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Planning for Change


Michael lived, thanks to the skill of his doctors, but also because of his amazing attitude. ... achieve the goal, or you have reasons [excuses] why you didn't. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Planning for Change

Planning for Change
Goals, Not Needs
Revealed Preferences
When in doubt - ASK! The Power of Asking
Questions as an Intervention
Rapport Matching the Client's Criteria
Yes, but ….
Finding the client RIGHT!
Blame looks backwards, responsibility looks
He who has a why to live for can bear almost any
how. - Nietzsche
Motivation relates to the sustained interest or
involvement in a goal oriented task. Motivation
theory deals with how this best can be achieved.
The development of goals is closely involved with
the cognitive restructuring process awareness
most people are not aware of the goal
hierarchies from which they operate many with
problems in living will therefore deny that they
even have goals attention once the mind has
been probed using a variety of techniques, the
operational goals can be held in conscious mind
for debugging analysis the debugging
process is one of determining whether there is
intentionality or just desire for an
outcome alternatives if intentionality does
not exist for goals presently held, there is need
to develop alternatives to which the person can
be committed adaption when an intentional
goal is developed and attended to through
implementation strategies and tactics, adaption
can take place.
Exploring Subjective Experience
Beliefs about ones self.
Beliefs about other people including beliefs
about what other people believe about you.
Beliefs about future prospects including beliefs
about the causes of success and failure.
To the extent that the helper seeks to deepen
understanding, it is necessary to get at the core
beliefs, and not just the cognitive errors that
represent the leakage of those beliefs, from
which we can make inferences.. Part of the
determination to proceed to a deeper
understanding is based on how chronic the
problems in living are, and part might be
determined by social pressure. Chronic criminals
are not likely to see their cognitive errors as a
problem at least not their problem. Anger is the
justifying emotion, and antisocial behavior is
predicated on anger. Developing a deeper
understanding, particularly with a person who
believes they already understand everything they
need to understand is based on two pivotal and
interrelated matters relationship and goals. No
helping relationship can occur unless and until
the person being helped believes the help will
enhance his/her own goals. And no goals can be
defined unless and or until the person begins to
look to the future. Very often the people with
the most severe and persistent problems in living
have no conscious goals except, perhaps, goals of
avoidance. Thus no helping relationship can start
without a focus of the person being helped on
what s/he wants.
Goal Characteristics
create the future self-fulfilling prophecies
A Self Fulfilling Prophecy is said to occur
when ones belief concerning the occurrence of
some future event...makes one behave in a
manner...that increases the likelihood that the
expected event will occur....
reframing negative to positive competition
to mastery The goal should not be related to
Im too fat and must lose weight, but rather to
I am thin. Additionally the performance must be
based on increasing the persons own level of
performance regardless of the level of
present time perspective The present tense
time technique assists in visualizing a goal as
if it already exists. A goal stated in future
time is likely to always remain in the future.
cognitive errors shoulds When you have a
list of ironclad rules about how you and other
people should act, this generally means that the
goals operate within the shoulds.
visualization attainment You can learn new
behavior sequences by imagining yourself
performing the desired behavior successfully.
Called covert modeling, it enables a person to
identify, refine, and practice in his/her mind
the necessary steps for completing a desired
intentionality It is expectancy in the sense of
that which the expecter believes is likely to
occur, rather than that which a person believes
ought to occur, that leads to the behavior that
fulfills the prophecy.
Goals serve two general functions they can
be used as reference standards to assess
performance and task difficulty they
can also be used as the focal point for
learners to determine performance or
implementation strategies.
The purpose of this technique is to assist a
child with problems in living in obtaining
absolute clarity on what s/he wants in every area
of his/her life. If s/he is interested in
improving the quality of day-to-day experiences,
then s/he must define a richer, fuller, more
satisfying life. S/he must face what s/he wants.
This technique is designed to be a tool to
determine and clarify all of the childs personal
desires, wants, and dreams becoming aware of
what they are, assessing them and making them
real by acting on them.
