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Addressing Student Social and Emotional Needs

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Title: Addressing Student Social and Emotional Needs


1
Addressing Student Social and Emotional Needs
  • A Renaissance Schools Fund Workshop
  • Michael E. Woolley, Ph.D.
  • University of Chicago
  • School of Social Service Administration
  • mew_at_uchicago.edu

2
Seminar Outline
  • Why Address Social Emotional Needs?
  • Student Assistance Team
  • Hierarchy of Student Social and Emotional Needs
    and Outcomes
  • Practice Principals, Tools, and Strategies
  • Collaboration, Partnerships and School-Linked
    Services

3
Why Address Students Social and Emotional Needs?
  • Social relationships and emotional functioning
    impact school performance
  • The social environments of school, family, and
    neighborhood influence students with respect to
    school performance
  • School needs and outcomes lie on parallel
    developmental continuums

(Richman, Bowen, Woolley, 2004, Woolley
Grogan-Kaylor, 2006)
4
The Expanding Mission of Schools
  • Over the past 100 years the range of student
    needs that schools are expected to meet has
    continually expanded
  • However, the school year and school day has not
    expanded
  • But, the needs our students bring to school has
    increased
  • Still, the funding and resources to meet those
    needs has not expanded proportionately

5
Context of School Success
  • Microsystems
  • and
  • Mesosystems

Neighborhood
Child
School
Home
(Bronfenbrenner, 2005)
6
Social Environment School Success Factors
  • School Factors social climate, school safety,
    teacher support press, class and school size,
    extracurricular activities, trust
  • Family Factors parenting, parent and sibling
    educational outcomes, family educational culture
  • Neighborhood Factors social capital, collective
    efficacy, adult modeling, peer behaviors

7
Math Achievement And Socially Supportive
Neighborhoods
8
Supportive Adults and School Success
Number of Supportive Adults
School Success/Failure Index
9
Research on School Factors
10
Research on Family Factors
11
Developmental Continuums of School Needs
Outcomes
  • Students have a continuum of learning needs
  • Those needs include social factors at home, in
    school, and in the neighborhood
  • Meeting those needs predicts better school
    performance
  • Likewise, school outcomes are on a developmental
    continuum
  • Achieving certain outcomes leads to movement
    along the continuum
  • social environment factors have differential
    influence on these school outcomes

(Informed by, Maslow, 1970, and Erickson, 1997)
12
Steps to School Success
13
A Hierarchy of Needs
  • Basic Food, Clothing, Shelter, Safety, School
    Supplies
  • Social Personalized Relationships, Positive
    Expectations, Press, and Support, Recognition
  • Emotional/Psychological School Attitudes and
    Beliefs, Coherence, Relevance, Motivation

14
Accumulating Research
  • Reveals that meeting students social and
    emotional needsat home, in the neighborhood, and
    at schoolare linked with better behavior at
    school, more positive attitudes and beliefs about
    school, and improved academic performance

15
Three Levels of Needs/Programming
  • Universal Programming to meet the
    social/emotional needs of all students
  • Selective Programming for students at-risk
  • Indicated Programming for problematic/struggling
    students
  • (Gordon, 1983 SAMHSA, 2002)

16
Student Assistance Team
  • Absolutely Critical to meet the social/emotional
    needs of all students
  • Anticipate, Identify, Plan, Implement, Coordinate
    and Evaluate
  • Membership Principal, Teachers, SPED Teacher,
    School Social Worker, School Psychologist, School
    Counselor, Parents, Community Representatives

17
Student Assistance Team
  • Consider Hiring a Full-time Coordinator for Team
  • Contact point and organizer of SAT
  • Liaison to promote
  • Family Involvement, and
  • Community Partnerships

18
Student Assistance Team
  • Meet Weekly
  • Tasks and Activities
  • All members
  • Anticipate and Identify universal needs
  • Planning and programming to meet those needs
  • Identify potential community partners
  • School Staff Members
  • Identify students and groups of students with
    greater needs
  • Create plans to meet those needs

