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Design in Society Conservation and Resources

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Product designers must consider the environment. ... Designers must design longer-term use products. Fashion must be slowed down. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Design in Society Conservation and Resources


1
Design in Society Conservation and Resources
  • A2 Textiles

2
Introduction
  • We will look at
  • Environmental implications of the industrial age.
  • The use of resources and energy.
  • Renewable sources of energy.
  • Environmentally friendly manufacturing processes.
  • Using sustainable technology.
  • The management of waste and pollution control.
  • The impact of biotechnology on manufacturing.
  • The advantages and disadvantages of recycling.

3
Environmental Implications of the Industrial Age
  • This section covers
  • Products and the environment.
  • Design and the environment.
  • Supporting longer term use.
  • Conservation and the environment.
  • Sustainable development.

4
Environmental Implications of the Industrial Age
  • Consumption of non-renewable (finite) resources
    is a big issue
  • For example, coal, gas, oil and minerals.
  • They will run out unless we conserve / manage
    them.

5
Products and the Environment
  • Our society encourages people to buy more and
    more products.
  • We are a throw away society.
  • This has produced loads of products due to
    competition.
  • Fashion and fashionable products are part of this
    society.

6
Design and the Environment
  • Product designers must consider the environment.
  • Designers must stop the design of throw away
    products.
  • How will fashion survive if the environment is to
    be saved?

7
Supporting Longer Term Use
  • Designers must design longer-term use products.
  • Fashion must be slowed down.
  • Non-renewable materials must be used less.
  • Consumers must be made to stop shop til you
    drop and buying new clothes because there is a
    new season.

8
Supporting Longer Term Use
  • This could be encouraged by
  • Making people buy because they need it not just
    because they want it.
  • Rental of household goods.
  • Paying for use, repair and service of a product.
  • Returning the product to the manufacturer for
    recycling or reusing.

9
Conservation and the Environment
  • Conservation includes
  • Protecting the (natural and urban) environment
    for future generations to use.
  • Managing existing resources.
  • Reducing consumption of non-renewable resources.
  • Using renewable energy sources like hydro
    (water), solar and wind power.

10
Sustainable Development
  • Development needs to meet the needs of the
    present without compromising the ability of
    future generations to meet their own needs.
  • What does this mean?

11
The Use of Resources and Energy
  • Manufacture of textiles and fashion products
    involves use of
  • Renewable resources.
  • Non-renewable resources.
  • Non-renewable energy.
  • Natural fibres are renewable.
  • Regenerated fibres are made from regenerated wood
    pulp from managed forests.
  • Synthetic fibres are made from non-renewable oil.

12
The Use of Resources and Energy
  • Although synthetic fibres are made from oil they
    have both benefits and disadvantages for the
    environment.
  • Low of oil worldwide in comparison with use of
    oil for fuel.
  • Synthetics provide enhanced or engineered
    properties which can prolong the life of
    technical, industrial, performance and fashion
    products.
  • Synthetic fibres can be recycled (fibre blends
    cannot though).

13
The Use of Resources and Energy
  • Electricity used in product manufacture is
    derived from coal, gas, oil or nuclear power.
  • Managing finite resources is important for
    textiles products companies.
  • The efficient management of resources in
    manufacturing
  • Reduces the quantity of materials used.
  • Makes more efficient use of energy.
  • Uses less wasteful production methods.
  • Re-uses waste materials.
  • Recycles waste materials.
  • Designs for easy product after case (less energy
    needed to maintain it).
  • Designer products that can be fully / partly
    re-used / recycled.

14
Renewable Sources of Energy
  • This section looks at
  • Renewable sources of energy.
  • Making more efficient use of energy.
  • Reducing costs.

15
Renewable Sources of Energy
  • Flow naturally from nature.
  • Wind, tides, rivers, solar energy, geothermal,
    biomass.
  • Renewable sources living things that can be
    regrown.
  • Forests, cotton, flax.
  • Forests are renewable if they not used faster
    than they can be replaced.
  • Cellulose (used for textiles fibres eg modal,
    viscose, Tencel, Lyocell) comes from softwoods
    from managed forests.