Victor Frankl 1959 suggests that the search for
meaning is the primary motivation in life.
People, he suggests, need something for the
sake of which to live. Teleology is the term
for this belief that events are pulled by a
purpose toward a definite end. The first and
original meaning for telos was formulated by
Aristotle that for the sake of which.
Psychological fitness is based on a certain
degree of tension, the tension between what one
has already achieved and what one still
(ought)/wishes to accomplish, or the gap between
what one is and what one (should)/wishes to
become. It is a dangerous misconception to assume
that what a person needs in the first place is
equilibrium or, as it is called in biology,
homeostasis, i.e., a tensionless state.
Homeostasis in children and adolescence is not a
state of serenity, but rather one of immobility
wherein nothing matters.
Ultimately, the person should not ask what the
meaning of his/her life is, but rather s/he must
recognize that it is s/he who is asked. Each
person is questioned by life and can only answer
to life by answering for his own life to life
s/he can only respond by being responsible.
Responsibility is a term common in everyday life
and refers to aspects of experience with which we
are all acquainted. It suggests obligation.
Niebuhr, 1968. This is intended to help the
mentor understand why it is important to help the
child make a DECISION about their life. The
child may maintain that my life stinks. However
the mentors challenge is to help the client
recognize that this is actually a decision and to
help him/her reformulate the decision to
something else which will guide their future. The
client can make a decision which will help them
be different. Dont talk about goals, talk
about decisions and choices.
  • Michael is the kind of guy you love to hate. He
    is always in a good mood and always has something
    positive to say. When someone would ask him how
    he was doing, he would reply, "If I were any
    better, I would be twins!"
  • He was a natural motivator. If an employee was
    having a bad day, Michael was there telling the
    employee how to look on the positive side of the
    situation.Seeing this style really made me
    curious, so one day I went up to Michael and
    asked him, "I don't get it! You can't be a
    positive person all of the time. How do you do
  • Michael replied, "Each morning I wake up and say
    to myself, Mike, you have two choices today. You
    can choose to be in a good mood or you can choose
    to be in a bad mood. I choose to be in a good
    mood. Each time something bad happens, I can
    choose to be a victim or I can choose to learn
    from it. I choose to learn from it.
  • Every time someone comes to me complaining, I can
    choose to accept their complaining or I can point
    out the positive side of life. I choose the
    positive side of life. "Yeah, right, it's not
    that easy, "I protested. "Yes, it is," Michael
    said. "Life is all about choices.When you cut
    away all the junk, every situation is a choice.
    "You choose how you react to situations. You
    choose how people will affect your mood. You
    choose to be in a good mood or bad mood. The
    bottom line It's your choice how you live
  • I reflected on what Michael said. Soon
    thereafter, I left the Tower Industry to start my
    own business. We lost touch, but I often thought
    about him when I made a choice about life instead
    of reacting to it.

  • Several years later, I heard that Michael was
    involved in a serious accident, falling some 60
    feet from a communications tower. After 18 hours
    of surgery and weeks of intensive care, Michael
    was released from the hospital with rods placed
    in his back. I saw Michael about six months
    after the accident. When I asked him how he was,
  • replied. "If I were any better, I'd be twins.
    Wanna see my scars?" I declined to see his
    wounds, but did ask him what had gone through his
    mind as the accident took place. "The first
    thing that went through my mind was the
    well-being of my soon to be born daughter,"
    Michael replied. "Then, as I lay on the ground,
    I remembered that I had two choices I could
    choose to live or I could choose to die. I chose
    to live."
  • "Weren't you scared? Did you lose
    consciousness?" I asked. Michael continued,
    "..the paramedics were great. They kept telling
    me I was going to be fine. But when they wheeled
    me into the ER and I saw the expressions on the
    faces of the doctors and nurses, I got really
  • In their eyes, I read, 'he's a dead man.' I knew
    I needed to take action."
  • "What did you do?" I asked."Well, there was a big
    burly nurse shouting questions at me," said
    Michael. "She asked if I was allergic to
  • 'Yes, I replied."The doctors and nurses stopped
    working as they waited for my reply.
