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The productivity challenge: An international perspective on system innovation

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Title: The productivity challenge: An international perspective on system innovation


1
The productivity challenge An international
perspective on system innovation
  • Chris Wardlaw
  • 10 November 2008
  • Curriculum Corporation Conference 2008
  • Sofitel Melbourne

2
We can learn from other education systems even
though the contexts differ.
3
Hong Kong Education At a glance
  • about 1 million students (kindergarten, primary,
    secondary)
  • class sizes 30- 40 (reductions in progress)
  • subvention non-secular (class/ student based,
    vouchers)
  • primary education subject based
  • specialist teaching (English, Chinese, Maths)
  • central allocation to schools (parent choice,
    academic results)
  • all graduate, all trained not yet a reality
    (dramatic increase past decade)
  • medium of instruction Chinese/English

4
  • Investment per student per annum in HK
  • ratios for stages of education (approx)
  • 0.4 pre-primary
  • 0.75 primary
  • 1.0 secondary junior lt 1.0,
  • senior gt 1.0
  • 5.3 university
  • Evolution of ratios are revealing of education
  • reform across jurisdictions.
  • (refer recent study by Professor Max Angus)

5
Learning Reform asHeart of Education Reform
6
Fundamental principles underpinning the reform
effort
  • All students have opportunities to learn and
    should not be screened out early.
  • Life-long learning capabilities needed
    (independent thinking, learning to
    learn/self-directed learning, inter/intra
    personal skills, values/ethics) and broad
    knowledge base as foundation for expertise.
  • Whole person development for quality of life in
    society, culture, economy.
  • Conceptions of knowledge changing disciplinary,
    cross disciplinary, personal, co-constructed.
  • Structural changes to facilitate pathways for all
    young people.

7
Learning Expectations of Students
  • To be biliterate and trilingual with adequate
    proficiency
  • To acquire a broad knowledge base, and be able to
    understand contemporary issues that may impact on
    ones daily life at personal, community, national
    and global levels
  • To be an informed and responsible citizen with a
    sense of national and global identity
  • To respect pluralism of cultures and views, and
    be a critical, reflective and independent thinker
  • To acquire IT and other skills for being a
    lifelong learner
  • To understand ones career/academic aspirations
    and develop positive attitudes towards work and
    learning
  • To lead a healthy life style with active
    participation in aesthetic and physical
    activities

8
Learning reform since 2000 aligning curriculum,
pedagogy and assessment
Curriculum
what is worth learning

Alignment for student learning

how students learn teachers teach
Pedagogy
knowing what students have learned
Assessment
9
International Benchmarking of Education in Hong
Kong
  • Where does Hong Kong stand ?

10
PISA 2006 (15 year olds)
  • Science 2nd (3rd in 2003)
  • Mathematics 1st with 3 others (5 others in
    2003)
  • Reading 3rd (10th ( 5th with 14 others) in 2003)
  • (Problem solving 2003 1st with 5 others)

11
High science performance
Durchschnittliche Schülerleistungen im Bereich
Mathematik
High average performanceLarge socio-economic
disparities
High average performanceHigh social equity
High average performanceHigh social equity
High average performanceLarge socio-economic
disparities
Strong socio-economic impact on student
performance
Socially equitable distribution of learning
opportunities
Low average performanceHigh social equity
Low average performanceLarge socio-economic
disparities
Low science performance
12
Primary International Reading Literacy Study
(PIRLS) 2006 (Primary 4)
  • 2nd (14th in 2001)
  • (Note 26 operating at L1 literacy levels in
    English)

13
A quantum leap in reading
Quality assessment feedback
School development plan
Reading to Learn Priority (Task Force)
Targeted professional development
Contemporary curriculum guides
14
  • Closing the gap between
  • the intended curriculum and
  • the implemented curriculum
  • conscious, explicit,
    relentless focus on the task(s)

15
World University RankingsTimes Higher
Educational Supplement
  • 4 institutions among top 150
  • (26, 39, 42, 147)
  • Note others
  • Shanghai Jiaotong University Ranking (began 2003)
  • EMBA Financial Times

