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Professional Identity, Ethics,


Counseling Association for Humanistic Education & Development [1952] ... counseling (degrees in other disciplines are not considered counseling degrees) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Professional Identity, Ethics,

Professional Identity, Ethics, Basic Techniques
of Counseling
  • EDC 543
  • Theories Techniques of Counseling
  • Dr. Jason McGlothlin
  • University of Dayton

5 Recognized Mental Health ProfessionsWhat are
the Differences?
  • Psychology
  • APA CoA Accreditation
  • Social Work
  • CSWE Accreditation
  • Psychiatric (General or Child Adolescent)
  • Acc. Council for Graduate Medical Education
  • Psychiatric Nurses
  • Nat. League for Nursing Accreditation Commission
  • Counselors

Professional Counseling is
  • The application of
  • Mental health
  • Psychological or human developmental principles
  • Using such interventions as
  • Cognitive, affective, behavioral, systemic
  • Using strategies that address
  • Personal growth
  • Career Development
  • Wellness
  • Pathology

Professional Counselors What do we do?
  • Promoting Educational Success
  • Supporting Career Development
  • Improving Mental Emotional Well-Being
  • Anxiety, depression, etc.
  • Substance abuse, etc.
  • Family relationship issues
  • Sexual abuse / Domestic violence
  • Eating disorders
  • Social emotional difficulties in terms of
    disabilities and illness
  • Death of loved ones
  • Transitions

Counselor Work Settings
  • Schools universities
  • Hospitals
  • Mental health agencies
  • Rehabilitation facilities
  • Business Industry
  • Correctional Institutions
  • Religious Organizations
  • Community Centers
  • Private Practice
  • Police Facilities

Counselor TX Populations
  • Children
  • Adolescents
  • Young Adults
  • Adults
  • Older Adults
  • Couples
  • Families
  • Etc.

American Counseling Association
  • Mission Statement
  • To promote public confidence and trust in the
    counseling profession.
  • Identity Statement
  • The American Counseling Association is a
    partnership of associations representing
    professional counselors who enhance human
  • Vision Statement  
  • To become recognized as the association for
    professional counselors.

Chronology of the 17 Specific Divisions of ACA
  • Association for Counselor Education Supervision
  • Counseling Association for Humanistic Education
    Development 1952
  • National Career Development Association 1952
  • American School Counselor Association 1953
  • American Rehabilitation Counseling Association
  • National Employment Counseling Association 1966
  • Association for Multicultural Counseling
    Development 1972
  • International Association of Addiction Offender
    Counselors 1972
  • Association for Specialists in Group Work 1973
  • Association for Spiritual, Ethical, Religious
    Values in Counseling 1974
  • American Mental Health Counselors Association
  • Counselors for Social Justice 1979
  • Association for Counselors Educators in
    Government 1984
  • Association for Adult Development and Aging
  • Association for Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual Issues
    in Counseling 1988
  • International Association of Marriage Family
    Counselors 1989
  • American College Counseling Association 1991

Requirements for Professional Practice
  • A masters degree at a minimum
  • Licensure / certification
  • Usually with extensive supervised clinical
  • Adherence to a Code of Ethics (ACA)

Council for Accreditation of Counseling Related
Educational ProgramsCACREP
  • Formed in 1981
  • A form of specialized accreditation
  • Representative of ACA its divisions
  • Recognized by Council on Postsecondary
    Accreditation (COPA)
  • Accreditation in the United States
  • Non-governmental or Papal
  • Voluntary
  • Pursues quality and public accountability
  • Self Evaluation

CACREP (2001)Common Core Curricular Areas
  • Professional Identity
  • Social and Cultural Diversity
  • Human Growth and Development
  • Career Development
  • Helping Relationships
  • Group Work
  • Assessment
  • Research and Program Evaluation

Licensed Counselors?
  • Over 80,000 professional counselors are licensed
    or certified in 44 states and the District of
  • State licensure typically requires a master's or
    doctoral degree, two to three years of supervised
    clinical experience, and the passage of an
  • In states without licensure or certification
    laws, professional counselors are certified by
    the National Board for Certified Counselors
  • Participation in continuing education is often
    required for the renewal of a license or

National Board for Certified Counselors (NBCC)
  • Established in 1982
  • Initially created by ACA
  • Monitoring a National Counselor Certification
    (NCC) system
  • Identifies counselors who have voluntarily sought
    to obtain certification while meeting standards
    in training, experience, performance
  • National Counselor Examination for Licensure
    Certification (NCE)
  • Follows CACREP core curricular standards
  • Certifies more than 31,000 counselors

State of Ohio Counselor Social Worker Board
  • Licensed Professional Counselor (LPC)
  • A graduate degree in counseling (degrees in other
    disciplines i.e., Psychology, Social Work and
    Marriage and Family Therapy are not considered
    counseling degrees).
  • 60 quarter or 40 semester hours of graduate work
  • 4500 hours of supervision (1500 may be prior to
    Masterís degree)
  • Exam - LPC (Offered only until December 31, 1998)

State of Ohio Counselor Social Worker Board
  • Professional Counselor (PC)
  • A graduate degree in counseling (degrees in other
    disciplines are not considered counseling
  • 90 quarter or 60 semester hours of graduate work
    with coursework to satisfy the content
    requirements and a minimum of 30 quarter or 20
    semester hours in clinical coursework.
  • Exam - Effective January 1, 1999 offered as the
    Professional Counselor Licensure Exam - PCLE) No
    supervision required.