19
SAT Process
  • Referral Process
  • Central point (person) to receive all referrals
  • Anyone can refer
  • Data collection - Direct and Indirect
  • Open Participation in SAT meetings
  • School Staff
  • Parents/Guardians
  • Outside Agencies/Collaborators
  • Consent, Confidentiality, and Sharing Information

20
SAT Process
  • Constant guiding concern should be what is best
    for the student(s)
  • Future focused, Strengths-based
  • Search for solutions
  • Inclusive and Collaborative Process
  • Student
  • Family
  • Staff
  • Community Partners

21
Student Success NeedsFood
  • Its true, breakfast is important, so is lunch
  • Hungry students have behavior problems, reduced
    attention and effort
  • Many students and families will not tell you they
    need food assistance
  • Outreach efforts are vital and should focus on
    signing up as many eligible students as possible
    for lunch and breakfast programs
  • CPS Food Service pass-through
  • Community Partnerships

22
Student Success NeedsSchool Clothing and Supplies
  • Design Mechanisms to Provide Clothing and School
    Supplies
  • Low barriers to access
  • Celebratory and supportive of school
  • Example Neighborhood Back to School Day
  • Community Partnerships?

23
Student Success Needs - BasicShelter
  • McKinney-Vento Act
  • National Center for Homeless Education -
    http//www.serve.org/nche/
  • Homelessness liberally defined
  • lack a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime
    residence
  • sharing the housing of other persons
  • motels, hotels, trailer parks, or camping
    grounds
  • not designed for or ordinarily used as a regular
    sleeping accommodation
  • migratory children
  • Community Partnerships

24
Student Success Needs - Social Personalized
Relationships
  • School staff making an effort to have personal
    relationships with students
  • Particularly struggling students
  • How does this work?
  • Examples in Schools
  • Community Partnerships
  • (Shore, 1996, 1997, 1998)

25
Student Success Needs - Social Positive
Expectations, Press, and Support
  • The Student-Teacher relationship is critical
  • Definitions and Differentiations
  • The Critical Triangle
  • All three must be present for students to succeed
    - Examples
  • Research - Interactions with other unmet needs

26
Student Success Needs Expectations, Press, and
Support
  • Spurters and Stereotype Threat
  • Research Interactions with other unmet needs and
    school outcomes
  • Race/Ethnicity differences
  • Current behavior
  • Interventions Culture, and Possible Selves
  • Wade Boykin
  • Daphna Oyserman

27
Student Success Needs Social Recognition
  • Publicly recognize students talents, interests,
    and achievements
  • Look for what each student does well - display
    and celebrate that
  • Examples in schools

28
Student Success NeedsAttitudes and Beliefs
  • Research consistently shows that a students
    attitudes and beliefs about school predict better
    behavior and academic performance
  • School bonding like being there
  • School coherence school makes sense and I can
    succeed at it
  • Importance of school success in school is a
    part of the my future

29
Student Success NeedsAttitudes and Beliefs
  • Positive attitudes and beliefs about school are a
    precondition to academic success
  • Research Example
  • Therefore, positive changes predict future
    improved academic outcomes
  • An important student need to assess and outcome
    to determine improvement
  • School Climate, Student-Teacher Relationships,
    School Safety, all have been shown to influence
    student attitudes and beliefs

30
Student Success NeedsEmotional Motivation
  • Much more than traditional idea of motivation
  • Bridges Social/Emotional and Instructional/Curricu
    lar areas
  • Closely related to attitudes and beliefs, but
    more focused on importance of school and school
    as importance aspect of future, and includes
    self-efficacy, desire to learn or master
    material, value of material
  • Also includes peer influences and role models
  • Motivation Assessment Project
  • http//ma.mspnet.org/
  • http//www.mspmap.org/index.html

31
What is School Climate?
  • Social/emotional ties
  • Activities rituals, and celebrations
  • Organizational structure
  • Shared values
  • Physical environment

