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Business Research Methods William G. Zikmund

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Men's fragrance market. 1/3 size of women's fragrance market. But ... Women buy 80 % of men's fragrances. Identifying Causality. Can NEVER prove causality. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Business Research Methods William G. Zikmund


1
Business Research Methods William G. Zikmund
  • Chapter 4
  • The Business Research Process

2
Information
  • Reduces uncertainty
  • Helps focus decision making

3
Types Of Research
  • Exploratory
  • Initial research conducted to clarify and define
    the nature of a problem
  • Does not provide conclusive evidence
  • Subsequent research expected
  • Descriptive
  • Describes characteristics of a population or
    phenomenon
  • Some understanding of the nature of the problem
  • Causal
  • Conducted to identify cause and effect
    relationships

4
Uncertainty Influences The Type Of Research
CAUSAL OR DESCRIPTIVE
EXPLORATORY
COMPLETELY CERTAIN
ABSOLUTE AMBIGUITY
5
Degree of Problem Definition
Exploratory Research Descriptive
Research Causal Research (Unaware of
Problem) (Aware of Problem) (Problem Clearly
Defined) Our sales are declining and What
kind of people are buying Will buyers purchase
more of we dont know why. our product? Who
buys our our products in a new package? competi
tors product? Would people be interested
Which of two advertising in our new
product idea? What features do buyers
prefer campaigns is more effective? in our
product?
possible situation
6
Descriptive Research Example
  • Weight Watchers average customer
  • Woman about 40 years old
  • Household income of about 50,000
  • At least some college education
  • Trying to juggle children and a job

7
Descriptive Research Example
  • Mens fragrance market
  • 1/3 size of womens fragrance market
  • But growing at a faster pace
  • Women buy 80 of mens fragrances

8
Identifying Causality
  • Can NEVER prove causality.
  • Evidence of causality
  • 1. The appropriate causal order of events
  • 2. Concomitant variation--two phenomena vary
    together
  • An absence of alternative plausible explanations
  • Often Use Experiments in Causal Research

9
Stages of the Research Process
Problem Discovery and Definition
Discovery and Definition
and so on
Research Design
Conclusions and Report
Sampling
Data Processing and Analysis
Data Gathering
10
Research Stages
  • Cyclical process - conclusions generate new ideas
  • Stages can overlap chronologically
  • Stages are functionally interrelated
  • Forward linkages
  • Backward linkages

11
Selection of Sample Design
Problem discovery
Problem Discovery and Definition
Sampling
Selection of exploratory research technique
Probability
Nonprobability
Secondary (historical) data
Experience survey
Pilot study
Case study
Collection of data (fieldwork)
Data Gathering
Data Processing and Analysis
Editing and coding data
Problem definition (statement of research
objectives)
Data processing
Selection of basic research method
Research Design
Conclusions and Report
Interpretation of findings
Experiment
Survey
Observation
Secondary Data Study
Report
Laboratory
Field
Interview
Questionnaire
12
Stages In The Research Process
  • Problem Discovery and Problem Definition
  • Research Design
  • Sampling
  • Data Gathering
  • Data Processing and Analysis
  • Conclusions And Report

13
The formulation of the problem is often more
essential than its solution
  • Albert Einstein

14
Problem Discovery And Definition
  • First and probably most important step
  • Too often neglected leading to costly errors
  • Provides direction for the project
  • Problem, opportunity, or monitor operations
  • Discovery before definition
  • Must not mistake symptoms for problem

15
Exploratory Research Techniques Three Examples
  • Secondary data (historical data)
  • Previously collected for another purpose
  • Literature survey
  • Databases (e.g., www.census.gov)
  • Pilot study
  • A number of diverse techniques
  • Focus Groups
  • 6 to 10 people in group dynamics session

16
State the research questions and research
objectives
  • Hypothesis
  • A statement
  • that can be refuted
  • by empirical data

17
Research Design
  • Master plan
  • Specifies methods and procedures
  • Framework for action

18
Basic Research Methods
  • Surveys
  • Interview
  • Questionnaire
  • Experiments control conditions so that one or
    more variables can be manipulated to test a
    hypothesis
  • Field
  • Laboratory
  • Secondary data
  • Observation

19
Selecting a Sample
Sample subset of a larger population.
SAMPLE
POPULATION
20
Sampling
  • Who is to be sampled?
  • How large a sample?
  • How will sample units be selected?
  • Probability Samples every member of the
    population has a known, nonzero probability of
    being selected
  • Nonprobability Samples

21
Data Gathering Stage
  • Focus on error minimization
  • Pretesting

22
Data Processing and Analysis
  • Editing
  • Checking the data collection
  • forms for omissions, legibility
  • and consistency
  • Coding
  • Rules for interpreting,
  • categorizing and recording
  • the data

23
Conclusions And Report Writing
  • Effective communication of the research findings
  • Usually includes making recommendations
  • What does this mean to management?

24
Research Proposal
  • A written statement of the research design that
    includes a statement explaining the purpose of
    the study.
  • Detailed outline of procedures associated with a
    particular methodology

25
Research Program vs. Research Project
  • Research program firms overall strategy for
    utilizing business research. Places each
    research project into companys strategic plan.

26
Assignment for Chapter 7 Exploratory Research
and Qualitative Analysis
  • Using the Ingram Library Databases, Pull and
    Read the Article, A Typology of Consumer
    Responses to Cause-Related Marketing From
    Skeptics to Socially Concerned, by Deborah J.
    Webb and Lois A. Mohr in the Journal of Public
    Policy and Marketing, Fall 1998, Volume 17, Issue
    2.
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