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Global Climate Change: Implications for Digital Government Research

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Title: Global Climate Change: Implications for Digital Government Research


1
Global Climate Change Implications for Digital
Government Research
  • Digital Government Society Conference
  • 22 May 2007
  • Robert C. Worrest

2
What Changes Will Likely Occur,and Why
  • Diverse perspectives
  • Science
  • Economics / Technology
  • Policy

3
What Changes Will Likely Occur,and Why
  • Diverse perspectives
  • Science
  • Economics / Technology
  • Policy

4
What Changes Will Likely Occur,and Why
  • Diverse perspectives
  • Science
  • Economics / Technology
  • Policy

5
Science Background
  • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
  • Established in 1988 (WMO UNEP)
  • Assess the scientific, technical, and
    socioeconomic information relevant to
    understanding the risks associated with
    human-induced climate change
  • Bases assessments on published and peer-reviewed
    scientific and technical literature

6
Science Background
  • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
  • Established in 1988 (WMO UNEP)
  • Assess the scientific, technical, and
    socioeconomic information relevant to
    understanding the risks associated with
    human-induced climate change
  • Bases assessments on published and peer-reviewed
    scientific and technical literature

7
Science Background
  • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
  • Established in 1988 (WMO UNEP)
  • Assess the scientific, technical, and
    socioeconomic information relevant to
    understanding the risks associated with
    human-induced climate change
  • Bases assessments on published and peer-reviewed
    scientific and technical literature

8
Major components needed to understand the climate
system and climate change
9
Science Background
  • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
  • Working Group I (scientific aspects of the
    climate system and climate change)
  • Working Group II (vulnerability of socioeconomic
    and natural systems to climate change, negative
    and positive consequences of climate change, and
    adaptation options)
  • Working Group III (options for limiting
    greenhouse gas emissions and otherwise mitigating
    climate change)

10
Science Background
  • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
  • Working Group I (scientific aspects of the
    climate system and climate change)
  • Working Group II (vulnerability of socioeconomic
    and natural systems to climate change, negative
    and positive consequences of climate change, and
    adaptation options)
  • Working Group III (options for limiting
    greenhouse gas emissions and otherwise mitigating
    climate change)

11
Science Background
  • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
  • Working Group I (scientific aspects of the
    climate system and climate change)
  • Working Group II (vulnerability of socioeconomic
    and natural systems to climate change, negative
    and positive consequences of climate change, and
    adaptation options)
  • Working Group III (options for limiting
    greenhouse gas emissions and otherwise mitigating
    climate change)

12
Science Background
  • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth
    Assessment Report (2007)
  • 2500 Scientific Expert Reviewers
  • 800 Contributing Authors and
  • 450 Lead Authors from
  • 130 Countries
  • 6 years work
  • 1 report

13
Working Group I
  • Contribution to Fourth Assessment Report
  • Climate Change 2007 The Physical Science Basis
  • Global atmospheric concentrations of CO2, CH4,
    and N20 have increased markedly as a result of
    human activities since 1750
  • Far exceed pre-industrial values determined from
    ice cores spanning thousands of years
  • Global increases in CO2 concentration due
    primarily to fossil fuel use and land-use change
  • Global increases in CH4 and N20 primarily due to
    agriculture

14
Working Group I
  • Contribution to Fourth Assessment Report
  • Climate Change 2007 The Physical Science Basis
  • Global atmospheric concentrations of CO2, CH4,
    and N20 have increased markedly as a result of
    human activities since 1750
  • Far exceed pre-industrial values determined from
    ice cores spanning thousands of years
  • Global increases in CO2 concentration due
    primarily to fossil fuel use and land-use change
  • Global increases in CH4 and N20 primarily due to
    agriculture

15
Working Group I
  • Contribution to Fourth Assessment Report
  • Climate Change 2007 The Physical Science Basis
  • Global atmospheric concentrations of CO2, CH4,
    and N20 have increased markedly as a result of
    human activities since 1750
  • Far exceed pre-industrial values determined from
    ice cores spanning thousands of years
  • Global increases in CO2 concentration due
    primarily to fossil fuel use and land-use change
  • Global increases in CH4 and N20 primarily due to
    agriculture

