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Title:

Consultants

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Qualitative methods: too subjective, not replicable ... All the royalties; I have a job and academic rewards. Don't pay. Get fabrications for your money. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Consultants


1
Consultants
  • Ling 426 Field Methods
  • Spring 2005

2
Overview
  • What is a consultant?
  • Selection
  • General ethnographic information
  • Specific linguistic information
  • Role of dialects
  • Permission
  • Locating
  • Preliminary Interview
  • Payment

3
What is a Consultant?
  • Historical term informant
  • Loosely one who gives information (Jackson
    19877)
  • Problematic connotations (informer)
  • But other words no better

4
Beyond the Semantics
  • Functions
  • Subject
  • Representative respondent
  • Surrogate census-taker
  • Observers observer
  • We become informants as well when we report our
    findings

5
Selecting Consultants
  • General ethnographic information
  • Theoretical
  • About the profession
  • Specific language information
  • Practical
  • About the target language

6
General Ethnographic Information
  • Criticisms of field work
  • Qualitative methods too subjective, not
    replicable
  • Quantitative methods mismatch between measures
    and reality

7
Replication
  • Not a historical consideration
  • Generates disapproval
  • Fail to mention methods
  • Too territorial
  • Dues-paying (shrouding methods)
  • Should be just as concerned about scientific
    procedures

8
Replication Partial Solution
  • Staggered replication within/across sites
  • Reduce bias
  • Increase number of cases (but cost to quality)
  • Increase contrasting cases
  • In short, look for …
  • Statistical representative
  • Theoretical representative
  • Practically train three or so they can know how
    to investigate, be intermediaries, and know how
    to give information with precision (e.g.,
    observables)

9
Johnsons Two Paths to Selection
  • Path 1 theory driven
  • Criteria 1 categories determine in advance
    theoretical categories (apriori research)
  • Criteria 2 Personality of consultant
  • Path 2 data driven
  • Criteria 1 Discover emergent categories (ad hoc
    investigation and discovery)
  • Criteria 2 Personality of consultant

10
Specific Language Information
  • Nidas 7 qualifications
  • Age
  • Gender
  • Aptitude (but somewhat nonanalytical)
  • Knowledge of LF
  • Communicative personality
  • Role in community
  • Acceptable social group

11
Specific Language Information
  • Ladefogeds 5 qualifications
  • Mother tongue
  • Age (prefers younger to older)
  • Daily usage
  • Possesses all teeth
  • Possesses normal hearing

12
Role of Dialects
  • Attitude of purity
  • Boundaries
  • Political
  • Geographical
  • Social
  • Racial
  • Labovs criteria for gradient stratification
    occupation, family income, education

13
Getting Permission
  • Whos granting?
  • Subjects
  • Speech community
  • University and government
  • Human subjects and UW
  • Human subjects and LSA
  • Human subjects and ASA
  • Tension
  • Who controls the data?
  • Whose interests are being protected?
  • Level of involvement?

14
Location, Location, Location
  • Not looking for the perfect consultant
  • Levels of formality
  • Word of mouth
  • Announcements
  • Hierarchical introductions

15
Preliminary Interview
  • Get acquainted time
  • Investigate goodness of fit
  • Might ask (to self)
  • Does person have access to information?
  • Will the person share the information?
  • Give as much information as possible
  • Archives (preserved, listened to, released)

16
Sample Recording
  • Get pictures, artifacts, word list, etc.
  • Test equipment
  • Begin with announcement or marker
  • Date and year
  • Name of consultant you are going to meet
  • General plan of what youll talk about
  • Self
  • Tape number

17
Payment
  • Trickier than it seems
  • Questions
  • Should consultants be paid? How much?
  • Payment method? In-kind gifts?
  • What do you get in return for payment?
  • Do you have the right to listen? Record? Play
    recordings for others? Lease information?

18
Cultural Side to Payment
  • E.g., Cheyenne
  • Children take food to elders to pay for stories
  • Ceremonial instruction is quite expensive
  • E.g., 500 rifle, all of ones possessions
  • While you wont have to give up your possessions
    for this class, what are you willing to give?

19
Others Views
  • Pay
  • If you have it, why not?
  • If you get paid, they should be paid.
  • Only if they are losing money by helping out.
  • Share royalties after fieldwork costs.
  • All the royalties I have a job and academic
    rewards.
  • Dont pay
  • Get fabrications for your money.
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