16
Renewable Sources of Energy

17
Making More Efficient Use of Energy
  • Production uses large amounts of raw materials
    and energy.
  • Manufacturers must be encouraged to
  • Contribute to sustainable development.
  • Reduce energy costs
  • Adopt more efficient manufacturing processes.
  • Redesign the product or production process to be
    more environmentally friendly.

18
Reducing Costs
  • Textiles companies must take notice of
  • Environmental legislation.
  • Rising water costs.
  • Rising raw materials costs.
  • It is vital that to make companies more
    competitive they.
  • Use raw materials more efficiently.
  • Improve production processes.
  • EMS (Environmental management system enables this
    to happen.
  • The advantages of EMS are
  • Based around reducing waste and operating costs.
  • The aim is to
  • Reduce consumption of raw materials.
  • Improve output.
  • Reduce waste treatment and disposal costs.

19
Environmentally Friendly Manufacturing Processes
  • This section looks at
  • Lyocell
  • Envirowise
  • Using Cleaner Technology
  • Cleaner design and life cycle analysis

20
Lyocell
  • Made from regenerated cellulose fibre.
  • Traditional viscose process uses sodium hydroxide
    to dissolve the cellulose.
  • The lyocell process uses an organic non-toxic
    solvent (amine oxide) and water to dissolve the
    cellulose.
  • The lyocell process is simpler and recycles the
    amine oxide which can then be reused.
  • Lyocell can be recycled, incinerated, land filed
    or digested in sewage.
  • The fibre degrades completely in 8 days to leave
    water and carbon dioxide which can be used to
    power the sewage plan itself.

21
Envirowise
  • www.envirowise .gov.uk works with textiles
    companies to help them address issues such as
  • Rising water costs
  • Stricter effluent regulations
  • Increasing water disposal costs
  • The Envirowise programme helps manufacturing
    companies
  • Improve their environmental performance
  • Increase their competitiveness
  • The main themes are
  • Waste minimisation making cost saving through
    use of simple, no / low cost measures. Reduces
    use of materials, water and energy.
  • Cost effective, cleaner technology means using
    equipment or processes that produce less waste or
    emissions than normal methods.

22
Using Cleaner Technology
  • Colour standards for discharges from sewage
    treatment works were set by the Environment
    Agency in 1990.
  • Local water companies imposed these requirements
    on dye houses.
  • Companies had to review their processes.
  • Courtaulds sock company did the following
  • Used an innovative, absorbent system based on
    layers of synthetic inorganic clay particles.
  • Warm, colourless water is stored and used for
    scouring and other processes.
  • The synthetic clay system reduced costs and
    removed the threat of having to pay a surcharge
    to the water company.

23
Cleaner Design and Life Cycle Analysis
  • Two important elements of cleaner technology are
    cleaner design and life cycle analysis (LCA).
  • They identify exactly where in the manufacturing
    process changes can be made in order to bring
    about environmental benefits and cost savings.
  • Cleaner design aims to reduce a products
    environmental impact from cradle to grave.
  • LCA evaluates the materials, energy and waste
    resulting from the design, manufacture,
    distribution, use and disposal, re use or
    recycling of a product.

24
Using Sustainable Technology
  • The earth and all its resources are assets which
    will one day run out (if unmanaged).
  • Sustainable technology using processes that
    preserve the environment for future generations.
  • Sustainable technology includes
  • Meeting human needs for work, energy, water and
    sanitation.
  • Conserving resources.
  • Linking environmental and economic issues to
    decision making.
  • Ensuring a sustainable level of population.
  • Making industrial development more inclusive.
  • Giving priority to the essential needs of the
    worlds poor.

25
Environmentally Friendly Manufacturing Processes
  • Redesigning a product / process can make
    manufacturing more efficient.
  • It can make the company
  • Comply with environmental legislation
  • Have a better public image.
  • Increase profits.
  • Green products are becoming more desirable.

26
The Management of Waste and Pollution Control
  • This section will cover
  • Disposal of products and pollution control
  • Skip and tip

27
The Management of Waste and Pollution Control
  • Waste is generated in the form of
  • Fabric
  • Thread
  • Trimmings
  • Yarn
  • Plastic
  • Cardboard
  • Paper
  • Fabric waste from garment cutting can amount to
    10-20 of fabric consumption.
  • Waste in the knitwear sector is c. 6 for shaped
    knitwear.
  • For cut and sew manufacture waste accounts for up
    to 20
  • Fabric waste in the household sector is between
    4-10

28
The Management of Waste and Pollution Control
  • Reducing waste improves profits.
  • Waste should be re-used, reduced or recycled.
  • There is a market for fabric waste. These
    include
  • Re-spinning companies (natural and manufactured
    fibres).
  • Felt making companies
  • Companies that make dish cloths, dusters, toys
    (stuffing).
  • Companies that make fertiliser (from wool waste).
  • Geotextiles and the car industry (upholstery can
    be made from recycled polyester).