16
Working Group I (cont.)
  • Direct observations of recent climate change
  • Understanding of anthropogenic warming and
    cooling influences improved since the Third
    Assessment Report, leading to a very high
    confidence (90 chance of being correct) that
    global average net effect of human activities
    since 1750 has been one of warming
  • Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, as
    is now evident from observations of increases in
    global average air and ocean temperatures,
    widespread melting of snow and ice, and rising
    global average sea level

17
Working Group I (cont.)
  • Direct observations of recent climate change
  • Understanding of anthropogenic warming and
    cooling influences improved since the Third
    Assessment Report, leading to a very high
    confidence (90 chance of being correct) that
    global average net effect of human activities
    since 1750 has been one of warming
  • Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, as
    is now evident from observations of increases in
    global average air and ocean temperatures,
    widespread melting of snow and ice, and rising
    global average sea level

18
Working Group I (cont.)
  • Direct observations of recent climate change
  • At continental, regional and ocean basin scales,
    numerous long-term changes in climate have been
    observed, including changes in arctic
    temperatures and ice, widespread changes in
    precipitation amounts, ocean salinity, wind
    patterns and aspects of extreme weather
    (droughts, heavy precipitation, heat waves,
    intensity of tropical cyclones)

19
Working Group I (cont.)
  • Paleoclimatic perspective
  • Paleoclimatic information supports the
    interpretation that the warmth of the last half
    century is unusual in at least the previous 1,300
    years
  • Last time the polar regions were significantly
    warmer than present for an extended period (about
    125,000 years ago), reductions in polar ice
    volume led to 4 to 6 m of sea level rise

20
Working Group I (cont.)
  • Paleoclimatic perspective
  • Paleoclimatic information supports the
    interpretation that the warmth of the last half
    century is unusual in at least the previous 1,300
    years
  • Last time the polar regions were significantly
    warmer than present for an extended period (about
    125,000 years ago), reductions in polar ice
    volume led to 4 to 6 m of sea level rise

21
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22
Working Group I (cont.)
  • Understanding and attributing climate change
  • Most of the observed increase in global average
    temperatures since the mid-20th century is very
    likely (gt90) due to the observed increase in
    anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions (advance
    since TAR gt66)
  • Discernible human influences now extend to other
    aspects of climate, including ocean warming,
    continental-average temperatures, temperature
    extremes and wind patterns

23
Climate model simulations of the Earths
temperature variations compared with observed
changes
24
Working Group I (cont.)
  • Understanding and attributing climate change
  • Most of the observed increase in global average
    temperatures since the mid-20th century is very
    likely (gt90) due to the observed increase in
    anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions (advance
    since TAR gt66)
  • Discernible human influences now extend to other
    aspects of climate, including ocean warming,
    continental-average temperatures, temperature
    extremes and wind patterns

25
Working Group I (cont.)
  • Projections of future changes in climate
  • For the next two decades, a warming of about
    0.2C per decade is projected for a range of IPCC
    Special Report on Emission Scenarios
  • Continued greenhouse gas emissions at or above
    current rates would cause further warming and
    induce many changes in the global climate system
    during the 21st century that would very likely be
    larger than those observed during the 20th
    century

26
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27
Working Group I (cont.)
  • Projections of future changes in climate
  • For the next two decades, a warming of about
    0.2C per decade is projected for a range of IPCC
    Special Report on Emission Scenarios
  • Continued greenhouse gas emissions at or above
    current rates would cause further warming and
    induce many changes in the global climate system
    during the 21st century that would very likely be
    larger than those observed during the 20th
    century

28
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29
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30
Working Group I (cont.)
  • Projections of future changes in climate
  • Even if greenhouse gas concentrations were to be
    stabilized, anthropogenic warming and sea level
    rise would continue for centuries due to the time
    scales associated with climate processes and
    feedbacks

31
Working Group II
  • Contribution to Fourth Assessment Report
  • Climate Change 2007 Impacts, Adaptation and
    Vulnerability

32
Working Group III
  • Contribution to Fourth Assessment Report
  • Climate Change 2007 Mitigation of Climate
    Change

