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Bar Code 101 Presented at AutoTech 2002

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How bar codes and scanners work. Making the right scanning choices. Other ... Ergonomics. Scanner Selection Process. Identify Data Collection Requirements ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Bar Code 101 Presented at AutoTech 2002


1
Bar Code 101 Presented at Auto-Tech 2002
By Christina S. Barkan Director, Global Standards
Development Symbol Technologies, Inc.
2
Topics
  • Symbologies relevant to the AIAG
  • How bar codes and scanners work
  • Making the right scanning choices
  • Other technologies

3
Linear Symbologies
  • Code 39
  • Code 128

UN 123456789 A2B4C6D8E
4
Symbology Fundamentals
  • Character Set
  • Bar / Space Encodation Patterns
  • X-dimension
  • Impacts Scanner Resolution
  • Start / Stop Characters
  • Length
  • Can affect ability to decode

5
Concept of License Plate
Bar Code Symbol Scan Operation
Database Look-up Operation
Code 1J123456789A2B4C6D8E
1J123456789A2B4C6D8E Data
  • Code is license plate key to database
  • Requires real time access to database

Application Transaction
6
Code 39
7
Code 39
  • Key Applications
  • Logistics
  • Warehousing
  • Inventory
  • Work in Process

8
Code 39 Symbol Structure
9
AIAG Manufacturer Label Segment
10
Code 128
UN 123456789 A2B4C6D8E
11
Code 128
  • Key Applications
  • EAN/UCC 128 Retail Shipping
  • Automotive Shipping
  • Factory
  • Blood Bag Identification
  • Library
  • Numerous Niche Apps

For an equal number of data characters, Code 128
takes less space!
12
Code 128 Symbol Structure
1P1

1
0
6
1
4
1
4
1
0
0
0
4
1
5
MOD 103
Data Identifier
DATA
Start A, B, or C character
Stop character
Learn More Session 12B The Syntax of Data
Identifiers
13
An AIAG label with Code 128
14
2D symbologies in AIAG guidelines
  • PDF417
  • Logistics
  • ID Cards
  • Motor Vehicle
  • Data Matrix
  • Parts Marking
  • QR Code
  • Used for applications in Japan
  • Suppliers may mark parts per B-4 guideline

15
2D Fundamentals
  • In addition to linear fundamentals
  • Can hold anywhere from 100 to 2000 characters in
    a single symbol
  • Error Correction
  • Portable Data Base
  • Can be either Stacked or Matrix
  • Matrix symbologies can only be read with an imager

This is critical when specifying a scanning
solution
16
Bar Code Application Scheme
PDF417 Scan Operation
Database Look-up Operation
012345 Data
)gtRS06GSP90347789GSQ640GS 15KG1155GS 2JUN12345678
9A2B4C6D8EGS 20LA6-987GS7Q40GTRS 06GS1JUN123456789
A2B4C6D8EGSQ160RS 06GS1JUN123456789B2B4C6D8FGSQ160
RS 06GS1JUN123456789C2B4C6D8GGSQ160RS 06GS1JUN1234
56789D2B4C6D8HGSQ160RSEOT
Required data is contained within 2D bar code
Application Transaction
2D bar code becomes a portable database
17
Error Correction
  • All major 1D symbologies incorporate error
    detection
  • All major 2D symbologies use Reed-Solomon error
    correction
  • A significant amount of a 2D symbol can be
    destroyed and still recover 100 of the
    information
  • EC data stored in symbol permits destroyed
    information to be mathematically recreated

18
Error Detection and Correction
19
PDF417
  • Stacked Symbology
  • Reed-Solomon Error Correction
  • Largest Finder Pattern
  • Laser scanner or imager

20
PDF417
  • Capacity is function of data type
  • 1108 Bytes
  • 1850 ASCII Characters
  • 2710 Numeric Digits
  • Much higher capacity with other compression
    techniques
  • Macro PDF for concatenation of multiple PDF417
    symbols
  • Up to 899,999 symbols

21
PDF417 on the GTL label
Learn More Session 24B Global Transport Label
(GTL) Update
22
Data Matrix
  • Matrix Code
  • Convolution or Reed-Solomon error correction
  • Finder Pattern along bottom and right side
  • Imaging Scanner only

23
Data Matrix
  • Single Symbol
  • 2335 Alphanumeric Characters
  • 1556 Binary Bites
  • 3116 Numeric Digits
  • 16 Data Matrix symbols can be used together to
    contain a single message