29
The Disposal of Products and Pollution Control
  • 90 of rubbish in the UK is buried in land fill
    sites.
  • 5 is incinerated.
  • 5 is recycled. This is far too low!
  • Companies \ designers must
  • Design for recycling.
  • Design durable products that will last.
  • Encourage consumers to use a product until it
    runs out / wears out.
  • Change the fashion culture.

30
Skip and Tip
  • For the disposal of industrial waste.
  • Goes to landfill or sewers.
  • Landfill used to be cheap.
  • Laws are now enforcing change landfill tax has
    increased the cost of waste disposal.
  • In the UK the 1990 Environmental Protection Act
    (EPA) controls pollution.
  • It covers
  • Discharge to air, water and land.
  • The policy of the polluter pays.
  • The aim is to
  • Limit harmful materials entering the environment.
  • Place responsibility on companies.
  • Companies can be fined huge amounts.

31
The Impact of Biotechnology on Manufacture
  • This section will look at
  • New processes.
  • Genetic developments
  • Helping the environment

32
The Impact of Biotechnology on Manufacture
  • Biotechnology use of enzymes to create products
    and processes.
  • Like the enzymes that help us digest food,
    compost garden waste and clean clothes.
  • Biological wash powders use enzymes to wash
    clothes.

33
New Processes
  • In textile processing the enzymatic removal of
    starch from woven fabrics has been used for 100
    years.
  • Fermentation is used for dyeing.
  • Biotechnology allows companies to offer new
    industrial processes that require
  • Less energy
  • Use renewable raw materials
  • New biotechnology processes include
  • Biostoning (replaces stone washing)
  • Biopolishing (makes smoother fabric)

34
Genetic Developments
  • Biotechnology can produce
  • Better
  • Faster
  • Cleaner
  • Cheaper
  • More efficient ways of doing processes.
  • The use of enzymes, genetic fingerprinting can be
    used to identify speciality fibres to prevent
    fraud eg for labelling cashmere.
  • New bio-fibres produced by microbial fermentation
    of waste or low value materials such as straw and
    starch are being developed.
  • Improved plant varieties are being used to
    produce fibres.

35
Helping the Environment
  • Biotechnology plays a part in
  • Colour and pesticide removal from effluent.
  • Treating odours and emissions from industrial
    plants.
  • Treating industrial, agricultural organic waste
    and domestic wastes through composting.
  • Cleaning up contaminated land with bioremediation
    techniques.

36
The Advantages and Disadvantages of Recycling

37
Recycling Textiles
  • Shoddy merchants trade waste fibre.
  • Reclaimers recycle garments and yarn.
  • Reclaimers pull waste to produce separate
    fibres which are blended to produce flock.
  • Flock is used for lower quality products such as
    felt and blankets.
  • Some reclaimers produce high quality fibres where
    the natural and manufactured fibre content is
    tested and certified.

38
Advantages
  • Cost related.
  • Environmental issues related to recycling
    including
  • The conservation of non renewable resources.
  • Reduced energy consumption.
  • Fewer greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Cleaner air and waterways.
  • A decreased dependency on raw materials.

39
Disadvantages
  • Recycling disadvantages are mainly to do with the
    time and effort it takes to adopt a structured
    recycling approach.
  • Another problem associated with recycling waste
    is the use of blended fibres making the recycling
    of some products very expensive or impossible.

40
Recycling Latex
  • Latex is used on the back of carpets to retain
    the tuft.
  • The latex is applied by passing the carpet
    through a dipping trough containing foamed latex
    mix (30 latex and 20 limestone powder in
    water).
  • At the end of production the latex mix used to be
    disposed of because it forms a skin if exposed to
    air.
  • The company are now reusing the mix because they
    pump the leftovers into an airtight tank.

41
Recycling Latex
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