32
School Climate
  • A positive school climate is most beneficial to
    the most vulnerable students
  • Low SES students
  • Racial/Ethnically diverse students
  • Less internalizing among girls
  • Less externalizing among boys
  • (Thompson, 2003 Kuperminc, Leadbetter Blatt,
    2001)

33
Two Climates
  • School as Work Place
  • Inputs and outputs
  • Shared goals and ideals
  • School as Learning Place
  • Social/emotional ties
  • Support
  • Caring
  • Focus on whole child

34
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35
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36
School Climate Practice Principles
  • 1. Ongoing Assessment
  • 2. Adults are Key
  • 3. Parent Involvement
  • 4. Community Partnerships
  • 5. Open and Inclusive Governance
  • 6. Bullying/Teasing Prevention
  • (Informed by Woolley, 2006)

37
Principle 1Ongoing Assessment
  • Lack of Effective Feedback
  • Measure the wrong things
  • Results measured often distal to student needs
    and critical outcomes
  • Results are often used to punish not improve
  • Finding and Choosing Assessment Tools

38
School Success Profile Assessment Tools
  • Three Assessment Surveys
  • Middle and High School
  • Elementary School
  • School faculty, administrators and staff
  • Informed by ecological perspective
  • Linked to Best Practices in Schools
  • Individual Student Profile, Group Profile,
    Detailed Group Report
  • http//www.schoolsuccessprofile.org/
  • http//www.schoolsuccessonline.com/

39
Search Institute Assessment Surveys
  • 40 Developmental Assets
  • Middle and High School Version
  • 4th-6th Grade Version
  • Assessment Survey and Linked Interventions
  • http//www.search-institute.org/
  • http//www.search-institute.org/downloads/

40
The OCDQ
  • Three instruments elementary, middle and high
    school versions
  • Self-report measures, easy to fill out and score
  • Completed by teachers and principals
  • Supportive Principal Behavior
  • Directive Principal Behavior
  • Restrictive Principal Behavior
  • Collegial Teacher Behavior
  • Intimate Teacher Behavior
  • Disengaged Teacher Behavior
  • (Hoy Tarter, 1997)

41
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42
Principle 2 Adults are Key
  • Students display the state of the climate at a
    school through
  • Behavior
  • Socioemotional functioning
  • Academic performance
  • Adults create and maintain the climate

43
Supportive Adults and School Success
  • When student report more supportive adultsat
    home, in their neighborhood , and at schoolthey
    have higher levels of positive attitudes and
    behaviors about school.
  • The presence of supportive adults reduces the
    impact of environmental risk factors.
  • When student reported levels of risk factors and
    supportive adults are taken into account,
    race/ethnicity differences disappear, and family
    SES differences reduce.
  • (Woolley Bowen, 2006)

44
What Students Say
  • 74 of 10th grade students report a main reason
    they go to school is because they feel the
    teachers care about them and want them to succeed.

45
Principal 3 Parent Involvement
  • Parent Involvement takes sustained effort
  • Parents busy just getting by
  • Provide warm caring climate for parents
  • Adjust access to accommodate family circumstances
  • Transportation and child care
  • Connect families to community services

46
Parent Involvement
  • Childrens Aid Society Practice Strategies
  • School staff are overwhelmed themselves and need
    to make time for parents
  • Staff need to be reinforced and recognized for
    reaching out, sharing power, trusting
  • Work help staff understand why many parents are
    intimidated by school personnel
  • Encourage school staff to communicate GOOD news
  • Activities, food, fun

47
Principle 4 Community Partnerships
  • Find a Lead Community Agency
  • Invite all agencies serving youth in the
    community
  • Include Parents and Students
  • Regularly scheduled meetings
  • Assess school and community needs and strengths
    from all perspectives
  • Messy, trust the process
  • Consensus building

48
Community Schools
  • Goal Make schools comprehensive service delivery
    centers for children and families through family,
    community, and school partnerships
  • Stresses Parent Involvement
  • Bringing Community into the School
  • Extracurricular and Afterschool Activities
  • www.communityschools.org

49
Build a Community School
  • Manual by Childrens Aid Society on how to Build
    a Community School
  • Other materials available
  • http//www.childrensaidsociety.org/communityschool
    s

