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Title: New Trend of Environmental Engineering


1
New Trend ofEnvironmental Engineering
Dr. Yi-Ching Chen Dept. of Environmental Engineer
ing Dayeh University
  • Special Topics on Environmental Engineering (I)

2
Global Environmental Trends -Population
Demographers estimate that there were 300 million
humans at the time of Christ. It took until 1804
for the world population to grow to 1 billion.
The UN estimates that there are nearly 6 billion
now, that number is expected to increase to 9
billion by 2050.
3
Global Environmental Trends -Energy Use
The US is the greatest oil user at 3.14
tons/year. China, a large and growing country,
has a per capital use of only 0.23 tons/year.
4
Global Environmental Trends - Energy Use
Oil prices have fluctuated over the years This
chart shows the equivalent -2004 per barrel and
selected events, including oil discoveries and
world wars. 
5
Global Environmental Trends -Atmospheric CO2
Trends
CO2 has been increasing as a result of fossil
fuels. This  page presents an Excel based CO2
trend chart and monthly cycle chart of monthly
CO2 data from  Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii.
6
Global Environmental Trends -CO2 Emissions By
Country
The Excel based dot plot below compares the
population, CO2 emissions and CO2 emission per
capita for the USA, Europe, china, India and the
rest of the world (ROW) for the year 2000.
7
Global Environmental Trends -Global Temperature
Trend
This Excel based chart, using NASA's Goddard
Institute for Space Studies (GISS) data, shows
the annual global temperature anomalies for the
period 1880 - 2006. GISS uses the 1951-1980
period mean to establish the baseline value and
calculates  individual year anomalies by
subtracting the baseline value from the year's
mean temperature.
8
Global Environmental Trends -Sea Level Changes
The United nations Environment Programme reports
that mean sea levels have risen 10 to 25 cm over
the past 100 years. This sea level increase is
caused by thermal expansion of warmer water,
retreat of glaciers and ice caps and a net
positive contribution from the huge ice sheets of
Greenland and Antarctica.
9
A Vision for the Future (1/6)
  • Environmental Engineering is defined as that
    portion of the science of environmental control
    in which engineering is used to conserve and
    develop worlds resources for the general
    well-being of man as measured by such indices as
    the absence of disease, comfort, convenience and
    productivity.
  • Professor E. J. Kilcawley Dr. R. Burden,
  • Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 1955

10
A Vision for the Future (2/6)
  • a number of compelling needs
  • The need to establish linkages between public
    health, natural resource conservation, and
    ecology.
  • The need for a coordinated approach to mitigate
    the adverse impact of human actions on various
    environmental media.
  • The need to react to the ability to detect
    contaminants at very low levels.
  • The need to address growing public awareness and
    concern about the environment.

11
A Vision for the Future (3/6)
  • Matter, Energy, and Waste
  • 1) to make the waste more valuable, 2) to
    make it more useful, and 3) to make it easier to
    deal with environmentally.
  • Global Water Needs
  • Global Communications, Open Information
  • Biotechnology
  • Nanotechnology
  • Toxicity and Very Low Level Detection Methods
  • Membrane Separation Technology ( in
    Biotechnology )

12
A Vision for the Future (4/6)
  • Summary Statements
  • In the future, environmental engineers must
    regard our responsibility as conservators of
    resources both energy and matter. Additionally,
    we must see waste as matter and energy that is
    not used beneficially. Our job is to modify the
    form that waste takes, and to distribute the
    impacts so as to minimize adverse effects.
  • Environmental engineers will be obliged to
    address the shifting requirements of water
    quality and quantity for all essential uses,
    especially agriculture. Water reuse and treatment
    for contaminant removal will be issues of
    increasing concern, and use of desalting
    technology will increase.

13
A Vision for the Future (5/6)
  • A key task of environmental engineers in the
    future will be to learn how to plan and use a
    growing array of communication and computational
    tools. The Internet will continue to be a vital
    link for professionals in the field.
  • Great advances in biotechnology are anticipated
    in the near-term and long-term future.
    Environmental engineers have an advantage of a
    sound base of prior knowledge, but must be alert
    to the rapid strides being made in new tools and
    techniques that will result in breakthroughs in
    innovative technologies.
  • Emerging nanotechnology developments must be
    studied carefully to understand fully their
    potential and dangers.

