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Qualitative Modeling in Education

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Limited, machine-understandable ontology of modeling elements (flexible but limited set) ... develop more sophisticated understandings and modeling techiniques ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Qualitative Modeling in Education


1
Qualitative Modeling in Education
  • By Bert BREDEWEG Ken FORBUS

Evrim DALKIRAN
2
Contents
  • Qualitative Reasoning and Education
  • Survey of Recent Applications
  • VMODEL
  • HOMER
  • VISIGARP
  • Conclusion and Discussion

3
Qualitative Reasoning and Education
  • Qualitative Reasoning and Education
  • Survey of Recent Applications
  • VMODEL
  • HOMER
  • VISIGARP
  • Conclusion and Discussion

4
Qualitative Reasoning and Education
  • Qualitative Reasoning and Education
  • Survey of Recent Applications
  • VMODEL
  • HOMER
  • VISIGARP
  • Conclusion and Discussion

Provides grounding and framework for
Quantitative models Traditional Mathematical
models Ability to use these models are experts
characteristics Mathematic equations and
prooflike derivations Memorizing Alternatively,
with using qualitative reasoning basic principles
can be thought
5
  • Qualitative Reasoning and Education
  • Survey of Recent Applications
  • VMODEL
  • HOMER
  • VISIGARP
  • Conclusion and Discussion

Bettys Brain
  • use qualitative representations with concept maps
    for teaching Betty
  • Betty can produce explanations

6
  • Qualitative Reasoning and Education
  • Survey of Recent Applications
  • VMODEL
  • HOMER
  • VISIGARP
  • Conclusion and Discussion

ALI
  • Uses qualitative representations while coaching
    students
  • Uses visual representations of direct influence
    (I/I-) and indirect influences (aQ/ aQ- )
  • Asks questions, show graphics
  • Domain independent (can be attached to
    quantitative simulation)

7
  • Qualitative Reasoning and Education
  • Survey of Recent Applications
  • VMODEL
  • HOMER
  • VISIGARP
  • Conclusion and Discussion

Some other applications
  • Qualitative process theory in Chemistry classes
  • Students uses qualitative simulation to
    determine optimal mixture
  • QM shows end results and explains why the result
    is obtained
  • Importance of multiple models (mixing
    qualitative-quantitative)
  • Qualitative models are foundation for
    quantitative models
  • Learners thought QM is worthwhile
  • But QMs are sometimes difficult to generate
    insightful visualizations

8
  • Qualitative Reasoning and Education
  • Survey of Recent Applications
  • VMODEL
  • HOMER
  • VISIGARP
  • Conclusion and Discussion

VMODEL
Aim is creating a student-friendly visual
notation for qualitative process theory The
importance of broadly applicable principles and
processes Same principles/processes operate
across a broad range of situations Understanding
when a model is relevant Connect models to real
life concerns Qualitative understanding of
behavior Without detailed mathematics ,QM
provides understanding of behavior QR provides
formalisms for expressing intuitive, causal
models and reasoning techniques
9
  • Qualitative Reasoning and Education
  • Survey of Recent Applications
  • VMODEL
  • HOMER
  • VISIGARP
  • Conclusion and Discussion

VMODEL
Limited, machine-understandable ontology of
modeling elements (flexible but limited
set) Extendible as modelers develop more
sophisticated understandings and modeling
techiniques
Nodes thing processes Links relationships
Vmodel modeli ekle
10
  • Qualitative Reasoning and Education
  • Survey of Recent Applications
  • VMODEL
  • HOMER
  • VISIGARP
  • Conclusion and Discussion

VMODEL
1. Spelling and Grammar Checking
2.Feedback of how well model predicts what they
are trying to explain a visual step-by-step
animation of simulation an English summary of
behavior predicted by model an assesment of how
well model supports hypothesis
11
  • Qualitative Reasoning and Education
  • Survey of Recent Applications
  • VMODEL
  • HOMER
  • VISIGARP
  • Conclusion and Discussion

VMODEL
Experimentation in Chicago Public Schools- winter
2001 Naturalness of Visual Language focus on
contents of the models Generalization in
Modeling gazelles and grass model -gt lions and
gazelles astronouts weight gain or
loss-gtcalorie cycle of living things
Comparision with Bettys Brain VMODELS
framework is richer Supports creation of new
entities
12
  • Qualitative Reasoning and Education
  • Survey of Recent Applications
  • VMODEL
  • HOMER
  • VISIGARP
  • Conclusion and Discussion

