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An Ecological System Approach to Expanding the Chinese Language Field in the US: Lessons Learned and

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Title: An Ecological System Approach to Expanding the Chinese Language Field in the US: Lessons Learned and


1
An Ecological System Approach to Expanding the
Chinese Language Field in the US Lessons
Learned and Future Directions 12th NCOLCTL
Conference 13th ALTA Conference
  • Shuhan C. Wang, Ph.D.
  • Executive Director
  • Chinese Language Initiatives
  • Asia Society
  • April 25, 2009
  • Washington, D. C.

2
OVERVIEW
  • An ecological language education system
    framework
  • The macro environment of the Chinese language
    field in the US Pre-2004
  • The growth of the Chinese language field
    Post-2004
  • Accomplishments
  • Future directions Needs and opportunities

3
1. An ecological system framework for a
non-dominant language
  • Macro and micro environment
  • Growth/eradication of the target language in the
    host environment Infrastructure
  • Effects of positive/negative efforts

4
Some Factors in the Macro Environment
  • Economic and political relations between the home
    and host countries
  • Public attitude towards that language and people
    who use it
  • Legislative efforts
  • Economic context of the host environment
  • National security concerns
  • Funding support
  • Translation into educational programs

5
Some Factors in the Micro Environment for an
immigrant group
  • Who are they? How educated are they?
  • What do they look like, including skin color?
  • What language do they speak?
  • What are their religions and cultural practices?
  • In what condition did they came? For what
    purpose?
  • In what number did they come?
  • When did they come? How long have they been here?
  • Where do they live? Are they socially integrated
    or isolated?
  • To whom do they pledge allegiance?

6
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7
A System View of the Language Field (Wang 2009)
Heritage Communities
Learners
8
Educational System K-16 Articulation
Heritage Communities
9
Interface of Different Sub-Systems
10
Sociological Codes of Languages in the US
Educational Policies and Practices in the K-12
Context
NCLB
English Only
English Literacy Policy Home Language
Heritage Language English Speakers
Foreign/ World Language Education
English Plus
11
Infrascture of a Learner-Centered Language Field
  • Teachers Teacher Preparation Capacity
  • Quantity/Numbers and Quality/Effectiveness
  • K-12 public schools Certification Requirements
  • Curriculum
  • Instructional planning and strategies
  • Materials
  • Assessment evaluation
  • Learner outcomes
  • Program evaluation
  • Research
  • The role of technology
  • Program establishment and sustainability

12
2. The macro environment of the Chinese Language
Field
The Chinese Case
  • Pre-2004

13
Historical Major Efforts in Spreading Chinese in
US Secondary Schools
  • The National Defense Education Act (NDEA) (1958)
  • Carnegie Initiatives (1960s-1980s)
  • Geraldine Dodge Initiatives (1980s-2000)
  • FLAP Grants (enacted 1988 1990)

14
Status of Chinese as a Foreign/World Language
Pre-2004
  • Perceived to be a difficult language
  • Polarized views about US-China-Taiwan
    relationships
  • Traditionally for elite or college-bound students
  • Intellectual humanistic pursuits
  • Mental discipline
  • Linguistic benefits
  • National security
  • International economic competitiveness
  • (e.g., Brecht Ingold, 2002 Brecht
    Walton,1994 Gardner, et al. 1983 Lambert, 1986
    Lantolf Sunderman, 2001)

15
Market Economic Status of Chinese If Chinese
Were Stores
  • Home Language No market value (in schools)
  • Heritage Language Neighborhood mom and pop shops
  • Foreign Language
  • --Prior to 2000 Neiman Marcusonly for the
    elites
  • --After 2004/05 Costcoan upscale wholesaler
  • (Adapted from H. Tonkins, personal communication,
    2000)

16
Types of Chinese Heritage Language Schools
17
Pre-2004 Total Student Enrollment in Chinese
18
3. The growth of the Chinese language field
  • Post-2004

19
(No Transcript)
20
Chinese Language in the Public Discourse
2000-Present
  • National security
  • Economic competitiveness
  • A ticket to the China Express
  • A player in the global economy and global issues
  • Mandarin as a global phenomenon
  • Mixed feelings from other world languages

21
Post 2004 Major Initiatives in Chinese
  • Private Providers
  • e.g., Berlitz, Rosetta Stone
  • Online
  • Multi-Media

22
Post 2004 Major Initiatives in
ChineseGovernment -- Federal Government
(NSLI) -- State and Municipal EffortsChinese
GovernmentNGOs -- College Board -- Asia
Society
23
Chinese Flagship Programs
  • Brigham Young University
  • The University of Mississippi
  • Ohio State University
  • The University of Oregon and Portland Public
    School District K-16 Chinese Flagship
  • Arizona State University
  • Indiana University-Bloomington
  • University of Rhode Island
  • Western Kentucky University
  • Diffusion of Innovation Grants
  • http//www.thelanguageflagship.org/funding_institu
    tions.html

24
Foreign Language Assistance Program (FLAP)
Chinese Programs
25
STARTALK Project Chinese Student and Teacher
Programs
Administered by the National Foreign Language
Center (NFLC) at the University of Maryland
http//www.startalk_at_umd.edu or Startalk_at_umd.edu
26
Sample Municipal Chinese Initiatives
  • Chicago in 2008-09, 12,000 students learn
    Mandarin
  • Los Angeles Language Resolution (October 2008)
  • New York Chinese Task Force (Asia Society and
    China Institute, May 2009)

27
Sample State Initiatives
  • Connecticut
  • Indiana
  • Kansas
  • Minnesota
  • New Jersey
  • North Carolina
  • Ohio
  • Oklahoma
  • Utah
  • Wisconsin
  • And more