14
A Vision for the Future (6/6)
  • Study of the fate and effects of contaminants is
    expected to continue, aided by increasingly
    sophisticated modeling techniques. Risk
    management will become recognized more as it is
    apparent that priorities need to be established
    in the face of limited financial resources.
  • There was a strong consensus among attendees that
    membrane separation technology will be an
    important treatment method in the future,
    including use in desalting technology to produce
    water in arid regions.
  • Process safety and environmental facility
    security are expected to become increasingly
    important to environmental engineers.

15
From an after-the-event, 'react and treat'
approach
To a forward-looking, 'anticipate and prevent
approach
16
Innovation Not a Linear Process
Technology developments
Changes in the external environment
Market knowledge
Company strategies
Knowledge of customer needs
Scientific advances
IDEAS
OPPORTUNITY IDENTIFICATION
MARKET PENETRATION AND DEVELOPMENT
CONCEPT/ TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT
SCREENING AND BUSINESS ANALYSIS
DEVELOPMENT AND COMMERCIALIZATION
17
Innovation Not a Linear Process
Technology developments
Changes in the external environment
Market knowledge
Company strategies
Knowledge of customer needs
Technology Intelligence
Scientific advances
IDEAS
OPPORTUNITY IDENTIFICATION
Technology Valuation and Creation of Benefits
MARKET PENETRATION AND DEVELOPMENT
CONCEPT/ TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT
SCREENING AND BUSINESS ANALYSIS
DEVELOPMENT AND COMMERCIALIZATION
18
Innovation Not a Linear Process
Technology developments
Changes in the external environment
Market knowledge
Company strategies
Creativity Idea Generation Breakthroughs
Knowledge of customer needs
Scientific advances
IDEAS
OPPORTUNITY IDENTIFICATION
MARKET PENETRATION AND DEVELOPMENT
Quality of the research
CONCEPT/ TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT
Knowledge Management important throughout the
entire process- critical in the recycle loops
SCREENING AND BUSINESS ANALYSIS
DEVELOPMENT AND COMMERCIALIZATION
19
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20
  • Environmental Consideration Reduction in
  • Toxics (TRI) (toxicity weighted index)
  • Carcinogens???- (specific chemicals removed from
    environment)
  • Endocrine Disrupters????? - (Specific chemicals
    removed)
  • Persistent materials?????? - (quantity of
    specific chemicals)
  • Greenhouse gases- (CO2, Nitrous oxide, methane,)
  • Total waste generated- (total pounds), reduction
    of resources
  • Damage to the eco-system- (specific materials)

21
Evolution of Environmental Management (EM)
22
What is Green Engineering (1/4)
  • Green Engineering is the design,
    commerciali-zation, and use of processes and
    products, which are feasible and economical while
    minimizing
  • 1) generation of pollution at the source and
  • 2) risk to human health and the environment. 
  • Green supply chain is a concept in which
    suppliers integrate the spirit of environmental
    friendliness into their manufacturing management
    so that their products are produced in line with
    environmental awareness.

23
What is Green Engineering (2/4)
  • Principles of Green Engineering (USEPA)
  • Engineer processes and products holistically, use
    systems analysis, and integrate environmental
    impact assessment tools.
  • Conserve and improve natural ecosystems while
    protecting human health and well-being.
  • Use life-cycle thinking in all engineering
    activities.
  • Ensure that all material and energy inputs and
    outputs are as inherently safe and benign as
    possible.
  • Minimize depletion of natural resources.
  • Strive to prevent waste.
  • Develop and apply engineering solutions, while
    being cognizant of local geography, aspirations,
    and cultures.
  • Create engineering solutions beyond current or
    dominant technologies improve, innovate, and
    invent (technologies) to achieve sustainability.
  • Actively engage communities and stakeholders in
    development of engineering solutions.

24
What is Green Engineering (3/4)
  • The 12 Principles of Green Engineering (Anastas,
    2003)
  • PRINCIPLE 1 - Designers need to strive to ensure
    that all material and energy inputs and outputs
    are as inherently non-hazardous as possible.
  • PRINCIPLE 2 - It is better to prevent waste than
    to treat or clean up waste after it is formed.
  • PRINCIPLE 3 -Separation and purification
    operations should be a component of the design
    framework.
  • PRINCIPLE 4 - System components should be
    designed to maximize mass, energy and temporal
    efficiency.
  • PRINCIPLE 5 - System components should be output
    pulled rather than input pushed through the use
    of energy and materials.
  • PRINCIPLE 6 - Embedded entropy and complexity
    must be viewed as an investment when making
    design choices on recycle, reuse or beneficial
    disposition.
  • PRINCIPLE 7 - Targeted durability, not
    immortality, should be a design goal.