16
McKinsey How the worlds best performing systems
come out on top
  • The quality of an education system or school
    cannot exceed the quality of its teachers

17
  • Our jurisdiction data sets generally confirm high
    and improving standards, but there is no room for
    complacency

18
How do we explain
high standards
high equality
and improvement ?
19
Maths unplugged. Young colleagues compare notes
(front row) in an abacus and mental arithmetic
contest in Huaibei in eastern Anhui province, on
Sunday. The contest for the northern part of the
province attracted more than 200 participants
aged between 4 and 8 years old. Photo Xinhua
South China Morning Post Friday May 22, 2007
20
Is it culture?
YES
NO
21
Why might Hong Kong do so well ?
  • Coherent curriculum with high expectations
    (strong disciplines)
  • Treasures training of basic skills and grasp of
    fundamental concepts at basic education level.
  • Chinese culture values learning and provides
    extra incentives for students
  • Teachers with strong pedagogical content
    knowledge (recent and new teacher graduates in
    first third of cohort)
  • Other factors include
  • Societal expectation
  • Parental involvement
  • Learning behaviour (time-on-task/structured
    teaching/homework)
  • Textbooks

22
  • But ....

23
Student Attitudinal Factors
  • Confidence in mathematics (Grade 8) (TIMMS)

24
Weaknesses confirmed in range ofdata sources
  • Students low self-efficacy and self-concept
  • Low connectedness to schools
  • Large between-school differences

25
The Pyramid (Number of Students)
18
36
90
26
Staying on at school rates at 16 17 (2001-2)
Hong Kong Data provides indicative comparison
only (different data source)
Source OECD Education at a Glance 2001/2 EMB
indicators for HK
27
The new global environment
  • The World has Changed !

28
Whither knowledge?
29
(No Transcript)
30
(No Transcript)
31
Changing Views of Knowledge
Understanding of Knowledge Static ?
Dynamic
Sources of Knowledge Education institution ?
Everywhere
(foundation knowledge, learning to learn, generic
skills)
(connected classroom)
Knowledge
Nature of Knowledge Authority? Personal and
contextual
Structure of Knowledge Compartmental ? Holistic
(subjects cross-curricular studies/enquiry
projects)
(teachers students learning together)
32
Is our education preparing our young people for
their future?
33
(No Transcript)
34
Divergence or Convergence
  • the fiercest debates in education circles are
    generally over the falsest of dichotomies ..

Professor Michael Barber
  • grammar vs whole language
  • narrative history vs thematic history
  • back to basics vs real mathematics

35
School Curriculum Framework since 2001
Core Subjects Chinese Language, English
Language, Mathematics, Liberal Studies (45-55)
Elective Subjects2-3 Elective Subjects chosen
from 20 NSS elective subjects, Applied Learning
courses and other language courses (20-30)
  • Other Learning Experiences
  • Moral and Civic Education
  • Community Service
  • Aesthetic Development
  • Physical Development
  • Career-related Experiences
  • (15-35)

Senior Secondary 2009
Generic Skill
Value Attitude
P1- S3
General Studies
36
Generic Skills
Collaboration skills Communication
skills Creativity Critical thinking
skills Information technology skills
Numeracy skills Problem-solving
skills Self-management skills Study skills
Values Attitudes
Perseverance Respect for others Responsibility Nat
ional identity Commitment
37
Moving to a new academic structure in 2009
38
New Senior Secondary curriculum in 2009
  • Core Subjects
  • Chinese Language
  • English Language
  • Mathematics
  • Liberal Studies

Elective Subjects 2 or 3 electives chosen from
20 subjects, Applied Learning courses, and other
language courses
  • Other Learning Experiences
  • Moral Civic Education
  • Community Service
  • Aesthetic Development
  • Physical Development
  • Career-related Experiences

45-55 20-30 15-35
39
Core / Elective Subjects in 2009
40
Applied learning for S5-6 in New Senior Secondary
  • Six Areas of Studies
  • Applied Science
  • Business, Management Law
  • Creative Studies
  • Engineering Production
  • Media Communication
  • Services

41
21st century vocabulary
  • creativity.
  • communication.
  • critical thinking.
  • values.

