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Definition of Human Resource Development

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Title: Definition of Human Resource Development


1
Definition of Human Resource Development
Human Resource Development is any process or
activity that, either initially or over the long
term, has the potential to develop adults
work-based knowledge, expertise, productivity,
and satisfaction, whether for personal or group /
team gain, or for the benefit of an organization,
community, nation, or, ultimately, the whole of
humanity.
McLean McLean 2000
2
Purpose of Human Resource Development
HRD is about adult human beings functioning in
productive systems. The purpose of HRD is to
focus on the resource that human beings bring to
the success equation both personal success and
organizational success. The two core threads of
HRD are 1) individual and organizational learning
and 2) individual and organizational performance.
Ruona, 2000 Watkins Marsick, 1996 Swanson,
1996)
3
the most apparent connection is with human
resources (HR). But HR can be conceived of as
having two major components HRD and HRM. As an
umbrella term, HR is often confused with HRM.
Thus, many HR departments are actually limited to
HRM goals and activities such as hiring,
compensation, and personnel compliance issues.
Even when HRD and HRM are managed under the HR
title, their relative foci tend to be fairly
discrete.
Swanson, 2001
4
General Approach to Human Resource Management and
Development
  • Overview of Development disciplines
  • Historical views and influences on HRM
  • Human Resource Wheel and relationships
  • HRM professionals
  • roles
  • Starting to focus on
  • Career Development

5
Roots and Perspectives for HRM...
  • Imbedded in broader Management Philosophy
  • Confusion and mixed history for HRM/D
  • Early concept of Human Resources from Economics
    and Management Writers
  • Based on normative ideas and practices but varies
    in organizational application
  • Addresses human resources, human development,
    change and learning (typically conducted in
    organizational settings)
  • Interdisciplinary in nature and approach

6
Defining HRM/D
  • It is an emerging field (highly educated)
  • It is a very dynamic field (new technology,
    models, research)
  • It is multidisciplinary (including management,
    organizational behavior, I/O psychology,
    education, etc.)
  • It is in the broader human resources arena
    (people profession)
  • It is a pervasive function in organizations
  • (may not be a single department but done by
    many people at all levels, e.g.,
    personnel assistant to executive
    search psychologist)

7
Activities of HRD
  • Training
  • Training and development
  • Employee development
  • Technical training
  • Management development
  • Executive and leadership development
  • Human performance technology
  • Organization development
  • Organizational learning

ASTD, 2000
8
Definition of HRM
  • HRM is the integrated use of management
    function, training and development, organization
    development, and career development to improve
    individual, group, and organizational
    effectiveness.
  • Integrated means that HRM is more than the sum of
    its parts. Its more than management training
    and development, or organization development, or
    career development in isolation. Its the
    combined use of all developmental practices in
    order to accomplish higher levels of individual
    and organizational effectiveness than would be
    possible with a narrower approach.

9
Definition of HRM (contd)
  • Management functions deal with those aspects of
    the organization that are concerned with the
    people dimensions. These may include selection
    of placement, compensation and benefits, employee
    and labor relation, and health and security.
  • Training and Development focuses on identifying,
    assuring, and helping develop, through planned
    learning, the key competencies that enable
    individuals to perform current or future jobs.
  • Organization Development focuses on assuring
    healthy inter- and intra-unit relationships and
    helping groups initiate and manage change.
    Organization developments primary emphasis is on
    relationships and processes between and among
    individuals and groups.

10
Definition of HRM (contd)
  • Career development focuses on assuring an
    alignment of individual career planning and
    organizational career management processes to
    achieve an optimal match of individual and
    organizational needs. Career developments
    primary emphasis is on the person as an
    individual who performs and shapes his or her
    various work roles.
  • To improve individual, group, and organizational
    effectiveness means that HRM is purposeful. It
    is instrumental to the achievement of higher
    goals. Because of HRM, people and organizations
    are more effective and contribute more value to
    products and services the cost-benefit equation
    improves.

