Design in Society Conservation and Resources - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


PPT – Design in Society Conservation and Resources PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 94035-YmMwZ


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation

Design in Society Conservation and Resources


Product designers must consider the environment. ... Designers must design longer-term use products. Fashion must be slowed down. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:85
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 42
Provided by: Clai160


Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Design in Society Conservation and Resources

Design in Society Conservation and Resources
  • A2 Textiles

  • We will look at
  • Environmental implications of the industrial age.
  • The use of resources and energy.
  • Renewable sources of energy.
  • Environmentally friendly manufacturing processes.
  • Using sustainable technology.
  • The management of waste and pollution control.
  • The impact of biotechnology on manufacturing.
  • The advantages and disadvantages of recycling.

Environmental Implications of the Industrial Age
  • This section covers
  • Products and the environment.
  • Design and the environment.
  • Supporting longer term use.
  • Conservation and the environment.
  • Sustainable development.

Environmental Implications of the Industrial Age
  • Consumption of non-renewable (finite) resources
    is a big issue
  • For example, coal, gas, oil and minerals.
  • They will run out unless we conserve / manage

Products and the Environment
  • Our society encourages people to buy more and
    more products.
  • We are a throw away society.
  • This has produced loads of products due to
  • Fashion and fashionable products are part of this

Design and the Environment
  • Product designers must consider the environment.
  • Designers must stop the design of throw away
  • How will fashion survive if the environment is to
    be saved?

Supporting Longer Term Use
  • Designers must design longer-term use products.
  • Fashion must be slowed down.
  • Non-renewable materials must be used less.
  • Consumers must be made to stop shop til you
    drop and buying new clothes because there is a
    new season.

Supporting Longer Term Use
  • This could be encouraged by
  • Making people buy because they need it not just
    because they want it.
  • Rental of household goods.
  • Paying for use, repair and service of a product.
  • Returning the product to the manufacturer for
    recycling or reusing.

Conservation and the Environment
  • Conservation includes
  • Protecting the (natural and urban) environment
    for future generations to use.
  • Managing existing resources.
  • Reducing consumption of non-renewable resources.
  • Using renewable energy sources like hydro
    (water), solar and wind power.

Sustainable Development
  • Development needs to meet the needs of the
    present without compromising the ability of
    future generations to meet their own needs.
  • What does this mean?

The Use of Resources and Energy
  • Manufacture of textiles and fashion products
    involves use of
  • Renewable resources.
  • Non-renewable resources.
  • Non-renewable energy.
  • Natural fibres are renewable.
  • Regenerated fibres are made from regenerated wood
    pulp from managed forests.
  • Synthetic fibres are made from non-renewable oil.

The Use of Resources and Energy
  • Although synthetic fibres are made from oil they
    have both benefits and disadvantages for the
  • Low of oil worldwide in comparison with use of
    oil for fuel.
  • Synthetics provide enhanced or engineered
    properties which can prolong the life of
    technical, industrial, performance and fashion
  • Synthetic fibres can be recycled (fibre blends
    cannot though).

The Use of Resources and Energy
  • Electricity used in product manufacture is
    derived from coal, gas, oil or nuclear power.
  • Managing finite resources is important for
    textiles products companies.
  • The efficient management of resources in
  • Reduces the quantity of materials used.
  • Makes more efficient use of energy.
  • Uses less wasteful production methods.
  • Re-uses waste materials.
  • Recycles waste materials.
  • Designs for easy product after case (less energy
    needed to maintain it).
  • Designer products that can be fully / partly
    re-used / recycled.

Renewable Sources of Energy
  • This section looks at
  • Renewable sources of energy.
  • Making more efficient use of energy.
  • Reducing costs.

Renewable Sources of Energy
  • Flow naturally from nature.
  • Wind, tides, rivers, solar energy, geothermal,
  • Renewable sources living things that can be
  • Forests, cotton, flax.
  • Forests are renewable if they not used faster
    than they can be replaced.
  • Cellulose (used for textiles fibres eg modal,
    viscose, Tencel, Lyocell) comes from softwoods
    from managed forests.