  • I took a deep breath and yelled, "Gravity."
  • Over their laughter, I told them, 'I am choosing
    to live. Operate on me as if I am alive, not
  • Michael lived, thanks to the skill of his
    doctors, but also because of his amazing
    attitude. I learned from him that every day we
    have the choice to live fully.
  • Attitude, after all, is everything

  • The Trouble Tree
  • I hired a plumber to help me restore an old
    farmhouse, and after he
  • had just finished a rough first day on the job, a
    flat tire made him
  • lose an hour of work his electric drill quit,
    his ancient one ton
  • truck refused to start. As I drove him home, he
    sat in stony silence.
  • On arriving he invited me in to meet his family.
    As we walked toward
  • the front door, he paused briefly at a small
    tree, touching the tips
  • of the branches with both hands. Upon opening the
    door he had undergone
  • an amazing transformation. His tanned face was
    wreathed in smiles and
  • he hugged his two small children and gave his
    wife a kiss.
  • Afterward he walked me to the car. We passed the
    tree and my curiosity
  • got the better of me. I asked him about what I
    had seen him do at the
  • little tree.
  • "Oh, that's my trouble tree," he replied. "I know
    I can't help having
  • troubles on the job, but one thing's for sure,
    those troubles don't

Yet obligation, duty and responsibility are very
likely to be issues of concern when we talk about
people with problems in living. The framework for
orderly interaction is somehow skewed.
Responsibility, Niebuhr tells us, is not a thing.
It is a relationship between self and others, or
a relationship the person has to certain
situations. Yet these responsibilities seem
somehow irrelevant when there is no personal
context no meaning no telos.
Frankl suggests that we can discover our own
personal telos, or meaning in life in three
different ways 1) by creating a work or doing
a deed 2) by experiencing something or
encountering someone 3) by the attitude we
take toward unavoidable suffering
Personal worthlessness cannot exist when one has
purpose, responsibility and obligations.
John M. Keller proposed four main conditions
leading to motivation attention relevanc
e confidence satisfaction potential
Referred to as ARCS, he then linked specific
corresponding strategies analyze the
audience define motivational
objectives design a motivational
strategy test and revise.
Step 1. Analyze the audience
The dialogue of goal development will need to
focus the childs attention on the
success/failure of the avoidance strategy in
reaching his/her goals. It is not sufficient for
the helper to simply state the obvious, but
rather to help the child conclude the situation.
Thus the dialogue will probably need to be
Socratic questioning which brings new information
to the child.
Strategy 1. Novel Information Dialogue You
might begin probing the child's goal hierarchy by
asking him/her what his/her goals are. If s/he
resists or insists that s/he has no goals, you
might state one or more of the following verbal
probes, which are contrived to arouse interest.
Share the additional information as well. Keep
notes on these conversation or any goal fragments
that may come out so you can refer to them at a
later date.
PROBE You can have anything you want, you just
cannot have everything you want. This is about
choice, focus and persistence. All of us need to
decide what we want and then persistently go for
it. At the same time we will need to realize that
choosing what to go for means that there will be
things we cannot go for, because time is a
limited product.
PROBE Once you commit to a goal, you can only
have two results You achieve the goal, or you
have reasons excuses why you didnt.
PROBE Most of us are motivated by one of two
things inspiration or desperation.
PROBE In order to be successful at anything in
life, you need to take the CPR approach - Cons
istent in your actions - Persistent in
your motivation - Resistant to setbacks
and naysayers
PROBE Dont wish things were easier wish you
were better! - Jim Rohn
PROBE Chance favors the prepared mind - Louis
PROBE What currently is in your life that you
would like not to be there? What currently is
not in your life that you would like to be there?
Merely thinking about an action increases the
likelihood of it occurring.
Strategy 2 Social Role Opportunities
Role/Goal Chart Role Performance Goal
Confidence Satisfaction CBT30-001
Strategy 3 Goal Protocol
A. Goal Awareness The beginning of any
cognitive intervention is usually to make a
person aware of their own thoughts. People with
problems in living often will deny having any
goals at all, but it should be clear that they do
not act randomly.