24
Data Matrix Parts Marking
Learn More Session 14B Direct Part Marking
Session 15B 2d Bar Code Direct Marking
Overview
25
QR Code
  • Matrix code. 
  • 2509 numeric or 1520 alphanumeric characters
  • 3 levels of error detection. 
  • The smallest QR Code measures 21 X 21 cells (each
    cell encodes one bit)
  • can grow in increments of 4 cells to a maximum
    size of 105 X 105 cells. 
  • The squares in the bottom left, top left, and top
    right corners are locator patterns.
  • Imaging scanner only

26
Symbology Selection Process
27
Scanner Fundamentals
  • Light and dark bars form a pattern
  • The bars and spaces in this pattern vary in width
  • Scanners detect the difference or contrast
    between the dark bars and the light spaces to
    see the pattern
  • The decoder matches the pattern it receives from
    the scanner to a symbology table in its memory

28
Scanner Basics
Analog Signal
Digital signal is transmitted to the decoder
Digital Signal
29
Fundamentals
30
Contrast and Bar Widths
  • Bar width growth and poor contrast impact
    readability and performance

31
Defects and Damage
  • Defects and damage impact or prevent scanning

Learn More Session 26B Symbol Quality and
Accuracy
32
Scanners for all your needs...
One Dimension 2 Dimension Matrix Codes Image
Captures
Damaged or Poorly printed Barcodes
One Dimension 2 Dimension
One Dimension
33
Identify Application
Scanner Selection Process
Attended Scanning?
Identify Symbology
Conveyor/ Fixed Position
Contact your vendor for set-up
No
If matrix, requires imager or camera
Yes
Impacts product selection
Identify Scanning Working Range
Integrated Scanning Terminal? Keyboard? Pen
Input? Display size and resolution? Memory?
Identify Data Collection Requirements
Fixed
Hands-free
Handheld
Ergonomics
34
Choose the Right Scanner for Your Application
  • Know your application
  • Know your environment
  • Know your users
  • Know the limits and extent of the technology
  • Calculate your benefits
  • Understand the systems implications
  • Know your budgetary constraints
  • IMPLEMENT FOR SUCCESS

35
Other Technologies
  • Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)
  • Sensors
  • Electronic Seals
  • Real Time Locating Systems (RTLS)
  • Integrated Circuit Cards (Smart Cards)
  • Biometrics

Learn More Session 21B RFID Primer
36
Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID)
  • Read/Write or Read-only
  • ID Only to 128 kbytes
  • Decreasing cost
  • Line of sight - Not a requirement
  • Ability to read multiple tags simultaneously
  • Selective read - Specific tag or specific data
  • Not a replacement for bar code or 2D symbols

37
Sensors
  • Not really an ADC technology - but an integral
    part of certain RFID Applications
  • Types
  • Temperature
  • Humidity
  • Pressure (e.g., tire pressure)
  • Light
  • Shock/Vibration
  • Olfactory
  • IEEE 1451 describes the interface to recording
    devices, e.g., RFID

38
Electronic Container Seals (eSeals)
  • Not really an ADC technology - but an application
    of RFID and sensors
  • Provides both barrier and communications
  • Provides both identification and tamper-status
  • Can be battery operated (longer range/event
    record) or passive (lower cost)
  • ISO 18185 is the eSeal standard

39
Real Time Locating Systems (RTLS)
  • Not really an ADC technology - but an application
    of RFID
  • Provides both identification and location,
    generally through multi-lateration
  • Types
  • Sign Post/Localizers (Been Here)
  • Time of Flight Ranging Systems
  • Amplitude Triangulation
  • Differential Time of Arrival (DTOA)
  • Cellular Triangulation
  • Satellite Multi-Lateration

40
Integrated Circuit Cards (Smart Cards)
  • Credit card form factor
  • Similar to RFID
  • Either Contact, Vicinity (10 cm), or Proximity
    (70 cm)
  • Wide range of security/ personal identification
    applications (access control, trusted traveler,
    employee identification, banking, debit/credit,
    etc.)

41
Summary
  • Understanding bar code fundamentals ensures
    successful business solutions.
  • Linear symbologies perfect for real time lookup
    applications
  • 2-D and Matrix Symbologies Offer
  • Higher Information Density (less space)
  • Robust Error Correction
  • Portable Data Bases
  • Scanner selection impacts project success
  • Other technologies solve business problems not
    solved with bar codes
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