11
Human Resource Wheel
12
Summary of Major Influences on HRM
13
Key approaches to HRD
How HRM theorists view organizational
development...
Theories
14
Management Theory...
  • Classical (Scientific) Theory- Fredrick Taylor-
    The Principles of Modern Management (1911)
  • select workers to match jobs (talent model)
  • workers require training
  • develop cooperative work model
  • compensate by productivity (not seniority)
  • design work efficiently

15
Fayols Fourteen Management Principles
16
Fayols Fourteen Management Principles (contd)
17
Fayols Fourteen Management Principles (contd)
18
The Roots of HRM
  • Beginning in the late 1950s, critics of
    mainstream economic theory-forerunners of what
    was later to be called the human capital school
    of economics- questioned whether demand for labor
    is really a function of monetary or fiscal
    policy. They regarded
  • labor as a form of capital, not a factor of
    production separate from and driven by it. The
    human capital school has spawned the notion that
    labor is a human resource, implying the abilities
    and potential of people to contribute to their
    work not only their talents and skills but also
    their creativity. (1964)
  • (article from Fortune magazine)

19
Economics the study of prices, goods, markets
and human value in organizational/political
contexts.
  • Adam Smith (Wealth of Nations, 1776) - production
    depends on three key factors land, labor and
    capital--labor is the pre- eminent factor in
    production. (Marx accepted labor theory of
    value).
  • Say and Mill - productive agencies combined to
    produce goods - utility theory
  • Twentieth century economics assumes capital is
    pre-eminent factor in production.
  • Keynes - labor not as critical, markets are
    self-adjusting- suggest government intervention
  • Friedman - interest rates and money supply
    promotes economic prosperity

20
How Economics Influences HRM
  • Governmental policies in both developed and
    developing countries have increasingly emphasized
    HRM as a means of helping individuals become
    literate, prepare for employment, learn the work
    of organizations employing them, and upgrade
    individual skills to meet technological or other
    changes. Unlike many other nations, however, the
    United States has not established and integrated
    industrial policy to govern the role of human
    resources.

21
The Human Relations School of Management
  • Mayo, Roethlesberger, others (1930-1950s)
  • Based on Hawthorne experiments
  • Suggest social relations as important as money
  • Pay attention to work groups, feelings
  • Seen as manipulative, not really scientific
  • Little relationship to output

22
Highly philosophical, the human relations school
of management first gained prominence during the
recession of 1957-1958. Expanding on beliefs of
the human relations school, advocates of the
human resources school make a number of
assumptions
  • Individuals are creative by nature and deserve
    greater self-direction and responsibility than
    they are given in most organizations.
  • Individuals are capable of much greater
    usefulness to their work groups and co-workers
    than most management recognizes or tries to
    exploit.
  • Work is as natural as play - indeed, people want
    to work because it is an outlet for
    self-expression and creativity.

23
Latest in Human Relations Management
  • In his seminal book, The Fifth Discipline,
    Peter Senge (1990) points to five component
    technologies converging to build organizations
    that can truly learn and enhance their ability to
    realize objectives. These are
  • 1. Systems thinking - a conceptual framework, a
    body of knowledge and tools developed to make
    the full patterns of organizational systems
    clearer, and help managers see how to change
    them more easily.
  • 2. Personal mastery - The organizations
    commitment to and capacity for learning can be
    no greater than that of its members. Personal
    mastery is the discipline of continually
    clarifying and deepening our personal vision, of
    focusing our energies, of developing patience
    and seeing reality objectively.

24
  • Five Component Technologies (contd)
  • 3. Mental models - These are deeply ingrained
    assumptions, generalizations, or pictures that
    influence our understanding of the world and the
    actions we take. The discipline of working with
    mental models is an inward looking one of
    learning to expose ones own thinking
    effectively and make that thinking open to the
    influence of others.
  • 4. Building shared vision - Leaders need to hold
    a picture of the future they intend to create.
    To be effective, leaders must translate this
    personal vision into a shared vision. Genuine
    commitment rather than compliance from the
    organizations people is required.
  • 5. Team learning - How can a team with
    individual IQs above 120 have a collective IQ of
    63? Team learning is vital, because unless
    teams can learn, the organization cannot learn.

