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Globalization Lecture 2 Dimensions

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Social relations- 'stretching' (Giddens) Culture a sense of ' ... big business; fashion trends. 2) Enforced hybridization - Western culture imposed on non-West ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Globalization Lecture 2 Dimensions


1
Globalization Lecture 2 - Dimensions
What is it? Global capitalist economy
diminishing political power of nation-state
governments (Marxists Right-wingers) Social
relations- stretching (Giddens) Culture a
sense of global consciousness (Robertson)
2
  • 1) Globalization of Politics
  • - The end of the nation-state?
  • 2) Globalization of Social Relations
  • - The stretching of social relations
  • 3) Globalization of Culture
  • - Homogenization Cultural imperialism
  • - Culture clashes
  • - Heterogenization

3
Globalization of Politics
  • Nation-state has sovereign power
  • - Treaty of Westphalia (1648)
  • - Draws up defined borders
  • - Each state controls affairs in its own
    territory. SOVEREIGNTY
  • - Other states cannot interfere in a states
    business
  • Globalization undermines sovereignty of states
    i.e. undercuts power of a state to control things
    in its territory
  • Martin Albrow the nation-state is rapidly losing
    power

4
  • Nation-state IS losing power
  • Economically
  • 1) power of TNCS
  • 2) forces of world market
  • Politically
  • 1) International bodies and law
  • e.g. United Nations, European Union
  • 2) Global protest movements e.g. Greens
  • Culturally
  • 1) Cultural influences from all over world
  • 2) Trans-national media public opinion

5
  • Nation-state IS NOT losing power
  • Hirst Thompson
  • - TNCs do not have total control of national
    economies
  • - States still have primary control over taxes
    welfare spending
  • - International bodies like UN made up of, and
    dependent on, nation-states
  • - States developing increasing control of borders
    and migration e.g. passports

6
Globalization of Social Relations
  • Giddens the disembedding of social relations
  • - social relations transformed from purely local
    or national to more global
  • - communications technologies travel
    technologies
  • - dispersal of populations across globe
  • migrations and diasporas

7
  • Ulrich Beck
  • Trans-national social connections
  • - public life trans-national business
    relationships
  • - private life relatives friends in different
    countries inter-marriage between national
    groups, etc.
  • Multiple, non-national affiliations and
    identities
  • Cosmopolitanism a persons identity is decoupled
    from the nation-state

8
Undermining the idea of Society
  • John Urry, Ulrich Beck, Roland Robertson
  • 1) Cannot use the idea of society any more
  • 2) Invented in later 19th century Durkheim
  • 3) Society bounded unit a thing
  • Society nation-state
  • e.g. British society, German society, etc
  • 4) Reflects out-dated social conditions
  • 5) Need new ideas to reflect global conditions

9
Undermining the idea of Society
  • Drop idea of society
  • Use other ideas from classical sociology
  • Max Weber Sociality (social relations)
  • Georg Simmel Social networks
  • (Norbert Elias social chains)
  • Global networks
  • facilitated through electronic communications
    networks

10
Undermining the idea of Society
  • Ulrich Beck Cosmopolitan sociology
  • 1) The main focus is not society but the whole
    world
  • 2) Examine multiple, intersecting world-spanning
    processes
  • 3) Avoid West-centric outlooks
  • John Urry Sociology Beyond Societies
  • 1) Global flows
  • 2) Social processes like liquids
  • 3) Liquids pouring rapidly across the world
  • Flows unpredictable and uncontrollable
  • 4) Unconstrained cross-border mobility of people
    and things

11
  • Zygmunt Bauman
  • Free chosen mobility for wealthy
  • - transnational business-people
  • - global tourism
  • Forced mobility for poor
  • - migrant workers, refugees
  • - ever more controls on mobility of poor
  • Information mobility world divides into
    information rich and information poor

12
Globalization of Culture
  • Emergence of a global culture?
  • What might this look like?
  • Positive whole world shares same ideas and
    values?
  • World Cup, Olympic Games
  • Negative local cultures destroyed?
  • Cultural homogenization?
  • Cultural heterogenization?

13
Cultural Imperialism
  • Westernisation / Americanisation of the world
  • Domination of American consumer brands
  • McDonalds, Nike, Coca-Cola, Gap
  • (McWorld - Benjamin Barber)
  • Global cultural homogenisation
  • Same consumer goods everywhere
  • Same ways of thinking everywhere
  • This is bad (left-wing critics e.g. Noam Chomsky)
  • This is good (right-wing critics e.g. Francis
    Fukuyama)

14
Cultural Imperialism
  • Dominance of American mass media
  • Oligopoly of big media companies
  • - Disney, Warner, Sony
  • Imbalance of cultural flows
  • from core to periphery,
  • not vice versa

15
Culture Clashes
  • Benjamin Barber Jihad vs. McWorld
  • - Local identities, nationalisms, religious
    traditions
  • - Develop in opposition to McWorld
  • - McWorld creates Jihad
  • Samuel Huntington Clash of Civilizations
  • - European-Christian, Russian-Christian,
    Arabic-Muslim, Chinese, etc.
  • - All in conflict symbolically materially

16
Cultural heterogenization
  • Roland Robertson
  • 1) People in local cultures reinterpret global
    culture products in light of their own values
    interests
  • 2) Global culture is always limited by local
    cultures
  • 3) Mixtures of global and local cultures
  • - process of glocalization
  • - local becomes global global becomes local
  • 4) Perceived threats to local identity
  • - strong assertion of local identity
  • Globalization reinforces local cultures
  • Globalization produces new local cultures

17
Hybridization Creolization
  • Anthropologists Ulf Hannerz
  • 1) No culture is ever pure
  • - Always a mixture of influences
  • 2) Previously (relatively) separate cultures come
    into contact with each other
  • 3) Globalization Complex mixtures of cultures
  • - creole cultures, hybrids

18
  • Globalization of religion
  • - other options than the local religion
  • - religious syncretism mixing and matching
  • New Age religions bits of Christianity,
    Hinduism, Buddhism, Taoism, Celtic paganism
    witchcraft, etc.
  • Globalization of food
  • - fusion cuisine e.g. French-Japanese,
    Anglo-Indian
  • Globalization of music
  • - World music
  • - Buddhist-techno, Spanish rap, Hungarian rock
  • Relativization of ones own cultural traditions

19
Limits of Hybridization Ideas
  • 1) Local cultures commercialised
  • Sold to Westerners by media and
  • big business fashion trends
  • 2) Enforced hybridization
  • - Western culture imposed on non-West
  • - Westerners choose non-Western cultures
  • 3) Most people still primarily
  • enmeshed in local culture?
  • Global culture has superficial effects?

20
Points to Consider
  • Economic Globalization spread of global
    capitalism. Effects?
  • Political Globalization decline of
    nation-states power. True?
  • Social Globalization stretching of social
    relations across world. Everyone, equally?
  • Cultural Globalization homogenization, culture
    clashes, heterogenization. Which?
  • Which is most important?
  • How does each of these effect the others?
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