State of Ohio Counselor Social Worker Board
  • Professional Clinical Counselor (PCC)
  • Meet requirements for PC
  • Exam - Professional Counselor Licensure Exam
  • 3000 hours (1500 yr. maximum) post PC supervised
    experience registered with the Board
  • Clinical Field Evaluation
  • No MAT or GRE scores required

Codes of Ethics can serve as a catalyst for
improving practice
  • Hirlihy Corey (1994)

There are many counseling codes of ethics But
ACA is the Spring Board!!!
  • This does create a problem with Unity!

Reasons for Ethical Codes
  • Protect profession from government
  • Regulate Itself!!!
  • Control internal disagreements / bickering
  • Stability in the Profession
  • Protect Practitioners from public malpractice

Unethical Behavior(Levenson, 1986 Pope
Vetter, 1992 Swanson, 1983)
  • Violation of confidentiality
  • Exceeding ones level of professional competence
  • Negligent practice
  • Claiming expertise one does not possess
  • Imposing ones values on a client
  • Creating dependency
  • Sexual activity w/ clt
  • Certain conflicts of interests dual
  • Questionable financial arrangements
  • Bartering Excessive Fees
  • Improper Advertising

ACA Code of Ethics Standards of Practice
  • The Counseling Relationship
  • Client Welfare
  • Respecting Diversity
  • Client Rights
  • Client Served by Others
  • Personal Needs Values
  • Dual Relationships
  • The Counseling Relationship (cont.)
  • Sexual Intimacies with Clts.
  • Multiple Clients
  • Group Work
  • Fees Bartering
  • Termination Referral
  • Computer Technology

ACA Code of Ethics Standards of Practice
  • Professional Responsibility
  • Standards of Knowledge of Ethics
  • Professional Competence
  • Advertising Soliciting Clients
  • Credentials
  • Professional Responsibility (cont.)
  • Public Responsibility Nondiscrimination
  • Responsibilities to Other Professionals

ACA Code of Ethics Standards of Practice
  • Confidentiality
  • Relationship with Other Professionals
  • Evaluation, Assessment, Interpretation
  • Teaching, Training, Supervision
  • Research Publication
  • Resolving Ethical Issues

Model of Ethical Decision Making(Kitchener, 1984)
  • Step 1 Develop Ethical Sensitivity
  • Awareness is the Key!
  • Step 2 Define Dilemma Options
  • What exactly is the problem?
  • Step 3 Refer to Professional Standards
  • What does the profession say?
  • Step 4 Search out Ethical Scholarship
  • Literature Codes of Ethics saves you in court!!
  • Step 5 Apply Ethical Principles to Situation
  • Step back and look at the big picture for a
    single course of action.

Model of Ethical Decision Making(Kitchener, 1984)
  • Step 6 Consult with Supervisor Respected
    Colleagues by asking
  • What facts of the case seem most important to you
    in determining the ethical alternatives?
  • What have I not considered?
  • Is my interpretation of the ethics code accurate?
  • What other parts of the code are applicable that
    I have not identified?
  • What other books articles do you know of that
    are relevant to my decision?
  • Does my analysis of the ethical principles appear
  • Is my evaluation of the most responsible options
    consistent with your judgment?
  • How would you resolve this dilemma?
  • Why would you make that choice?

Model of Ethical Decision Making(Kitchener, 1984)
  • Step 7 Deliberate Decide
  • Absorb the information from Step 6
  • Step 8 Inform Supervisor Implement Document
  • When ready to implement action inform
    supervisor explain rationale
  • Step 9 Reflect on the Experience
  • Learn from what you did reflect on how it went.

BASIC Techniquesin Counseling
  • Why Bad Counseling
  • Pay attention to how you look
  • Arms
  • Position in Chair
  • Face
  • Pay attention to how you sound
  • Tone of voice
  • Rate of speech
  • Counselor Matching vs. Opposite Modeling of

  • Empathy is a MUST!!!
  • Reflection of Feelings
  • Parroting
  • Paraphrasing
  • Reflecting
  • Summarizing
  • Clarification

McGlothlins Stages of Simple Problem Solving
  • Build relationship via empathy
  • Identification of problem
  • Explore feelings of client others
  • Explore options past efforts
  • Collaborate on a course of action
  • Client Counselor summarize what has will
  • Follow-through Follow-up

Activities Discussion Topics
Topics for Discussion
  • Take a position of the issue Counselors should
    be required to undergo their own personal therapy
    before they should become practitioners. Defend
    your position.
  • List some of your personal strengths, values,
    beliefs, past experiences, and so on, that you
    think will work in your favor in establishing a
    meaningful and therapeutic relationship with
    clients. How might these get in your way?