33
Economics / Technology Background
  • "Stabilization Wedges Solving the Climate
    Problem for the next 50 Years with Current
    Technologies
  • Pacala and Socolow (2004)
  • The Economics of Climate Change The Stern
    Review
  • Nicholas Stern (2007)
  • U.S. Climate Action Report-2006
  • Fourth National Communication of the United
    States of America Under the United Nations
    Framework Convention on Climate Change (2007)
  • Growth and Responsibility in the World Economy
  • G8 Summit 2007 Draft Summit Declarations

34
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35
The Economics of Climate Change The Stern
Review
  • Conclusions
  • There is still time to avoid the worst impacts of
    climate change, if we take strong action now
  • Climate change could have very serious impacts on
    growth and development
  • The costs of stabilizing the climate are
    significant but manageable delay would be
    dangerous and much more costly

36
The Economics of Climate Change The Stern
Review
  • Conclusions (cont.)
  • Action on climate change is required across all
    countries, and it need not cap the aspirations
    for growth of rich or poor countries
  • A range of options exists to cut emissions
    strong, deliberate policy action is required to
    motivate their take-up
  • Climate change demands an international response,
    based on a shared understanding of long-term
    goals and agreement on frameworks for action

37
Growth and Responsibility in the World Economy
(G8 Summit 2007)
  • Climate Change and Energy Efficiency Challenge
    and Chance for the World Economy
  • Fighting Climate Change
  • Technology
  • Carbon Markets
  • Reducing Emissions from Deforestation
  • Adapting to Climate Change
  • Sustainable Buildings
  • Transportation
  • Power Generation

38
Growth and Responsibility in the World Economy
(G8 Summit 2007)
  • Climate Change and Energy Efficiency Challenge
    and Chance for the World Economy
  • We understand that tackling climate change is an
    imperative not a choice. We firmly agree that
    resolute and concerted international action is
    urgently needed in order to reduce global
    greenhouse gas emissions and sustain our common
    basis of living.
  • We are committed to taking strong and early
    action to tackle climate change in order to
    contribute our fair share to limit global warming
    to 2C.
  • We acknowledge that the UN climate process is
    the appropriate forum for negotiating future
    global action on climate change.
  • we will increase the energy efficiency of our
    economies so that energy consumption by 2020 will
    be at least 20 lower, compared to a
    business-as-usual scenario.

39
Growth and Responsibility in the World Economy
(G8 Summit 2007)
  • Climate Change and Energy Efficiency Challenge
    and Chance for the World Economy
  • We understand that tackling climate change is an
    imperative not a choice. We firmly agree that
    resolute and concerted international action is
    urgently needed in order to reduce global
    greenhouse gas emissions and sustain our common
    basis of living.
  • We are committed to taking strong and early
    action to tackle climate change in order to
    contribute our fair share to limit global warming
    to 2C.
  • We acknowledge that the UN climate process is
    the appropriate forum for negotiating future
    global action on climate change.
  • we will increase the energy efficiency of our
    economies so that energy consumption by 2020 will
    be at least 20 lower, compared to a
    business-as-usual scenario.

40
Growth and Responsibility in the World Economy
(G8 Summit 2007)
  • Climate Change and Energy Efficiency Challenge
    and Chance for the World Economy
  • We understand that tackling climate change is an
    imperative not a choice. We firmly agree that
    resolute and concerted international action is
    urgently needed in order to reduce global
    greenhouse gas emissions and sustain our common
    basis of living.
  • We are committed to taking strong and early
    action to tackle climate change in order to
    contribute our fair share to limit global warming
    to 2C.
  • We acknowledge that the UN climate process is
    the appropriate forum for negotiating future
    global action on climate change.
  • we will increase the energy efficiency of our
    economies so that energy consumption by 2020 will
    be at least 20 lower, compared to a
    business-as-usual scenario.

41
Growth and Responsibility in the World Economy
(G8 Summit 2007)
  • Climate Change and Energy Efficiency Challenge
    and Chance for the World Economy
  • We understand that tackling climate change is an
    imperative not a choice. We firmly agree that
    resolute and concerted international action is
    urgently needed in order to reduce global
    greenhouse gas emissions and sustain our common
    basis of living.
  • We are committed to taking strong and early
    action to tackle climate change in order to
    contribute our fair share to limit global warming
    to 2C.
  • We acknowledge that the UN climate process is
    the appropriate forum for negotiating future
    global action on climate change.
  • we will increase the energy efficiency of our
    economies so that energy consumption by 2020 will
    be at least 20 lower, compared to a
    business-as-usual scenario.