Renewable Sources of Energy

Making More Efficient Use of Energy
  • Production uses large amounts of raw materials
    and energy.
  • Manufacturers must be encouraged to
  • Contribute to sustainable development.
  • Reduce energy costs
  • Adopt more efficient manufacturing processes.
  • Redesign the product or production process to be
    more environmentally friendly.

Reducing Costs
  • Textiles companies must take notice of
  • Environmental legislation.
  • Rising water costs.
  • Rising raw materials costs.
  • It is vital that to make companies more
    competitive they.
  • Use raw materials more efficiently.
  • Improve production processes.
  • EMS (Environmental management system enables this
    to happen.
  • The advantages of EMS are
  • Based around reducing waste and operating costs.
  • The aim is to
  • Reduce consumption of raw materials.
  • Improve output.
  • Reduce waste treatment and disposal costs.

Environmentally Friendly Manufacturing Processes
  • This section looks at
  • Lyocell
  • Envirowise
  • Using Cleaner Technology
  • Cleaner design and life cycle analysis

  • Made from regenerated cellulose fibre.
  • Traditional viscose process uses sodium hydroxide
    to dissolve the cellulose.
  • The lyocell process uses an organic non-toxic
    solvent (amine oxide) and water to dissolve the
  • The lyocell process is simpler and recycles the
    amine oxide which can then be reused.
  • Lyocell can be recycled, incinerated, land filed
    or digested in sewage.
  • The fibre degrades completely in 8 days to leave
    water and carbon dioxide which can be used to
    power the sewage plan itself.

  • www.envirowise works with textiles
    companies to help them address issues such as
  • Rising water costs
  • Stricter effluent regulations
  • Increasing water disposal costs
  • The Envirowise programme helps manufacturing
  • Improve their environmental performance
  • Increase their competitiveness
  • The main themes are
  • Waste minimisation making cost saving through
    use of simple, no / low cost measures. Reduces
    use of materials, water and energy.
  • Cost effective, cleaner technology means using
    equipment or processes that produce less waste or
    emissions than normal methods.

Using Cleaner Technology
  • Colour standards for discharges from sewage
    treatment works were set by the Environment
    Agency in 1990.
  • Local water companies imposed these requirements
    on dye houses.
  • Companies had to review their processes.
  • Courtaulds sock company did the following
  • Used an innovative, absorbent system based on
    layers of synthetic inorganic clay particles.
  • Warm, colourless water is stored and used for
    scouring and other processes.
  • The synthetic clay system reduced costs and
    removed the threat of having to pay a surcharge
    to the water company.

Cleaner Design and Life Cycle Analysis
  • Two important elements of cleaner technology are
    cleaner design and life cycle analysis (LCA).
  • They identify exactly where in the manufacturing
    process changes can be made in order to bring
    about environmental benefits and cost savings.
  • Cleaner design aims to reduce a products
    environmental impact from cradle to grave.
  • LCA evaluates the materials, energy and waste
    resulting from the design, manufacture,
    distribution, use and disposal, re use or
    recycling of a product.

Using Sustainable Technology
  • The earth and all its resources are assets which
    will one day run out (if unmanaged).
  • Sustainable technology using processes that
    preserve the environment for future generations.
  • Sustainable technology includes
  • Meeting human needs for work, energy, water and
  • Conserving resources.
  • Linking environmental and economic issues to
    decision making.
  • Ensuring a sustainable level of population.
  • Making industrial development more inclusive.
  • Giving priority to the essential needs of the
    worlds poor.

Environmentally Friendly Manufacturing Processes
  • Redesigning a product / process can make
    manufacturing more efficient.
  • It can make the company
  • Comply with environmental legislation
  • Have a better public image.
  • Increase profits.
  • Green products are becoming more desirable.