Topics for Discussion
  • If you were looking for a counselor yourself,
    what characteristics would you want?
  • Discuss the possible therapeutic value of
    developing a sense of humor. When might humor be
    appropriate inappropriate in a session?
  • If you were in a job interview, how would you
    respond to the question What do you consider to
    be the most pressing central ethical issue
    facing counselors?

Topics for Discussion
  • What are some clinical and ethical issues you can
    see that are associated with diagnostic
    procedures. What do you think is the appropriate
    role of diagnosis in counseling?
  • What questions do you have regarding the
    counseling profession in general?
  • If you had a magic wand, what would you be doing
    (in the counseling arena in 20 years)?

Intern Jack the difficult client
  • Jack, a counselor intern, is working in a
    university counseling center, Mai-Ling, a
    freshman who came to the US from mainland China
    with her parents 8 years ago, has come for her
    first session with Jack and has agreed to let him
    audiotape the session from his supervisor. She
    states that she has come for help in deciding
    whether to continue in her 2-year associate
    degree program or switch to a baccalaureate
    program in computer science. Jack, very much
    aware that his supervisor will be listening for
    reflections of feelings and other attending
    skills, asks Mai-Ling how she feels about being
    confronted with this decision. She responds by
    simply restating her problem. The session
    continues in this fashion, with Jack probing for
    the clients feelings and the client responding
    in a cognitive, content-oriented manner. After
    the session ends, Jack determines to ask his
    supervisor how to build rapport with this
    difficult client.

Intern Jack the difficult client
  • What is the problem in this case?
  • Not sensitive to cultural differences
  • High vs. Low context cultures
  • How can this be avoided in this case?

Lynn, Elaine, the Divorce
  • Lynn has been counseling Elaine, a 30-year-old
    client. During this session, Elaine states that
    she wishes she could just walk away from her
    marriage, but she cant do it because it would
    traumatize her children. Lynn, herself a child of
    divorce whose father abandoned the family,
    further explores Elaines fears for the children.
    At one point she ways, Well, yes, the statistics
    do show that a lot of kids lose touch with their
    fathers after divorce. It would be really hard
    for them if that happened. It could even have
    repercussions well into their adult years.

Lynn, Elaine, the Divorce
  • What is the problem in this case?
  • Transference?
  • How can this be avoided in this case?

The Parents will Know Marsha Takes Drugs!
  • Marsha, age 15, has been seeing her school
    counselor for several weeks. Although Marshas
    parents her teachers have been concerned about
    her erratic behavior, Marsha has asserted that
    she is just moody. Now, she admits that she has
    been buying using cocaine. After further
    exploration, the counselor believes that Marsha
    has been taking some serious risks, not only by
    using the drug, but also by making her purchases
    from various dealers in an unsafe area of the
    city. The counselor lets Marsha know that ,
    because of the danger her behavior is putting her
    in, her parents will need to be informed. Marsha
    is outraged. Even though the counselor had told
    her that she couldnt uphold confidentiality if
    her behavior posed a danger to herself or others,
    Marsha insists it doesnt apply here. She says,
    I know what Im doing. Ive been buying coke for
    months now and nothing bad has happened to me. I
    trusted you and now youve betrayed me. This is
    sure the last time Ill ever see a counselor!

The Parents will Know Marsha Takes Drugs!
  • What is the problem in this case?
  • Not sensitive to cultural differences
  • How can this be avoided in this case?

Joseph, a Navajo Indian Informed Consent
  • Joseph, a Navajo Indian who espouses the
    traditions of his culture, is your prospective
    client. During the initial interview, you want to
    secure his informed consent, which would include
    giving him information about the implications of
    diagnosis and the potential risks associated with
    counseling. You might make a statement like,
    Sometimes clients in counseling seem to feel
    worse before they feel better. You might tell
    Joseph that, based on the symptoms he has
    described, he seems to be suffering form

Joseph, a Navajo Indian Informed Consent
  • Multicultural issues in ethics informed consent
  • Beliefs about wellness
  • In traditional Navajo culture, it is believed
    that language has the power to shaper reality and
    control events. Thus, in following your standard
    information consent procedures, you could be
    creating the reality for Joseph that he is
    depressed and will feel worse for a while.

Soo Jung Post Partum Depression
  • Soo Jung is a 22-year-old Korean American who is
    brought to the counseling center by her husband.
    During the intake interview, she tells you that
    she has been having crying spells, has lost her
    appetite, and is not sleeping well. She gave
    birth to her first child two months ago. When you
    suggest to Soo Jung that she may be experiencing
    post-partum depression, she becomes very upset
    and says, Why are you telling me this? You need
    to talk with my husband. Because the counselor
    did not include her husband in this discussion,
    the client may be interpreting the counselors
    action as attempting to undermine her marital

Soo Jung Post Partum Depression
  • Multicultural issues in ethics informed consent
  • Not a claim of dominant values
  • Korean Americans are significantly more likely
    than European Americans and African Americans to
    hold a family-centered model of decision making
    about health issues.

The End!!!
  • EDC 543
  • Theories Techniques of Counseling
  • Dr. Jason McGlothlin
  • University of Dayton