B. Goal Inventory The establishment of a list
of possible goals increases the probability of
establishing such goals. The initial statement of
goals does not need to be a commitment. The idea
is to expand the thinking through a creative
thinking process which begins to expand goal
Goal Domains Family What is the relationship
to the present family and how does it coincide
with desires for a future family. Is it likely,
hoped, expected that the child will marry and
have children, and if so, how will that family
relate to the present family of parents and
siblings? What supports would be necessary to
make this work? If the child is unlikely to
marry and/or have children, what is the potential
for continuing relationships to siblings. What
are the goals regarding the family and family
life that make sense.
Goal Domains Social What is the present
personal support network unrelated adult, best
friend, peer group, etc. and how might it
expand? The assurance of a personal support group
is an important aspect of adult life particularly
for people who need cognitive, emotional and or
behavioral support. While it is possible to be a
loner, this requires a very strong personality
and personal self sufficiency.
Goal Domains Educational What are the
educational goals of the child. Will there be
academic or technical learning beyond high
school? What special preparation will be needed
to make this involvement have satisfactory
Goal Domains Employment What is the likelihood
of work and what type of work is preferred? What
training is necessary? Has a full vocational
evaluation been done or is it planned. Has the
adolescent had the opportunity to use computer
programming to help identify areas of work
interest? What technical training is necessary to
ensure that the child is prepared for employment
within the area of preferred choice.
Goal Domains Health Are there medical issues
that can be predicted? How can these best be
addressed? Is the child capable of learning
health, nutrition and hygiene adequately enough
to be self sufficient?
Goal Domains Psychology What emotional
supports are necessary for the emerging adult as
s/he and the family age? If the child is reliant
on his/her family for emotional support, what
happens when the family is no longer capable of
such support? How can s/he plan to provide such
support in the future?
Goal Domains Legal Are there legal issues that
need to be addressed? Does the child display or
demonstrate the potential of criminal behavior?
What supports can be built in to help the child
take responsibility for these issues? Are there
other kinds of legal issues to be addressed
trusts, suits, etc?
Goal Domains Safety If the child has medical,
physical or emotional limitations which place
them in potential danger, what supports are
necessary to ameliorate such hazard?
Goal Domains Home Are there physical
requirements to future living arrangements? Who
would the child prefer to live with now and in
the future? What kinds of locations, homes are
preferred urban, suburban, rural? Does the
child choose to learn how to care for a home and
be self sufficient within their own personal
Goal Domains Mobility Many of the above
domains demand the ability to get to and from
places. What requirements need to be fulfilled to
ensure that the child will be able to be
adequately mobile to participate in the
community, work, worship and play?
Goal Domains Personal The ability to care for
oneself, handle financial matters, schedule and
use time effectively, relate interpersonally, use
time alone effectively, etc. are significant
contributors to a quality life style. What are
the childs strengths and weakness and how should
s/he plan to adequately deal with these issues as
an adult. What is the childs spiritual
Goal Domains Community Independent people use
community resources such as libraries, shopping
centers, recreational facilities, voting areas
and the like as everyday events. Emerging adults
need to learn how to use the community resources
Vision Statement
C. Goal Analysis can be developed as a formal
process in which decision making apparatus is
Goal Analysis Chart Goal MUST WANT
Weight CBT30-003
D. Goal Selection must include a process of
organizing the hierarchy of each set of goals and
searching for the level of commitment at lower
and lower levels.
Step 2 Define Motivational Objectives
Goal Framing involves development of specific
statement(s) which define clearly what the
intention requires.
Mastery statement(s) The goal should not
be to have better grades than all the
other children in a class, but to improve ones
own grades.
affirmative statement(s) which define positive
proximal statement(s) which maintain a
nearness of the feedback and reward system.
Learning statement(s) which define the
evaluative criterion for truth.
