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The Situation in Darfur

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Human Rights groups like Amnesty International ... What kind of action should be taken? Who, if anyone, should be held responsible for human rights abuses? ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Situation in Darfur


1
The Situation in Darfur
  • Global Classrooms
  • 3 ESO

2
Where is Darfur?
  • Darfur is a REGION in the country of SUDAN in
    AFRICA

Darfur is about the size of France
3
Brief History of Sudan
  • The Sudan became an independent country from the
    United Kingdom and Egypt in 1956

Population (about 40 million) is 70 Muslim, 5
Christian, 25 Indigenous religions
Population is 52 black, 39 Arab, 6 Beja 2
foreigners, 1 other
  • The country has always been divided between the
  • Arab North and African Christian and Animist
  • South. (Under the UK, they were two separate
  • colonies)
  • The Sudanese government is run by Arab Muslims,
    and it is in the northern capital city of
    Khartoum

4
History, continued
There was a brutal civil war between the North
and South from 1955-1972 and again from 1983-2005
(estimated 2 million deaths)
  • The Civil War ended in 2005 under the following
    conditions
  • -the North and South will share oil profits (the
    main source of Sudans wealth)
  • -the South will be autonomous for 6 years, and
    then vote on independence
  • -Khartoum cannot force the South to obey Islamic
    law (Shariah), southerners must vote on it in
    elected assemblies

5
So whats the problem in Darfur?
  • Many Darfurians felt the Sudanese government was
    oppressive and was not supporting the region
    because Darfurians are not Arabs
  • Rebel groups took advantage of the chaos
    of the civil war and started attacking military
    and government targets

The government responded by supporting militias
that started attacking civilians and villages in
Darfur
6
Villages destroyed by militias
7
A Humanitarian Crisis
  • -Destruction of villages, mass killing, rape,
  • child abduction

-Between 200,000 and 400,000 people killed (UN
estimate the Sudanese government insists it is
about 9,000)
-Drought, desertification, and lack of clean
water increase devestating effect of the
situation through disease and malnutrition. This
is part of the cause of the conflict (only 6.8
of Sudan is arable land, 60 of Darfurians are
farmers, the rest are herders)
-Conflict threatens to spread into neighboring
countries (especcially Chad where there are many
refugee camps) and possibly reignite the
North-South Civil War
8
Refugee ProblemNearly 2 million people have been
displaced
9
Refugee camps are overcrowded and often lack
adequate resources and sanitation, and are not
always protected from outside attacks
International aid organizations have difficulty
getting food and medicine to the camps because
of how dangerous it is to travel through some
areas
10
Who are the main players?
  • Sudanese Government It insists it does not
    support human rights abuses or militias that
    attack villages
  • Militias the most feared militia is known as
    the
  • Janjaweed, made up of members of local tribes
  • Darfur rebel groups these groups are not
  • united, but the main groups are the the Sudan
  • Liberation Army (SLA) and the Justice and
  • Equality Movement (Jem). Some want
    independence,
  • other want better treatment by the government.
    Rebel
  • groups are not innocent of human rights abuses
    either.

Darfur Civilians
Foreign Governments and International
Organizations
11
What has been the international response?
  • Human Rights groups like Amnesty International
    have urged the UN and governments to take action
    by sending humanitarian and military aid and
    sanctioning the Sudanese government
  • The UN World Food Programme and other aid
    organizations have been sending humanitiarian aid
    to camps since 2004

The African Union has sent about 7,000
peacekeeping troops to Darfur, but they are often
poorly armed and lack logistical support, and
have been unable to stop the violence.
12
Many people are calling the situation genocide
13
Timeline of UN Action
  • 2004 Resolution 1547 established a special
    observer mission to Sudan to improve contact
    between the government and rebels. Also sent aid
    through World Food Programme.
  • 2005 UN Mission sent to see if genocide was
    really occurring. The mission decided this could
    not be called a genocide, but called for human
    rights abusers to be tried for war crimes.
  • 2006 Peace agreement signed between one rebel
    group and the government, but the government has
    not disarmed the janjaweed and the violence has
    actually increased.

14
  • 2007 President Bush called situation genocide
    and threatened sanctions on Sudanese gov soon
    after, the Sudanese government agreed to a UN
    peacekeeping force of 26,000 to join African
    Union troops starting Jan 1, 2008. However, the
    Sudanese government is obstructing preparation
    efforts.
  • Peace talks currently underway in Libya, though
    many rebel leaders refuse to participate and a
    supposed ceasefire is not holding.

15
Questions about Darfur
  • Is the situation in Darfur genocide?
  • Do other countries have a right to interfere in
    Darfur?
  • What is the best way to achieve peace in the
    region? What kind of action should be taken?
  • Who, if anyone, should be held responsible for
    human rights abuses?
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