42
  • creativity

43
Developing creativity..
  • A demanding process of teaching, difficult to
    make routine, but
  • ask students to go beyond given information
  • give students time to think
  • use strategies and thinking techniques which
    involve creation
  • reward and value creative efforts

44
  • . communications
  • (languages and mathematics)

45
ENGLISH SPEAKING COUNTRIES
(information from UN)
46
ENGLISH CHINESE SPEAKING COUNTRIES
(information from UN)
47
ENGLISH CHINESE SPEAKING COUNTRIES
(information from UN)
48
MOST SPOKEN LANGUAGES
(Ostler, 2005)
49
Languages
  • Biliterate Trilingual Language(????) Policy
    since 1997, English Chinese (Cantonese
    Putonghua)
  • Foreign languages as 3rd/4th languageFrench,
    German, Hindi, Japanese, Spanish and Urdu

50
  • Learning others Languages
  • 12 of Australian students undertake a second
    language (Chinese, Japanese, Indonesian, Korean)
    to Year 12.
  • What does evidence tell us about learning another
    language?
  • intensive sustained instruction time is the key
    to L2 learning (5 years for academic proficiency
    according to Jim Cumming).
  • for example Proficiency in Chinese 2200 hrs
    French 600 hrs. Australia L2 about 500 hrs (Jane
    Orton Chinese Language Education in Australian
    Schools 2008)

51
  • Challenges in making
  • Maths compulsory.

52
Mathematics at present
  • The curriculum is dense and compact
  • Learning and teaching is rushed
  • The proliferation of mathematics in and between
    disciplines changes demands
  • Learning and teaching examination oriented
  • Low self-efficacy of students

53
Senior Secondary Mathematicsas Core
  • The breadth depth of curriculum
  • Catering for individual differences / diversity
  • A balance between content and understanding
    (doing and thinking)
  • Problem solving and problem solving
  • Attitudes and values (confidence, perseverance)

54
  • critical thinking

55
  • Liberal Studies as Core
  • Why is it a core subject?To ensure that
    students experience a broad education in their
    senior secondary years
  • What does it provide to students?Liberal
    Studies interactively borrows knowledge and
    perspectives from other subjects to enrich its
    study. Issues are chosen so that students have
    the opportunity to
  • study contemporary events not covered by any
    single disciplines (Awareness)
  • expand perspectives beyond single disciplines
    (Broadening)
  • connect knowledge concepts across different
    disciplines (Connection critical thinking)

56
Liberal Studies as Core
  • Liberal studies features an enquiry study (90
    hours) as a capstone experience(echoes extended
    essay and theory of knowledge in IB and proposed
    extended project a la Tomlinson)

57
  • values

58
Our young people will have.
  • a deep understanding of what it means to be a
    Hongkonger and a citizen of China and of the
    world.
  • a sense of responsibility for all in society,
    regardless of their background, gender, race,
    social or geographical group.
  • perseverance and a willingness to take risks
    (never being defeated by failure).
  • an acceptance that the answers may not be totally
    clear at first, and that understanding can be
    built.
  • a willingness to collaborate and share, to listen
    to others points of view and to communicate
    their own viewpoint.

59
  • Development of senior secondary in other
    jurisdictions
  • IB Diploma
  • - one subject from languages, second language,
    individuals and societies, experimental science,
    mathematics and computer science and the arts.
  • - Theory of knowledge
  • Welsh Baccalaureate
  • core and option structure
  • core subjects at foundation, intermediate and
    advanced
  • Key skills
  • Wales, Europe and the World
  • Work-related Education
  • Personal and Social Education

60
  • ACT
  • - Cross disciplinary Cultural Studies Framework
  • Singapore
  • Three levels of subjects H1, H2, H3.
  • H1 half of H2 in breadth, but similar depth.
  • H3 opportunity for extension of H2 subject
    (advanced component, research paper, university
    module)
  • Multidisciplinary subject knowledge enquiry/
    extended research paper (6 months).