25
  • Why is learning suddenly so important?
  • Information is now the most valuable
    organizational resource in virtually every
    industry.
  • Keeping abreast of the rate of change in
    information is the greatest organizational
    challenge.
  • People that can learn rapidly will be in
    greater demand than ever before.
  • Corporations than can retain their most
    talented learners and develop the capacity for
    organizational learning will enjoy a
    competitive edge over the rest of the field.

Culture Building 2000
26
Industrial/Organizational Psychological
Influences on HRM
  • Early integration of Freudian Theory
  • Unconscious drives, e.g., boss conflicts causes
    of accidents
  • Career development grew out of unconscious needs
    and parental direction
  • Behaviorists are second wave
  • work skills, interests are conditioned through
    reward and punishment
  • Career development grows out of
    approach/avoidance continua
  • Person-centered approaches, e.g., Rogers
  • People work best under conditions of positive
    regard, caring management
  • Morale is a critical variable in worker
    performance

27
Industrial/Organizational Psychological
Influences on HRM (contd)
  • Cognitive psychologists recent impact
  • Workers do best if they have information and
    conceptual models for efforts
  • How workers view their jobs relates to their
    belief about it

28
The A, B, Cs of poor performance
(Dont have two emotional setbacks for the price
of one!)
29
Behavior Modification and Positive Reinforcement
(Aubrey Daniels, Other Peoples Habits)Based
on Behavior Analysis principles
Guides to the use of positive reinforcement
  • Custom tailored to each employee
  • Does not set limits on people (no IQ test)
  • Does not judge on past performance
  • Helps with self-confidence
  • Reaffirms the morality of quid pro quo
  • Behavior principles are universal

30
Behavior Modification and Positive Reinforcement
(Contd)
Attitudes that inhibit changing behavior
  • Personality cant be changed
  • People have to want to change
  • Controlling people is not appropriate
  • Change starts with the employees desires

31
Behavior Modification and Positive Reinforcement
(Contd)
The A, B, Cs of Positive Reinforcement
(AAntecedent BBehavior CConsequences
  • Positive reinforcers - bonus
  • Negative reinforcers - firing
  • Punishment - demotion
  • Penalty - withholding pay

32
Behavior Modification and Positive Reinforcement
(Contd)
Extinction of non-productive behaviors...
Examples Talking on Phone, Problem Child in
Class
Characteristics
  • extinction burst
  • emotional response
  • behavior resurgence
  • requires full control
  • it takes time
  • difficult to accomplish

33
Behavior Modification and Positive Reinforcement
(Contd)
The four errors in using positive reinforcement
  • Perception errors (what people like)
  • asking, observing, experientation
  • e.g., time with daughter, golfing
  • Contingency
  • given close to desired behavior
  • given after performance (e.g., coffee example in
    newsroom)
  • Premack Principle (e.g., tax break)
  • Results, not behavior
  • Frequency
  • requires repetition
  • requires relationship
  • consistent, long-term (not just once)

34
Behavior Modification and Positive Reinforcement
(Contd)
Dos and Donts of Reinforcement
  • Establish yourself as reinforcing.
  • Dont fake it.
  • Dont use flowery language.
  • Dont use the word but when reinforcing
  • Dont reinforce and punish at the same time

35
Behavior Modification and Positive Reinforcement
(Contd)
Dos and Donts of Reinforcement
  • Dont reinforce and ask for more at the same
    time.
  • Tell people they are appreciated, and tell them
    often
  • Occasionally pair social reinforced with a
    tangible item that anchors a memory.
  • Give people the opportunity to relive their
    accomplishments.