25
What is Green Engineering (4/4)
  • The 12 Principles of Green Engineering (Anastas,
    2003)
  • PRINCIPLE 8 - Design for unnecessary capacity or
    capability should be considered a design flaw.
    This includes engineering one size fits all
    solutions.
  • PRINCIPLE 9 - Multi-component products should
    strive for material unification to promote
    disassembly and value retention. (minimize
    material diversity)
  • PRINCIPLE 10 - Design of processes and systems
    must include integration of interconnectivity
    with available energy and materials flows.
  • PRINCIPLE 11 - Performance metrics include
    designing for performance in commercial
    after-life.
  • PRINCIPLE 12 - Design should be based on
    renewable and readily available inputs throughout
    the life cycle.

Anastas, P. Zimmerman, J. Design through the
Twelve Principles of Green Engineering,
Environmental Science and Technology, 37, 94A
101A, 2003.
26
What is Green Supply Chain (1/7)
  • A Green Sustainable Supply Chain can be defined
    as "the process of using environmentally friendly
    inputs and transforming these inputs through
    change agents - whose byproducts can improve or
    be recycled within the existing environment. This
    process develops outputs that can be reclaimed
    and re-used at the end of their life-cycle thus,
    creating a sustainable supply chain."

The whole idea of a sustainable supply chain
is to reduce costs while helping the environment.
27
What is Green Supply Chain (2/7)
  • A four step decision making process approaching
    to implement a Green Supply Chain.
  • The first step is to identify environmental costs
    within your process or facility.
  • The next step is to determine opportunities which
    would yield significant cost savings and reduce
    environmental impact.
  • The third step is to calculate the benefits of
    your proposed alternatives.
  • The last step is to decide, implement and monitor
    your improvement solutions.

28
The Extended Supply Chain
What is Green Supply Chain (3/7)
Traditional
Extended
29
Potential benefits of Green Supply Chain
What is Green Supply Chain (4/7)
  • Reduced product life cycle costs ? increased
    profitability. More specifically, effective
    environmental management results in the avoidance
    of the following costs
  • Cost avoidance of purchasing hazardous materials
    as inputs, which reflect the internalized costs
    associated with environmental harm.
  • Cost avoidance of storing, managing, and
    disposing process waste, particularly as waste
    disposal becomes increasingly expensive.
  • Cost avoidance of stigmatization or market
    resistance to environmentally harmful products.
  • Cost avoidance of public and regulatory hostility
    towards environmentally harmful organizations.

30
Potential benefits of Green Supply Chain
What is Green Supply Chain (5/7)
  • Reduced environmental and health risks ? reduced
    liability risks
  • Safer, cleaner factories

31
What is Green Supply Chain (6/7)
Performance Measures of Extended Supply Chain
32
What is Green Supply Chain (7/7)
Performance Measures of Extended Supply Chain
33
Green Productivity (?????)
  • Green Productivity was launched in 1994 in line
    with the 1992 Earth Summit recommendations that
    both economic development and environmental
    protection would be key strategies for
    sustainable development.
  • It is the application of appropriate productivity
    and environmental management tools, techniques
    and technologies to enhance productivity and
    protect the environment.
  • The technical definition of productivity is a
    relationship between the quantity of output and
    the quantity of input used to produce the output.

Productivity Output1 / Input2 1 Output
includes products and services that can be
represented by sales, value added or physical
quantities. 2 Input includes labor, raw
materials, machinery, energy, capital and so on.
34
Cleaner Production (????)
  • Cleaner Production (CP) is about changing
    products or production processes to achieve the
    conservation of raw materials, water and energy,
    elimination of toxic and dangerous raw materials,
    and reduction in the quantity and toxicity of all
    emissions and wastes at source.
  • CP describes a preventative approach to
    environmental management. It is neither a legal
    nor a scientific definition to be dissected,
    analyzed or subjected to theoretical disputes. It
    is a broad term that encompasses what some
    countries/institutions call eco-efficiency, waste
    minimization, pollution prevention (P2), or green
    productivity (GP).
  • Pollution control is an after-the-event, 'react
    and treat' approach. CP is a forward-looking,
    'anticipate and prevent' philosophy.