61
  • Ontario
  • 40 hours community involvement requirement
  • European Baccalaureate (EB)
  • - 2 years
  • - Common studies Mathematics, English, History,
    L2, Science, Geography, Ethics and Religion and
    PE.
  • - Common studies two thirds, elective studies
    one third of week.

62
  • The Harvard Model (2007)
  • 8 semester-long courses for all students
  • ethical reasoning
  • critical skills
  • mathematical reasoning
  • sciences of living systems
  • sciences of the physical world
  • United States and the world
  • traditions of culture and belief in human
    societies
  • Mandated set of requirements rather than letting
    students
  • have free range across existing departmental
    offerings

63
  • Emerging approaches to senior secondary
    curriculum
  • - developing interdisciplinary, multi
    perspective studies
  • - promoting global awareness and understanding
    of identity
  • - including community/service learning
  • - including personal and social learning
  • - including extended project / capstone
    experience
  • - balance of core and elective, and breadth and
    depth
  • - coverage over 2 or more years
  • - designing content and experiences that
    encompass the big ideas and concepts of a
    subject

64
  • Aligning Curriculum with the Australian goals of
    schooling
  • Current unstated assumptions underpinning senior
    secondary curriculum arrangements.
  • - largely unfettered subject choice determined
    at school level is best way to cater for student
    diversity.
  • - all essential common learning for students is
    completed in the compulsory years (by 15 years
    old)
  • - school settings provide senior subject
    program choices enabling study of a coherent and
    advanced program.
  • - senior years are best used to promote
    learning in a diverse range of curriculum
    specializations.
  • - current range of subject and certification
    rules support the nations goals of schooling.
  • (adapted from Peter Cole, Developing a 21st
    Century School Curriculum for all Australian
    Students, working paper for CSCNEPA)

65
  • Are these assumptions problematic?

66
Features of reform process (1)
  • Big ideas widely shared and well grounded
  • Extended time frame (time is longer in China)
  • Tackling interfaces pre-primary, basic
    education, senior secondary and university (K-16)
  • Alignment of curriculum, pedagogy and assessment
    / vertical and horizontal coherence
  • Multi stage, multi-stakeholder consultation

67
Features of reform process (2)
  • Well resourced (baseline and targeted
    improvements)
  • Detailed supporting strategies (demanded by
    history and context in HK)
  • Professional capacity building(multiple
    approaches)
  • Comprehensive benchmarking

68
Success of any reform will depend on the
strength of
  • The ideas
  • The organizational and infrastructure
    arrangements, resources, and building
    professional capacity
  • The information (communication, consultation,
    evidence, feedback)

69
Chinese saying
  • One needs to have a breathing spacewhile
    hanging oneself

???????!
70
The New Senior SecondaryMaths Curriculum
71
Progression of Studies inThe NSS Maths Curriculum
(1) Students who study only the Foundation Topics
in the Compulsory Part
Compulsory Part
(2) Students who study the Foundation Topics and
some Non-foundation Topics in the Compulsory Part
Compulsory Part
72
(3) Students who study only the Foundation Topics
and all the Non-foundation Topics in the
Compulsory Part
Compulsory Part
(4) Students who study the Compulsory Part with
Module 1 (Calculus and Statistics)
(5) Students who study the Compulsory Part with
Module 2 (Algebra and Calculus)
73
Applied mathematics and connections across the
curriculum
  • A learning unit Further Applications (FA)
  • integrate mathematical knowledge
  • solve more sophisticated real-life and
    mathematical problems
  • appreciate the marvelous relations between
    different areas in mathematics
  • FA is different from applications in other
    units
  • students are required to make judgement and
    integrate mathematical knowledge in different
    areas to solve problems
  • the unit would be introduced after completing
    some sections or even all the topics in the
    curriculum
  • International benchmarking has commended the unit
  • University of Cambridge International
    Examinations (UCLES)
  • International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO)
  • Netherlands Institute for Curriculum Development
    (SLO)