HOMER a Modeling Tool
Consists of builders to create building blocks
(entity hierarchy, quantities,quantity spaces)
and constructs (model fragment scenarios) Models
created by HOMER can be run and inspected using
VISIGARP Prevent learners from making
syntactically incorrect models
  • Open contained liquid
  • - Entities
  • Configuration
  • Attribute
  • Quantities
  • Quanitity Spaces
  • Corresponding values
  • Conditions
  • Consequences

13
  • Qualitative Reasoning and Education
  • Survey of Recent Applications
  • VMODEL
  • HOMER
  • VISIGARP
  • Conclusion and Discussion

Experimenting for usability and model-building
problems
Methods and Subjects Modeling U-tube
system Four subjects from Computer
Science (2 researchers and 2 master students)
Three of them built two model fragments
(contained liquid and liquid flow) and a
scenario Two of them are able to
simulate in VISIGARP
Usability When a learner sets out to
accomplish a task, but fails to do so due to
unexpected behavior of the model building
environment As subjects worked longer
with HOMER, the number of usability problems
decreased Using HOMER can be learned
ina reasonable short time and usability is not a
significant bottleneck for learners to create
simulation models
14
  • Qualitative Reasoning and Education
  • Survey of Recent Applications
  • VMODEL
  • HOMER
  • VISIGARP
  • Conclusion and Discussion

Experimenting for usability and model-building
problems
Model-building Problems Uncertainty concerning
the creation of a model ingredient Model Scope
determining features of the original system to
include in the model Create liquid Level is
property of liquid Pressure-difference Model
Structure what to put where in the
model Reuseness of the model Detailed-generic
model Model-building concepts understanding the
qualitative ontology provided by the
tool Difference between attributes and
quantities Meaning of an influence Difference
between generic and instance knowledge Model
representation how to technically formulate with
the options provided by the environment
15
  • Qualitative Reasoning and Education
  • Survey of Recent Applications
  • VMODEL
  • HOMER
  • VISIGARP
  • Conclusion and Discussion

VISIGARP Provides a graphic user interface for
running and inspecting qualitative
simulations State Transition Graph of Brazilian
Cerrado Vegetation
  • Numbering
  • Simulation
  • Path generation
  • Parameter history

16
  • Qualitative Reasoning and Education
  • Survey of Recent Applications
  • VMODEL
  • HOMER
  • VISIGARP
  • Conclusion and Discussion

VISIGARP Mathematical and Causal Relationships
  • U-tube example
  • Visual container
  • Quantity space
  • Dependencies
  • I , P

17
  • Qualitative Reasoning and Education
  • Survey of Recent Applications
  • VMODEL
  • HOMER
  • VISIGARP
  • Conclusion and Discussion

VISIGARP Experimenting for usability
Subjects 30 first-year university students
(psychology) Cerrado Succession Hypothesis
Model No significant knowledge about Artificial
Intelligence
Method Two questionnaires testing for subjects
preknowledge of CSH and icon language of
VisiGarp Prediction exercises using simulations
produced by VisiGarp -a single
population -full CSH model Two questionnaires
testing for post-knowledge Evaluation of
VisiGarp by subjects
18
  • Qualitative Reasoning and Education
  • Survey of Recent Applications
  • VMODEL
  • HOMER
  • VISIGARP
  • Conclusion and Discussion

VISIGARP Results of experimentation
Icon Language Do not show a significant
improvement Most icons are easy to understand (
gt lt P P- I- I) Others are not clear and
difficult to learn (Q Q V V), did not used so
they are not learned Do not produce insightful
diagrams Domain Knowledge Learning effect is
not expected but a significant difference is
observed Subjects evaluated usefulness and
usability of the VisiGarp quite positively
3.7/5
19
  • Qualitative Reasoning and Education
  • Survey of Recent Applications
  • VMODEL
  • HOMER
  • VISIGARP
  • Conclusion and Discussion

Conclusion And Discussion
Importance of conceptual Knowledge Two
interactive environments for building qualitative
models VMODEL HOMER/VISIGARP Importance of
graphics and knowledge visualization By
evolution of these languages, students will not
have memorize formulas
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