential sticking.
  • Minimal reservoir damage.

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
19
Problems with Gas Drilling
  • Water.
  • Washouts, especially in coal.
  • Corrosion.
  • Downhole fires with air.
  • Crooked hole.

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
20
Air/Mist Drilling
  • Water detergent is added to air (or gas) when
    the hole becomes damp or when it is too washed
    out to lift the cuttings.
  • Water added is normally between 5 bbl/hr to 10
    bbl/hr (0.8 m3/hr to 1.5 m3/hr).

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
21
Categories of UB Drilling
  • Air and gas drilling.
  • Foam drilling.
  • Gaseated drilling.
  • Flow drilling.

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
22
Foam Drilling
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
23
FOAM Has the greatest potential of any of the
Light fluids.
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
24
Advantages of Foam Drilling
  • Great lifting capacity.
  • Controllable BHP.
  • Increase drilling rate.
  • No lost circulation
  • No differential sticking.
  • Minimal reservoir damage.

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
25
Problems with Foam Drilling
  • Complex mixture-Hard to get a proper mixture and
    maintain it properly.
  • Disposal/Storage.
  • Cost.

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
26
Categories of UB Drilling
  • Air and gas drilling.
  • Foam drilling.
  • Gaseated drilling.
  • Flow drilling.

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
27
Gaseated Drilling
  • Gaseated or aerated drilling uses a mixture of
    fluid and gas.
  • Gas may generally be any gas.
  • Fluid may be from oil to water to drilling mud.
  • No binding agent is used (foamer).

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
28
Gaseated Separator
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
29
Advantages of Gaseated Drilling
  • Increase drilling rate.
  • No lost circulation
  • No differential sticking.
  • Minimal reservoir damage.

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
30
Problems with Gaseated Drilling
  • Surging (causing overpressures or caving).
  • Corrosion (not with nitrogen).
  • Hole caving.

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
31
Categories of UB Drilling
  • Air and gas drilling.
  • Foam drilling.
  • Gaseated drilling.
  • Flow drilling.

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
32
Flow Drilling
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
33
Flow Drilling
  • Conventional Mud Used in an Underbalanced
    Condition

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
34
Advantages of Flow Drilling
  • Uses regular mud system.
  • Least expensive way of UB drilling.
  • No lost returns.
  • No differential sticking.
  • Improved ROP.

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
35
Problems with Flow Drilling
  • Limited ability to reduce annular pressure below
    normal reservoir pressures.
  • Drilling with a constant well flow or potential
    of well flow.

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
36
All Good Ideas
  • All have problems.
  • Nothing works all the time.
  • UB does not improve production all of the time.

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
37
Candidate Selection
  • COMMENTS!!
  • Underbalanced Drilling Benefits

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
38
Underbalanced Drilling
  • New processes involve risk.
  • Budget enough money.
  • Dont promise too much.

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
39
Have at Least One Good Economic Reason or
Technical Reason
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
40
Remember the Learning Curve !!!!
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
41
UB Drilling Applications
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
42
UB Drilling Applications
  • Drilling.
  • Lost returns.
  • Drilling rate.
  • Differential pressure sticking.
  • Limited water.
  • Reservoir protection.

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
43
Lost Returns
  • Reduce the mud density.
  • Dont add junk.

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
44
Lost Circulation Candidates
  • Permeability gt 1,000 md.
  • Large fractures (gt100 micron opening).
  • Vugular porosity.
  • Overbalanced gt 1,000 psi with conventional fluids.

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
45
Increased Drilling Rate Effect of Differential
Pressure
70
7-7/8 TRICONE BIT 30,000 lbs. WOB 60 RPM
60
50
40
AUSTIN CHALK
DRILLING RATE (ft/hr)
p
b
30
MANCOS SHALE
20
10
COLTON SANDSTONE
p
p
0
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE (psi)
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
46
Drilling Rate-UB Effect of Differential Pressure
Perfect Cleaning
DRILLING RATE (ft/hr)
p
b
Bit Flounder
p
p
-500
0
500
1000
DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE (psi)
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
47
Hard Rock Crooked Hole
  • Air Hammer.
  • Pendulum.

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
48
Differential Pressure Sticking
DRILL PIPE
PH
FILTER CAKE
, K
Pf
PH gt Pf
DRILL COLLAR
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
49
Limited Water
  • Desert Semi-Arid Regions
  • Algeria
  • South Yemen
  • Libya
  • SW United States

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
50
UB Drilling Applications (2)
  • Formation damage avoidance.
  • Skin damage.
  • Fluid-fluid sensitivity.
  • Fluid-formation sensitivity.
  • Depleted zones.

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
51
Formation Damage
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
52
Depleted Zones
  • Slow drilling rate.
  • Lost returns.
  • Differential pressure sticking.
  • Reservoir damage.