35
GP ensures profitability and enhances Quality of
Life
36
TRIPLE FOCUS OF GP
37
Distinguishing Characteristics of GP
38
Conventional Versus GP Practices
39
Benefits of Implementing GP
  • For enterprises
  • Reduction of waste through efficient resource
    utilization
  • Lower operational and environmental compliance
    costs
  • Reduction or elimination of long-term liabilities
    and clean-up costs
  • Increase in productivity
  • Compliance with government regulations
  • Better public image
  • Increase in competitive advantage
  • Increase in market share and profitability

40
Benefits of Implementing GP
  • For employees
  • Greater workers participation
  • Potential increase in employees share of
    value-added
  • Improvement in health and safety in the workplace
  • Better quality of work life
  • For consumers
  • High quality products and services
  • Reasonable pricing
  • On time delivery

41
What is RoHS?
  • In 1998, the European Union (EU) began to turn
    its attention to the large amounts of hazardous
    material being dumped into landfills throughout
    Europe.
  • Responding to vocal and continuing calls for
    action, the WEEE (Waste Electrical Electronic
    Equipment) directive was enacted by the EU a
    move that in turn spawned the Restriction of
    Hazardous Substances (RoHS) directive.
  • RoHS directly regulates the concentration levels
    of substances considered hazardous in electrical
    and electronic equipment. The substances
    regulated include
  • Cadmium
  • Hexavalent Chromium
  • Lead
  • Mercury
  • Polybrominated Biphenyls (PBBs)
  • Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs)

42
What is ISO 14000? (1/4)
  • The International Organization for
    Standardization (ISO) is a non-governmental
    organization established in 1947. The mission of
    ISO is to promote the development of
    standardization and related activities in the
    world with a view to facilitate the international
    exchange of goods and services and to developing
    cooperation in the spheres of intellectual,
    scientific, technological and economic activity.
  • ISO 14000 is actually a series of standards that
    cover everything from environmental management
    systems ( The EMS ) to auditor qualifications to
    as yet unwritten standards for such things as
    life cycle assessment.

43
What is ISO 14000? (2/4)
  • Objectives of ISO 14000
  • The objective of ISO 14000 is to improve
    environmental performance of organization and to
    harmonize different national environmental
    management standards in order to facilitate
    international trade.
  • ISO 14000 is designed to provide customers with a
    reasonable assurance that the performance claims
    of a company are accurate.

44
What is ISO 14000? (3/4)
  • Benefits of ISO 14000
  • Protection of environment
  • Equal competitive basis
  • Demonstrated compliance with regulations
  • Establishment of effective management system
  • Reduced cost
  • Reduced injuries
  • Improved community relations
  • Improved customer trust and satisfaction
  • Improved upper management attention
  • Provide a world wide focus of Environmental
    Management
  • Protections of trade at international level from
    adopting different set of environmental
    principles, regulations etc.
  • Adoption of regional and national environmental
    standards that create barriers to international
    trade and add to the costs of certain products.

45
What is ISO 14000? (4/4)
  • The ISO 14000 Series documentation is comprised
    of five major basic components

46
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47
Tools of Environmental Management (EM) (1/8)
  • Environmental Management Systems (EMS)
  • There are two main Environmental Management
    Systems  -- the ISO's  ISO 14000 and the European
    Union's Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS). 
  • The ISO defines an Environmental Management
    System (EMS) as "a systematic approach to dealing
    with the environmental aspects of an
    organization. It is a 'tool' that enables an
    organization of any size or type to control the
    impact of its activities, products or services.
  • The EMS is not prescriptive -- it doesn't specify
    how environmental targets should be met -- but
    rather provides a framework in which
    organizations can examine their practices and
    then determine how these can be managed. 

48
Tools of Environmental Management (EM) (2/8)
  • Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)
  • LCA provides a systematic approach to measuring
    the use of resources/inputs and the release of
    effluent to the air water and soil during the
    lifetime of a product, from its manufacture to
    its disposal.
  • Most LCA measurements are made by summing the
    units of energy consumed in the extraction of raw
    materials, transport, manufacture, distribution
    and final disposal of a product or service.
  • According to the ISO 14040 series standards, LCA
    should assess the potential environmental aspects
    and potential aspects associated with a product
    or service by compiling an inventory of
    relevant inputs and outputs, evaluating the
    potential environmental impacts associated with
    those inputs and outputs, interpreting the
    results of the inventory and impact phases in
    relation to the objectives of the study. 