The Management of Waste and Pollution Control
  • This section will cover
  • Disposal of products and pollution control
  • Skip and tip

The Management of Waste and Pollution Control
  • Waste is generated in the form of
  • Fabric
  • Thread
  • Trimmings
  • Yarn
  • Plastic
  • Cardboard
  • Paper
  • Fabric waste from garment cutting can amount to
    10-20 of fabric consumption.
  • Waste in the knitwear sector is c. 6 for shaped
  • For cut and sew manufacture waste accounts for up
    to 20
  • Fabric waste in the household sector is between

The Management of Waste and Pollution Control
  • Reducing waste improves profits.
  • Waste should be re-used, reduced or recycled.
  • There is a market for fabric waste. These
  • Re-spinning companies (natural and manufactured
  • Felt making companies
  • Companies that make dish cloths, dusters, toys
  • Companies that make fertiliser (from wool waste).
  • Geotextiles and the car industry (upholstery can
    be made from recycled polyester).

The Disposal of Products and Pollution Control
  • 90 of rubbish in the UK is buried in land fill
  • 5 is incinerated.
  • 5 is recycled. This is far too low!
  • Companies \ designers must
  • Design for recycling.
  • Design durable products that will last.
  • Encourage consumers to use a product until it
    runs out / wears out.
  • Change the fashion culture.

Skip and Tip
  • For the disposal of industrial waste.
  • Goes to landfill or sewers.
  • Landfill used to be cheap.
  • Laws are now enforcing change landfill tax has
    increased the cost of waste disposal.
  • In the UK the 1990 Environmental Protection Act
    (EPA) controls pollution.
  • It covers
  • Discharge to air, water and land.
  • The policy of the polluter pays.
  • The aim is to
  • Limit harmful materials entering the environment.
  • Place responsibility on companies.
  • Companies can be fined huge amounts.

The Impact of Biotechnology on Manufacture
  • This section will look at
  • New processes.
  • Genetic developments
  • Helping the environment

The Impact of Biotechnology on Manufacture
  • Biotechnology use of enzymes to create products
    and processes.
  • Like the enzymes that help us digest food,
    compost garden waste and clean clothes.
  • Biological wash powders use enzymes to wash

New Processes
  • In textile processing the enzymatic removal of
    starch from woven fabrics has been used for 100
  • Fermentation is used for dyeing.
  • Biotechnology allows companies to offer new
    industrial processes that require
  • Less energy
  • Use renewable raw materials
  • New biotechnology processes include
  • Biostoning (replaces stone washing)
  • Biopolishing (makes smoother fabric)

Genetic Developments
  • Biotechnology can produce
  • Better
  • Faster
  • Cleaner
  • Cheaper
  • More efficient ways of doing processes.
  • The use of enzymes, genetic fingerprinting can be
    used to identify speciality fibres to prevent
    fraud eg for labelling cashmere.
  • New bio-fibres produced by microbial fermentation
    of waste or low value materials such as straw and
    starch are being developed.
  • Improved plant varieties are being used to
    produce fibres.

Helping the Environment
  • Biotechnology plays a part in
  • Colour and pesticide removal from effluent.
  • Treating odours and emissions from industrial
  • Treating industrial, agricultural organic waste
    and domestic wastes through composting.
  • Cleaning up contaminated land with bioremediation

The Advantages and Disadvantages of Recycling

Recycling Textiles
  • Shoddy merchants trade waste fibre.
  • Reclaimers recycle garments and yarn.
  • Reclaimers pull waste to produce separate
    fibres which are blended to produce flock.
  • Flock is used for lower quality products such as
    felt and blankets.
  • Some reclaimers produce high quality fibres where
    the natural and manufactured fibre content is
    tested and certified.

  • Cost related.
  • Environmental issues related to recycling
  • The conservation of non renewable resources.
  • Reduced energy consumption.
  • Fewer greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Cleaner air and waterways.
  • A decreased dependency on raw materials.

  • Recycling disadvantages are mainly to do with the
    time and effort it takes to adopt a structured
    recycling approach.
  • Another problem associated with recycling waste
    is the use of blended fibres making the recycling
    of some products very expensive or impossible.

Recycling Latex
  • Latex is used on the back of carpets to retain
    the tuft.
  • The latex is applied by passing the carpet
    through a dipping trough containing foamed latex
    mix (30 latex and 20 limestone powder in
  • At the end of production the latex mix used to be
    disposed of because it forms a skin if exposed to
  • The company are now reusing the mix because they
    pump the leftovers into an airtight tank.

Recycling Latex