74
Handling diversity
  • Provide flexibility in the Curriculum
  • Different study pathways within the subject
  • Wide range of choices of learning the
    non-foundation topics in the Compulsory Part
  • Extended Modules to students for study in
    mathematics
  • Different orientation for the 2 Extended Modules,
    e.g. Algebra and Calculus for students who
    continue their studies in mathematics-related
    fields and the module Calculus and Statistics
    will focus on the application of mathematics in
    other disciplines. The depth of treatment in
    calculus for the 2 modules will not be identical.
  • Out-of-school training for talented students
    (NGOs, universities, Academy for Gifted Education)

75
Headland Documents Directing and Supporting
Reform
For more information, please visit www.edb.gov.hk
Press Releases Publications gt Publications
Reports gt Major Reports
76
(No Transcript)
77
Pre-primary Education
  • Contemporary curriculum framework 2006
  • 3 years, 15-17.5 hours per week
  • Double investment 2007
  • Voucher for parents (unify all funding systems)
  • Professional upgrading framework for all KG
    teachers (targets for 2012 course fees heavily
    subsidised)
  • Quality review (eligible for voucher redemption)

78
Universities (4 year undergraduate)
  • 800-1000 additional professional staff
  • 25 increase in students on campus
  • General Education (about 25 of credits/new
    core courses)
  • Languages and mathematics
  • Rethinking traditional discipline and inter
    disciplinary groupings
  • Expanding internship and foreign exchange
    programmes
  • Expanding co curricular and advisory functions
  • Redesigning majors and capstone experiences
  • Delaying professional studies
  • General admission requirements (and delayed entry
    to high demand professional courses) to support
    secondary students balanced programme

79
The Development Process
Authorising Bodies
Education Commission (EC)Curriculum Development
Council (CDC)Hong Kong Examinations and
Assessment Authority (HKEAA)
Core Group
leadership and alignment
Committees (Credible Chair)(teachers,
principals, subject experts, academics
professional officers)
Developers/Writers(professional officers)
analysis, current curriculum, expert views,
international benchmarks
Headland Document(s)
  • increasing levels of specification for
    document(s)
  • specified consultation period - multiple
    stakeholders identified
  • variety of consultation modes and opportunities
    for feedback
  • all feedback acknowledged and reported
  • what support exists
  • what views can be accommodated and how
  • those views which cannot be entertained and why
  • communication strategy (community and
    professional)
  • evaluative framework
  • supporting strategies (especially professional
    development and school planning)

80
Multiple strategies for professional development
  • Demonstration/master teaching (Chinese)
  • Lesson study (Japanese)
  • Collaborative school based model (Western)
  • Professional knowledge and pedagogy upgrading
  • Specialist teaching in primary mathematics and
    languages
  • Professional education community
  • Heavy resource commitment emphasising on-site
    support
  • Teacher education providers key partners

81
Progress Map for Hong Kong Education
Benchmarking Education Outcomes
Territory Data
International Benchmarking
The International English Language Testing System
(IELTS)
The International English Language Testing System
(IELTS)
Post-secondary 40
The Times Higher Education Supplement and
Shanghai Jiao Tong University (University Ranking)
Post-secondary participation 60
Target(Overshot)
Post-Secondary Recognition and Qualification
Levels
Universities and Colleges Admissions Service
(UCAS)
National Academic Recognition Information Centre
(NARIC)
Key Stage 4
Standard-ReferencedHong Kong Diploma of
Secondary Education
University of Cambridge International
Examinations (CIE)
Programme for International Student Assessment
(PISA)(15 years old)
Secondary
Key Stage 3
Territory-wide System Assessment
International Civic and Citizenship Study (ICCS)
(1999/2009)
Grade 8
Trends in International Mathematics and Science
Study (TIMMS) (2009)
Key Stage 2
Territory-wide System Assessment
Stakeholder surveys
Student affective survey
School level performance measures
Grade 4
Progress in International Reading Literacy Study
(PIRLS)(Reading)
Primary
Territory-wide System Assessment(System,
School)(Chinese, English and Mathematics)
Key Stage 1
Second International Information Technology in
Education Study (SITES) 2006 (teachers / schools)
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