42
Policy Background
  • Meeting the Climate Challenge
  • Recommendations of the International Climate
    Change Taskforce (2005)
  • Agenda for Climate Action
  • Pew Center on Global Climate Change (2006)
  • The Path to Climate Sustainability
  • Global Roundtable on Climate Change (2007)
  • A Call for Action
  • Consensus Principles and Recommendations from the
    U.S. Climate Action Partnership - a business and
    NGO partnership (2007)

43
Policy Background (cont.)
  • National Security and the Threat of Climate
    Change
  • Military Advisory Board, the CNA Corporation
    (2007)
  • Global Climate Change Security Oversight Act
    the Senate and House Intelligence Authorization
    Bills
  • Director of National Intelligence Mike McConnell
    believes it is "appropriate" for global climate
    change to be considered in future National
    Intelligence Estimates

44
Meeting the Climate Challenge
  • Recommendations
  • A long-term objective be established to prevent
    global average temperature from rising more than
    2C above the pre-industrial level, to limit the
    extent and magnitude of climate-change impacts
  • A global framework be adopted that builds on the
    UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol, and enables all
    countries to be part of concerted action on
    climate change at the global level in the
    post-2012 period, on the basis of equity and
    common but differentiated responsibilities
  • G8 governments establish national renewable
    portfolio standards to generate at least 25 of
    electricity from renewable energy sources by
    2025, with higher targets needed for some G8
    governments

45
Meeting the Climate Challenge
  • Recommendations (cont.)
  • G8 governments increase their spending on
    research, development, and demonstration of
    advanced technologies for energy-efficient and
    low- and zero-carbon energy supply by two-fold or
    more by 2010, at the same time as adopting
    near-term strategies for the large-scale
    deployment of existing low- and no-carbon
    technologies
  • The G8 and other major economies, including from
    the developing world, form a G8 Climate Group,
    to pursue technology agreements and related
    initiatives that will lead to large emissions
    reductions accepted by G8 Summit 2005

46
Meeting the Climate Challenge
  • Recommendations (cont.)
  • The G8 Climate Group agree to shift their
    agricultural subsidies from food crops to
    biofuels, especially those derived from
    cellulosic materials, while implementing
    appropriate safeguards to ensure sustainable
    farming methods are encouraged, culturally and
    ecologically sensitive land preserved, and
    biodiversity protected
  • All developed countries introduce national
    mandatory cap-and-trade systems for carbon
    emissions, and construct them to allow for their
    future integration into a single global market

47
Meeting the Climate Challenge
  • Recommendations (cont.)
  • Governments remove barriers to and increase
    investment in renewable energy and energy
    efficient technologies and practices through such
    measures as the phase-out of fossil fuel
    subsidies and requiring Export Credit Agencies
    and Multilateral Development Banks to adopt
    minimum efficiency or carbon intensity standards
    for projects they support
  • Developed countries honor existing commitments to
    provide greater financial and technical
    assistance to help vulnerable countries adapt to
    climate change, including the commitments made at
    the seventh conference of the parties to the
    UNFCCC in 2001, and pursue the establishment of
    an international compensation fund to support
    disaster mitigation and preparedness

48
Meeting the Climate Challenge
  • Recommendations (cont.)
  • Governments committed to action on climate change
    raise public awareness of the problem and build
    public support for climate policies by pledging
    to provide substantial long-term investment in
    effective climate communication activities

49
A Call for Action
  • Recommendations
  • Congress needs to enact legislation as quickly as
    possible
  • Maintain environmental goal
  • Take a stepwise, cost-effective approach
  • Cap and trade is essential
  • Establish short- and mid-term GHG emission
    targets
  • Complimentary policies and measures will be
    necessary

50
A Call for Action
  • Recommendations (cont.)
  • Scope of coverage and point of regulation of the
    cap and trade program
  • Emission offsets
  • Emission allowance allocations
  • Cost control measures
  • Inventory and registry
  • Credit for early action