28
K-12 Virtual Chinese Language Programs in the
US(Asia Society, April 2009)
  • 16 states currently have Distance
    Learning/Web-Based Programs for Chinese Language
  • 15 states offer Chinese I
  • 11 states offer Chinese II (12 in 2010)
  • 3 states offer Chinese III (5 in 2010)
  • 3 states are expected to provide Chinese IV in
    2010
  • 3 states offer AP Level (8 in 2010)
  • 2 states are in the process of implementing
    Distance Learning/Web-Based programs
  • Data Source NCSSFL online survey

29
Chinese Government
  • Hanban/Confucius Institute Headquarters
  • Worldwide Promotion of Chinese as a WL
  • Chinese Bridge Delegation
  • Visiting Teacher programs
  • Confucius Institutes 56 in the U. S., March 09
  • http//english.hanban.edu.cn

30
Memorandum of Understanding (MOU)States and
Cities with China
  • 12 States
  • Connecticut
  • Delaware
  • Indiana
  • Kansas
  • Kentucky
  • Maine
  • North Carolina
  • Ohio
  • Oklahoma
  • South Carolina
  • Utah
  • Wisconsin
  • 2 Cities
  • Chicago
  • Los Angeles

31
The College Board
  • In collaboration with Hanban
  • AP Course and Exam, beginning in 2007
  • Chinese Bridge Delegation 1,200 educators
  • Visiting Teacher Programs 200 teachers in 32
    states at 130 institutions
  • Chinese Cultural Seminars
  • Student Summer in China Program
  • Data Source The college Board internal study,
    April 2008

32
Asia Society
Chinese Language Initiatives http//asiasociety.or
g
32
33
A Chinese Handbook and DVD
34
http//AskAsia.org/Chinese http//internationaled
.org
35
National Chinese Language Conference April
30-May 2, 2009, Chicago
  • Making Connections,
  • Building Partnerships!
  • Teachers, administrators, school board members,
    policy makers, business, and international
    leaders
  • Connecting K-12 and higher education
  • Creating partnerships between U.S. and Chinese
    educators, schools, and universities
  • Visit classes in the Chicago Public Schools

36
A WORLD LANGUAGE TEACHER WHITE PAPER (Summer
2009)
  • A national project co-sponsored by
  • The National Foreign Language Center (NFLC) at
    the University of Maryland
  • Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO)
  • Asia Society

37
4. Effects of Efforts
38
Growth of Chinese Language Programs in K-12
Schools
200 increase
  • Data Source The College Board internal study,
    April 2008

39
Languages Taught in Elementary Schools(CAL, 1997
2008)
SP SP SP Spanish for Speakers of Spanish
Chinese 900 increase
(http//cal.org/flsurvey)
40
Languages Taught in Secondary Schools (CAL, 1997
2008)
Chinese 300
(http//cal.org/flsurvey)
41
Enrollments in Higher Education Language
Courses Fall 1998, 2002, and 2006
Source Enrollments in Languages Other Than
English in United States Institutions of Higher
Education, Fall 2006. MLA, accessible at
http//www.mla.org/enroll_survey06_fin.
42
2009 Heritage Language Programs
Personal Communications with Presidents of both
association, March 2009
43
National Accomplishments of the Chinese Field
  • Launched federal, state, local initiatives
  • Increased student enrollment in all levels
  • Increased K-12 school programs
  • Began to develop curricula, materials, and
    assessment

44
5. Future Direction
  • Needs, Trends, and Strategies

45
Needs and Challenges
  • Limited teacher education and supply capacity
  • Most programs are under 3 years old
  • Almost no early language learning infrastructure
  • Need to tap into the resources in the heritage
    language communities
  • Lack of K-16 articulation leading to the
    attainment of high language proficiencypockets
    of excellence
  • Need to develop virtual programs for students and
    teacher training opportunity and access to
    learn
  • Lack of national coordination of initiatives and
    efforts

46
Trends Indicating Demands for World Language
Education in the US
  • Awareness of the need for global competence for
    this interconnected world, which includes the
    study of languages and cultures
  • Immersion and early language learning programs
  • WL as an exit or high school graduation
    requirement
  • K-16 articulation aligned with Standards and real
    life use

47
Lessons Learned
  • Take a system approach, connect all sectors
  • Enhance teacher development capacity
  • Take an incubator approach to build programs and
    infrastructures simultaneously develop and field
    test curricula, materials, assessment, and
    research
  • Build high human capital identify and develop
    teams of specialists who know the language,
    understand cultures, SLA, pedagogy, curriculum,
    material, assessment, research, and K-16 contexts
    and heritage communities in the US

48
  • A System Approach
  • Think about supply, demand, infrastructure
  • Create flywheels that convert energy into synergy
    (Wang, 2007)

Heritage Communities
Learners
49
Questions for Other Language Fields
  • How does your language learning system look like?
  • What is the macro language environment like?
  • What is in place for the micro language learning
    and teaching environment?
  • What kind of efforts are in place?
  • How has the language field evolved?
  • What resources can be leveraged?
  • What gaps can be bridged or barriers be removed?

50
Big Questions for the US as a Nation
  • How do we advocate for US students development
    of global competence, which includes linguistic
    and cultural capital?
  • How do we expand our schools offering of world
    languages?
  • What are our goals for language education for the
    global age? What are our goals 5 years and 10 or
    20 years from now?

51
Thank you??
  • Shuhan C. Wang, Ph.D.
  • shuhanw_at_asiasoc.org
  • http//www.asiasociety.org/education
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