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
53
Skin Damage
Filter Cake
Reservoir Core
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
54
Skin Damage Due to Filter Cake and Mud Solids
10 micron pore throat 1-3 micron solids
Effective External Filtrate Seal
10 micron pore throat 1 micron smaller solids
Internal Plugging
10 micron pore throat 10 micron solids
some smaller solids
Ineffective External Seal for Small Fines
Filtrate
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
55
Skin Damage
  • Avoidance Techniques
  • UB Drilling
  • Non-Invasive Mud Cake
  • Ultra Clean Drill-in Fluid

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
56
Fluid Sensitivity
1. Fluid-Formation Reaction (Shale Instability)
2.
Fluid-Fluid Reaction (Emulsions)
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
57
Mechanism for Formation Blocking (Bennion, 1995)
Non Wetting Phase
Fines
Wetting Phase
Case 1 Non-Wetting phase in motion- minimal
fines migration
Non Wetting Phase
Case 2 Wetting phase in motion - potential for
fines migration
Non Wetting
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
58
Formation Damage - Fractured Formations
Fracture Plugging
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
59
Mechanism for Formation Blocking (Bennion,
1995) Fractured Formations
100 micron fracture 10 micron solids
High losses, minimal damage
100 micron fracture 10-100 micron solids
Sealed Fracture, depth of invasion dependent on
solids size distribution and overbalanced
100 micron fracture 10-500 micron solids
Poor Seal, potential continued leak-off of
filtrate and small solids
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
60
UB Drilling in Fractured Reservoirs
No Invasion of Top Fractures While Underbalanced
Produced Fluid
Drilling Fluid
1
2
Fluid Balance or Micro Fracture
Gravity Displacement
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
61
Potential Formation Damage Mechanism in
Different Sand Reservoir Types
Solids Invasion
Fines Migration
Biological Damage
Phase Trapping
Chemical Adsorption
Fluid-Fluid Incompatibility
Rock-Fluid Incompatibility
Effect of High Overbalanced
Damage Mechanism
Homogenous Sand-Clean
Homogenous Sand-Dirty
Laminated Sand-Clean
Laminated Sand-Dirty
Unconsolidated Sand
Fractured Sand Perm-Matrix
Probable Possible
Unlikely
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
62
Potential Formation Damage Mechanism in
Different Sand Reservoir Types
Fluid-Fluid Incompatibility
Rock-Fluid Incompatibility
Effect of High Overbalanced
Chemical Adsorption
Fines Migration
Phase Trapping
Biological Damage
Solids Invasion
Damage Mechanism
Fractured Sand Low Perm Matrix
Homogenous Carbonate
Fractured Carbonate Impermeable Matrix
Fractured Carbonate Permeable Matrix
Vugular Carbonate
Probable Possible
Unlikely
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
63
Candidate Selection
  • Underbalanced Drilling Limitations

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
64
UB Limits
  • UB is not an enhancement technique.
  • Mud column pressure is not a seal against
  • Well kick.
  • Broken or fractured formation.
  • Weak formations.
  • Heaving shale.

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
65
Underbalanced Problem
ROTATING BOPs
COMPRESSOR / N2 COST
SOLID/LIQUID/GAS SEPARATION
CORROSION
HYDRAULIC CALCULATIONS
VIBRATIONS
CUTTINGS LIFTING
FLUID INFLUX
UNDERBALANCED COMPLETION
FIRE/ EXPLOSIONS
HIGH TORQUE/
DRAG
BOREHOLE STABILITY
MWD TRANSMISSION
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
66
If a reservoir will not produce without
fracturing it is probably a poor UB prospect.
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
67
Warning
  • A poor prospect can prove failure. You must
    gamble with a well that can succeed.

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
68
The Absolute Rule for UB Operations
…ITS NOT WHAT YOU KNOW THAT HURTS YOU. …ITS
WHAT YOU KNOW THATS NOT TRUE!
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
69
The No-Go Screen
  • If the following occurs within the open hole
    section
  • DONT DRILL UNDERBALANCED
  • 1. Geopressured shales
  • 2. Steeply dipping fractured formations
  • 3. Thick broken coals
  • 4. What about sands? - not sandstone

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
70
Primary Cause of Well Bore Collapse
  • NATURAL CAUSES
  • Fractured or Faulted Zones
  • High Pore Pressure (Geopressure)
  • Weak, Low Strength Rocks
  • High in Situ Stresses

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
71
Primary Causes of Well Bore Collapse
  • INDUCED PROBLEMS
  • Pressure Surges
  • Wetted Shales

Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
72
Compressive Failure Models
Naturally fractured rock
Compressive Yielding and collapse
Friable Sandstone
Formation Breakdown and Lost Circulation
Brittle Shales
Induced hydraulic fracture
Salt
Convergence
Swelling Shales
Wellbore Pressure
Natural or Induced fractures
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
73
WELLSTAB - MEI Wellbore Stability
Model Mechanical/Chemical Stability
Design Multi-Depth Analysis Microsoft Office
Report
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
74
END
Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering
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