51
National Security and the Threat of Climate
Change
  • Recommendations
  • National security consequences of climate change
    should be fully integrated into national security
    and national defense strategies
  • U.S. should commit to a stronger national and
    international role to help stabilize climate
    change at levels that will avoid significant
    disruption to global security and stability
  • U.S. should commit to global partnerships that
    help less developed nations build the capacity
    and resiliency to better manage climate impacts

52
National Security and the Threat of Climate
Change
  • Recommendations
  • National security consequences of climate change
    should be fully integrated into national security
    and national defense strategies
  • U.S. should commit to a stronger national and
    international role to help stabilize climate
    change at levels that will avoid significant
    disruption to global security and stability
  • U.S. should commit to global partnerships that
    help less developed nations build the capacity
    and resiliency to better manage climate impacts

53
National Security and the Threat of Climate
Change
  • Recommendations
  • National security consequences of climate change
    should be fully integrated into national security
    and national defense strategies
  • U.S. should commit to a stronger national and
    international role to help stabilize climate
    change at levels that will avoid significant
    disruption to global security and stability
  • U.S. should commit to global partnerships that
    help less developed nations build the capacity
    and resiliency to better manage climate impacts

54
National Security and the Threat of Climate
Change
  • Recommendations (cont.)
  • Department of Defense should enhance its
    operational capability by accelerating the
    adoption of improved business processes and
    innovative technologies that result in improved
    U.S. combat power through energy efficiency
  • Department of Defense should conduct an
    assessment of the impact of U.S. military
    installations worldwide of rising sea levels,
    extreme weather events, and other projected
    climate change impacts over the next 30 to 40
    years

55
National Security and the Threat of Climate
Change
  • Recommendations (cont.)
  • Department of Defense should enhance its
    operational capability by accelerating the
    adoption of improved business processes and
    innovative technologies that result in improved
    U.S. combat power through energy efficiency
  • Department of Defense should conduct an
    assessment of the impact of U.S. military
    installations worldwide of rising sea levels,
    extreme weather events, and other projected
    climate change impacts over the next 30 to 40
    years

56
Letter to President George W. Bush
  • Fifteen Committee Chairs from the U.S. House of
    Representatives
  • U.S. leadership is critical to tackling this
    global threat. Congress is now preparing to do
    its part. Support is growing for aggressive
    legislation to cap global warming pollution and
    cut it dramatically over the coming decades.