49
Tools of Environmental Management (EM) (3/8)
  • Public Environment Reporting (PER)
  • PER (also referred to as Corporate Environmental
    Reporting, CER) is the process by which
    businesses, factories, governments and other
    organizations examine their environmental
    performance and publish the information to the
    general public annually.
  • A typical PER includes background information
    about the organization, the organization's
    environmental policy, progress made towards
    specific targets established in previous reports,
    and new targets or actions to improve the
    organization's environmental performance in the
    future.
  • It will allow society better to understand the
    full implications of corporate activity, thereby
    to design more sustainable local and global
    systems. 

50
Tools of Environmental Management (EM) (4/8)
  • Environmental Indicators (EI)
  • EI allow the measurement of environmental impact
    caused over a defined time period. They are
    essential to determine how well firms and other
    organizations are improving their
    "eco-efficiency".
  • EI can be used at the regional, national or
    international level, and are frequently cited in
    state-of-the-environment reports. They are used
    to calculate the impact of human activities -
    over time - on the environment.
  • Good indicators have a strong connection from the
    measurement of some environmental condition to
    practical policy options.
  • Using indicators to measure environmental
    performance and to help determine whether
    countries are on track towards sustainable
    development

51
Tools of Environmental Management (EM) (5/8)
  • Environmental Accounting (EA)
  • Environmental Accounting involves the
    implementation of accounting systems that take
    into account environmental costs such as waste
    treatment and disposal costs, the costs of a poor
    environmental reputation, and environmental risk
    insurance premiums besides costs of resources
    (such as air, water and energy).
  • Frequently, firms do not know the environmental
    costs of their business, because these have been
    too narrowly defined - only as the costs of
    complying with environmental regulations.
  • EA is used to find these hidden costs, and
    classify them correctly. EA attempts to help
    management assess true environmental costs, and
    also the costs and benefits of alternative
    actions.

52
Tools of Environmental Management (EM) (6/8)
  • Industrial EcologyIndustrial Ecology involves
    the incorporation of cleaner production
    principles into the planning of industrial
    developments and other projects to optimize
    environmental protection and cost effectiveness.
  • Codes of PracticeCodes of Practice are
    standards, usually developed on a sectoral basis,
    to provide guidance on environmental issues such
    as resource use, emissions, waste disposal, etc.
  • Environmental Audits Environmental audits are
    carried out to identify all of the environmental
    impacts made by a firm. They are normally carried
    out before the implementation of cleaner
    production so that changes to practices and
    processes can be identified and assessed.

53
Tools of Environmental Management (EM) (7/8)
  • Environmental LabelingEnvironmental Labeling
    involves including labels on products which
    inform potential purchasers of the product's
    environmental impact. These labels require a
    standard for comparing products.
  • Performance Based Contracting (PBC)PBC has been
    used mainly in the energy sector.  It involves a
    third party contractor taking responsibility for
    running a portion of the business. The contractor
    can get financial rewards for making the business
    more efficient.
  • Design for Environment (DFE)
  • DFE is the systematic consideration - during
    product design - of issues associated with the
    environment over the entire life cycle of a
    product. This approach attempts to create
    financial and environmental savings by
    redesigning products to reduce environmental
    impact.

54
Tools of Environmental Management (EM) (8/8)
  • Eco-EfficiencyEco-Efficiency involves increasing
    production while reducing the environmental
    pressure per unit produced.
  • Environmental TaxesEnvironmental Taxes involve
    the development of a tax system which increase
    the incentive for industry to adopt cleaner
    production and eco-efficiency.

55
Green GDP?????? (1/5)
  • Classical economists say more growth in the gross
    domestic product (GDP) or gross national product
    (GNP) means a better, more productive society. Or
    does it? Those economic activities also use up
    natural resources, and some economists now argue
    that the GNP should include the costs of changes
    to the environment.
  • In simple terms, green GDP is calculated by
    deducting the cost of depleting natural resources
    and environmental degradation from the
    traditional GDP.
  • For environmentalists, well-being provided by
    nature is as important as well-being provided by
    market consumption. Societies should be able to
    see how market consumption affects the
    consumption of public goods like beautiful views,
    clean air, and clean water.