50
Principle 5 Open and Inclusive Governance
  • Make Your Board Active, Engaged, and Inclusive
  • Community Members/Leaders on Board
  • Community Service Organizations and Agencies on
    Board
  • Example Comer SDP
  • http//www.med.yale.edu/comer/

51
Principle 6 Reduce Bullying and Teasing
  • Olweus Program
  • Interventions at school, classroom and individual
    level
  • www.clemson.edu/olweus/

52
Olweus Process
  • Assessment instrument
  • School-wide meeting
  • Getting adults on board
  • Clear school rules against T B
  • Classroom meetings
  • Engage bystanders
  • Monitor unstructured times
  • Meetings with perpetrators and parents/guardians
  • Meetings with victims and parents/guardians

53
Finding Proven Effective Programs
  • SAHMSA
  • http//www.modelprograms.samhsa.gov/
  • http//nrepp.samhsa.gov/
  • Department of Education
  • http//www.whatworks.ed.gov/
  • Helping Americas Youth
  • http//guide.helpingamericasyouth.org/programtool.
    cfm

54
Suggested Planning Steps
  • Start School-Family-Community Partnerships
  • Plan Universal student basic/social/emotional
    needs programming as part of initial plan
  • Plan a school-wide assessment of social/emotional
    needs
  • The SAT Team can then, in concert with
    appropriate stakeholders, identify
  • unmet Universal needs
  • students in need of more intensive services
  • what those services should be

55
Take Away Points
  • Students have needs in the basic, social, and
    emotional arenas that must be meet for success in
    school
  • Student basic/social/emotional needs lie along a
    hierarchical continuum and there is a parallel
    continuum of school performance outcomes

56
Take Away Points
  • Meeting student social and emotional needs
    requires
  • constant attention and effort,
  • a set structure and processes,
  • inclusive efforts,
  • collaborative relationships, and
  • family/community/school partnerships.

57
Universal Program Second Step
  • Social Skills Building Program that is
    implemented school-wide
  • Ages 4-14
  • Teaches empathy, impulse control, and anger
    management
  • (Leff et al., 2001)

58
Universal ProgramSeattle Social Development
Project
  • Build on social-development model
  • First through 6th graders
  • School and Home components
  • Teach alternative strategies
  • Improve parenting effectiveness
  • Focus is on building pro-social bonds and
    attachment to school
  • http//depts.washington.edu/sdrg/SRD/index.html

59
Selective Program Families and Schools Together
  • Targets students ages 4-13 who are considered
    at-risk for school failure, drug/alcohol use, of
    juvenile delinquency
  • Multifamily Groups
  • 8-10 weekly sessions, 2.5 hours long
  • Increase family involvement with youth, increase
    parenting skills, reduce parent isolation
  • http//www.fastnational.org/index.asp
  • (Bilchik, 1999)

60
Selective ProgramFirst Steps to Success
  • Focuses on Kindergarten kids at-risk
  • Social learning theory, kids learn aggressive
    behavior patterns
  • Positive reinforcement point system in the
    classroom
  • Parent training in parenting skills and
    implementing the behavior program at home as well

61
Indicated ProgramAnger Coping Program
  • Social-Cognitive model of anger arousal
  • Students ages 9-12 with history of aggressive and
    disruptive behaviors
  • Small group process 4 to 6 students
  • 18 sessions once each week
  • Self-monitoring, perspective taking,
    problem-solving skills
  • Parenting component
  • (Lochman, 1993)

62
Indicated ProgramMultisystemic Family Therapy
  • Adolescents 12-17
  • Intensive Family Oriented Home-based program
  • Goals Improve parenting skills and youth-family
    relationships
  • Shown to reduce antisocial behavior and substance
    abuse

63
Community Schools
  • Goal Make schools comprehensive service delivery
    centers for children and families through family,
    community, and school partnerships
  • Stresses Parent Involvement
  • Bringing Community into the School
  • Extracurricular and Afterschool Activities
  • www.communityschools.org

64
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