56
57
1 . Global Climate Change Security Oversight Act
(Introduced in Senate)S.1018.IS2 . Global
Climate Change Security Oversight Act (Introduced
in House)H.R.1961.IH3 . Expressing the sense
of Congress regarding the need for the United
States to address global climate change through
the negotiation of fair and effective
international commitments. (Introduced in
House)H.CON.RES.104.IH4 . Expressing the sense
of the Senate regarding the need for the United
States to address global climate change through
the negotiation of fair and effective
international commitments. (Introduced in
Senate)S.RES.30.IS5 . Expressing the sense of
the Senate regarding the need for the United
States to address global climate change through
the negotiation of fair and effective
international commitments. (Reported in
Senate)S.RES.30.RS6 . Climate Change Education
Act (Introduced in Senate)S.1389.IS7 .
Commending Vice President Al Gore on his
well-deserved recognition for the Academy
Award-winning documentary, An Inconvenient
Truth'. (Introduced in House)H.RES.197.IH8 .
Climate Stewardship Act of 2007 (Introduced in
House)H.R.620.IH9 . Climate Stewardship and
Innovation Act of 2007 (Introduced in
Senate)S.280.IS10 . Electric Utility Cap and
Trade Act of 2007 (Introduced in
Senate)S.317.IS11 . Global Warming Reduction
Act of 2007 (Introduced in Senate)S.485.IS12 .
Energy Policy Reform and Revitalization Act of
2007 (Introduced in House)H.R.2337.IH13 .
Global Warming Pollution Reduction Act
(Introduced in Senate)S.309.IS14 . Clean Air
Planning Act of 2007 (Introduced in
Senate)S.1177.IS15 . Safe Climate Act of 2007
(Introduced in House)H.R.1590.IH16 . TEAM up
for Energy Independence Act (Introduced in
House)H.R.182.IH17 . Save Our Climate Act of
2007 (Introduced in House)H.R.2069.IH18 .
Salmon Economic Analysis and Planning Act
(Introduced in House)H.R.1507.IH19 . Whereas
the United States is a Pacific nation (Engrossed
as Agreed to or Passed by House)H.RES.355.EH20
. Expressing the sense of the Congress that there
should be enacted a mandatory national program to
slow, stop and reverse emissions of greenhouse
gases. (Introduced in House)H.CON.RES.96.IH21
. Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year
2008 (Reported in House)H.R.2082.RH22 .
Hurricanes Katrina and Rita Environmental Justice
Act of 2007 (Introduced in House)H.R.1602.IH23
. Whereas the year 2007-2008 is the 50th
anniversary of the International Geophysical Year
(IGY) of 1957-1958 (Engrossed as Agreed to or
Passed by House)H.CON.RES.76.EH24 . Honoring
the 50th Anniversary of the International
Geophysical Year (IGY) and its past contributions
to space research, and looking forward to future
accomplishments. (Referred to Senate Committee
after being Received from House)H.CON.RES.76.RFS
25 . Recognizing and welcoming the leaders of
the Pacific Islands to Washington, D.C., and
commending the East-West Center for hosting the
Pacific Islands Conference of Leaders.
(Introduced in House)H.RES.355.IH26 . Whereas
the global celebration of World Water Day is an
initiative that grew out of the 1992 United
Nations Conference on Environment and Development
in Rio de Janeiro (Engrossed as Agreed to or
Passed by House)H.RES.196.EH27 . Honoring the
50th Anniversary of the International Geophysical
Year (IGY) and its past contributions to space
research, and looking forward to future
accomplishments. (Introduced in
House)H.CON.RES.76.IH28 . Whereas the global
celebration of World Water Day is an initiative
that grew out of the 1992 United Nations
Conference on Environment and Development in Rio
de Janeiro (Introduced in House)H.RES.196.IH29
. Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year
2008 (Referred to Senate Committee after being
Received from House)H.R.2082.RFS30 .
Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year
2008 (Engrossed as Agreed to or Passed by
House)H.R.2082.EH31 . Polar Bear Protection
Act of 2007 (Introduced in House)H.R.2327.IH32
. Ethanol Infrastructure Expansion Act of 2007
(Introduced in Senate)S.859.IS33 . Designating
April 20, 2007, as National and Global Youth
Service Day'. (Agreed to by Senate)S.RES.158.ATS
34 . Resolved, (Engrossed as Agreed to or Passed
by House)H.RES.202.EH35 . Clean Power Act of
2007 (Introduced in Senate)S.1201.IS36 .
Advanced Geothermal Energy Research and
Development Act of 2007 (Introduced in
House)H.R.2304.IH37 . Clean Air/Climate Change
Act of 2007 (Introduced in Senate)S.1168.IS38
. To provide a reduction in the aggregate
greenhouse gas emissions per unit of energy
consumed by vehicles and aircraft, and for other
purposes. (Introduced in House)H.R.2215.IH39 .
EAT Healthy America Act (Introduced in
House)H.R.1600.IH40 . Improved Passenger
Automobile Fuel Economy Act of 2007 (Introduced
in Senate)S.183.IS41 . United States-Brazil
Energy Cooperation Pact of 2007 (Introduced in
Senate)S.1007.IS42 . Northern Rockies
Ecosystem Protection Act (Introduced in
House)H.R.1975.IH43 . National Fuels
Initiative (Introduced in Senate)S.162.IS44 .
Oceans Conservation, Education, and National
Strategy for the 21st Century Act (Introduced in
House)H.R.21.IH45 . National Defense
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008 (Reported
in House)H.R.1585.RH46 . Border Security and
Immigration Reform Act of 2007 (Introduced in
Senate)S.330.IS47 . Comprehensive Immigration
Reform Act of 2007 (Placed on Calendar in
Senate)S.1348.PCS
58
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59
Robert C. Worrest, Ph.D. Chief Scientist National
Biological Information Infrastructure U.S.
Geological Survey rworrest_at_usgs.gov and Senior
Research Scientist Associate Director -
Washington Operations CIESIN, Columbia
University rworrest_at_ciesin.columbia.edu
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