36
I/O Sociologys influences
  • Just as psychology is the study of individuals,
    sociology is the study of groups, organizations
    and societies. Sociology has historically
    focused on customs, rituals, and other
    meaning-laden interactions between people.
  • Present-day sociology is focusing on specific
    issues
  • The interactionism school focuses on interactions
    between society and individuals
  • The phenomenology school focuses on perceptions
    of individual reality derived internally rather
    than externally.
  • The ethnomethodology school focuses on everyday
    methods that individuals use to acquire
    knowledge about self and society.

37
Educations influence
  • Greeks and Romans did not equate education and
    career preparationwork was distasteful (done by
    slaves).
  • Middle ages found education was for priests and
    nobility
  • Pre-industrial revolution, education reinforced
    social position.
  • Twentieth century was the first link for mass
    education related to human resources
    development.
  • For social mobility
  • had skill preparation (Morrill act)
  • job status (e.g., doctorates)
  • de facto recruitment and selection

38
How pedagogy and andragogy differ
39
Political Sciences Impact...
  • Political scientists have more recently focused
    on such issues as power, government, political
    processes, political decision making, policy
    analysis, policy formulation, and policy
    evaluation.
  • Politics involves groups operating out of
    self-interest, whether in government or in
    organizations. As a result, the form, mission,
    goals and structure of organizations are not
    necessarily based on what is best for the
    organization rather, they may be negotiated and,
    to some extent, based on the self-serving
    interests of key individuals and groups.
    Organizations are governed by a dominant
    coalition, much like a power elite, that enforces
    its will through the control of rewards and
    punishments of other organizational members.

40
How Communication Theories Evolved
  • Every school of management thought has made its
    own assumptions about the communication process.
    Scientific management, for instance, portrayed
    the manager as information link between employees
    and higher-level authority.

Fayol believed that the scalar chain, meaning
the differing levels of authority in
organizations, should be preserved by encouraging
workers to communicate only with immediate
superiors unless they get specific permission to
communicate with higher authority.
41
The mathematical theory of organizational
communications is seen as mechanical resembling
a radio transmitter and receiver. Shannon and
Weavers model is best known. This is
represented as
Noise
Signal Encoded
Medium
Received Signal (Decoded)
Feedback
Receiver
Source
42
Berlos Behavioral Communication Model
43
Transactional communication model
Sender
Receiver
P
P
Parent
A
A
Adult
C
C
Child
44
Future Forces for HRM
  • The following lists the key forces that this
    studys expert contributors expect to influence
    HRM work and competencies in the 2000s. The
    sequence reflects the degree of consensus among
    the experts. Each force listed was considered
    critical by at least 50 percent of the
    respondents to the studys questionnaire.

1. Increased pressure and capacity to measure
workforce productivity, performance,
cost- effectiveness, and efficiency 2. Increased
pressure to demonstrate the value, impact,
quality and practicality of HRM services 3.
Accelerated rate of change and more uncertain
business environment
45
Future Forces for HRM (contd)
  • 4. Increased emphasis on customer service and
    expectation of quality products and services
    from the workforce
  • 5. Increased sophistication and variety of tools,
    technologies, methods, theories, and choices in
    HRM
  • 6. Increased diversity (demographics, values,
    experience) at all levels of the workforce

7. Increased expectations for higher levels of
judgement and flexibility in worker
contribution (specifically, for more
creativity, risk taking, adaptation to change,
and teamwork) 8. Increased use of systems
approaches that integrate HRM systems and
technology in the workplace
46
Future Forces for HRM (contd)
  • 9. Changed emphasis in organizations from
    loyalty to merit, accountability, performance,
    and relevant skills
  • 10. Globalization of business increased and
    expanded international markets, joint ventures,
    overseas ownerships, and competition
  • 11. Increased need for commitment, meaningful
    work, and participation on the job by a larger
    proportion of the workforce
  • 12. Increased use of flatter, more flexible
    organization designs, smaller, self-contained
    work groups and reduced staff.
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