Develop a goal hierarchy
Goal Setting Chart Life Career Long
Term Short Term Implementation Goals
Goals Goals Goals
Strategies CBT30-004
It is helpful to get the child to think in terms
of the future and of life in general. Since this
is often difficult, another set of probes might
be considered.
Ask the child to identify the person who s/he
believes has the best life philosophy and why?
Ask the child if there is one thing that they
wish they could change today - and set a goal in
this regard.
Step 3 Design a motivational strategy
Implementation Strategies If any of the columns
of the Goal Setting Chart are filled in, the next
step is to develop implementation strategies.
Helper as Coach
Anticipation and coping plans
Goal pursuit requires anticipative decisions
which define favorable and unfavorable
situations, instrumental behavior and conflict
coping tactics. implementation intentions
which include specified situations and
intended behaviors
Focus - The Mentor must help ensure that the
child is focused. S/he should maintain an
emphasis on the mastery focus not comparisons
with others. The child must be trained to think
of each test as a test against his/her own prior
achievements, not against others.
Clarity of instruction - The rules and
instructions need to be clearly communicated to
the child before the activity is introduced. This
may include the repetition of the implementation
strategy plan.
Provide feedback - Feedback alone does not affect
performance, nor do goals alone it is when the
two are combined that performance changes.
Provide additional knowledge - Knowledge of
results is motivational in that it leads to
goal setting, not the other way around. Correct
knowledge of results is better than no knowledge
or false knowledge.
Set the schedule for personal evaluation -
Following the receipt of knowledge of results
requires a period of evaluation which entails the
formulation of behavioral intentions linked to
goals for the next behavior. Time is needed for
this consideration and so repetitions should be
separated by reflection intervals.
Raising the bar- The performance of one trial
affects the goal levels for the next trial
providing the child has had the standards for
evaluation and the time to reflect so that the
next level of goals can be set. Generally, the
greater the performance change, the higher will
be the subsequent goal. Person do not normally
aim for goals that their previous performance
indicates would be unrealistic or
non-challenging. Mentors have to be honest and
realistic in performance analysis and when
setting goals. Attempting to motivate by
setting impossible goals as perceived by the
child, is unlikely to improve performance and
more likely will cause performance to worsen.
Step 4 Test revise The process of goal
setting, test, evaluation and re-setting of goals
is a constantly changing endeavor.
Summary of Steps To Consider In Goal Setting
Goal Formulation When goals are selected, they
should be formulated primarily in terms of
personal mastery and preference. The goals
should be framed affirmatively. There should
always be more than one goal established for a
classification. The intent of performing should
always be to achieve a number of outcomes. The
reason for establishing multiple goals should
always ensure that the attainment of the majority
of them is highly probable. This will produce a
positive orientation towards performance with a
high expectation of success. The higher the
expectation of success, the better will be the
The setting of goals is not a trivial task.
The Comprehensive Goal Hierarchy has four major
parts 1) goal statement, 2) action
implementation plan, 3) responsibility and
time chart, and 4) contract.
Developing a Plan of Change
A dream is just a dream. A goal is a dream with
a plan and a deadline - Harvey Mackay
The goal of assessment is not to create a
diagnostic label, but rather to provide a profile
of functioning that will yield concrete
guidelines for selection of intervention
If you dont know where you are going, you may
not get there. Yogi Berra
We must start the Plan of Change with an
understanding of expected outcomes.
Vision Statement
Well Formed Outcomes
Stated in the Positive
Appropriately specific and contextualized
Initiated and Maintained by the Client
Secondary Gain Is Taken Care Of
Outcome is a Complex Equivalent
Identify Natural Supports
Identify Stressors
Create a Worksheet
List the Interpretations Cognitive Errors or
Internal Logic
List the Goals Outcome expectations
List the Goal Hierarchy Objectives
List the Techniques Procedures
Create A Protocol
Define a goal Attainment documentation process
Develop a Change Order process
Write the Plan of Change
Build a Bridge between the present and the future
as intended
Develop a Contract
The customer is always right!