56
Green GDP (2/5)
  • The capital approach to sustainable development
    to sustainable development is most closely
    associated with the thinking of is most closely
    associated with the thinking of economists on the
    green GDP.
  • The green GDP does offer a great deal with the
    does offer a great deal with the measurement
    framework of natural capital and its relationship
    to sustainable development.
  • Natural capital comprises three principal
    categories natural resource stocks, land and
    ecosystems.

57
Green GDP (3/5)
  • Natural capital may fall into one of three groups
    of functions groups of functions
  • Resource function covers natural resources drawn
    into the economy to be converted into goods and
    services for the benefit of mankind the benefit
    of mankind
  • Sink function absorbs the unwanted by-products of
    production and consumption
  • Service function provides the habitat for all
    living beings including mankind.

58
Green GDP (4/5)
The example for Green GDP
59
Green GDP (5/5)
  • In 2004, China announced that the green GDP index
    would replace the Chinese GDP index itself as a
    performance measure for government and party
    officials at the highest levels.
  • As an experiment in national accounting, the
    Green GDP effort collapsed in failure in 2007,
    when it became clear that the adjustment for
    environmental damage had reduced the growth rate
    to politically unacceptable levels, nearly zero
    in some provinces. In the face of mounting
    evidence that environmental damage and resource
    depletion was far more costly than anticipated,
    the government withdrew its support for the green
    GDP methodology and suppressed the 2005 report,
    which had been due out in March, 2007.

60
Green Energy (1/7)
  • Green energy is a term describing what is thought
    to be environmentally friendly sources of power
    and energy. Typically, this refers to renewable
    and non-polluting energy sources.

A solar trough array
Hydropower wheel
Wind turbine
61
Green Energy (2/7)
  • Green energy includes natural energetic processes
    that can be harnessed with little pollution.
    Anaerobic digestion????(??methane) , geothermal
    power, wind power, small-scale hydropower, solar
    power, biomass power, tidal power and wave power
    fall under such a category. Some versions may
    also include power derived from the incineration
    of waste.

62
Green Energy (3/7)
  • Green power is considered a subset of renewable
    energy (Graph 1) and represents those renewable
    energy sources with the highest environmental
    benefit.
  • Currently, renewable energy accounts for roughly
    2.3
  • of the United States energy supply.

63
Green Energy (4/7)
  • Sometimes, organizations find the total value
    created from a green power purchase to be greater
    than its cost. Benefits produced from a green
    power purchase can include
  • Producing no net increases in (anthropogenic -
    human caused) greenhouse gas emissions
  • Reducing air pollution
  • Meeting organizational environmental objectives
  • Creating positive publicity and increasing public
    image
  • Displaying civic leadership
  • Producing customer, investor, or stakeholder
    loyalty, and employee pride
  • Providing a hedge against future electricity
    price instability
  • Differentiating your organizations brand in the
    marketplace
  • Stimulating local economies
  • Increasing domestic security through a more
    diverse fuel mix
  • Encouraging long-term cost reductions for
    renewable energy
  • Reducing the vulnerability of our nations energy
    infrastructure

64
Green Energy (5/7)
  • Biomass is a collective term for all plant and
    animal material. A number of different forms of
    biomass can be burned or digested to produce
    energy. Examples include wood, straw, poultry
    litter and energy crops such as willow and poplar
    grown on short rotation coppice and miscanthus.
  • Biomass is a very versatile material and can be
    used to produce heat (for space and water
    heating), electricity and a combination of heat
    and power (electricity).

65
Green Energy (6/7)
  • Burning biomass releases about the same amount of
    carbon dioxide as burning fossil fuels. However,
    fossil fuels release carbon dioxide captured by
    photosynthesis millions of years agoan
    essentially "new" greenhouse gas. Biomass, on the
    other hand, releases carbon dioxide that is
    largely balanced by the carbon dioxide captured
    in its own growth.
  • The use of biomass can reduce dependence on
    foreign oil because biofuels are the only
    renewable liquid transportation fuels available.
  • Biomass energy supports agricultural and
    forest-product industries.

66
Green Energy (7/7)
  • Biomass is the only renewable energy source that
    can be converted directly into liquid fuels -
    biofuels - for transportation needs (cars,
    trucks, buses, airplanes, and trains). The two
    most common types of biofuels are ethanol and
    biodiesel.
  • Ethanol is an alcohol, the same found in beer and
    wine. It is made by fermenting any biomass high
    in carbohydrates (e.g. sugar cane, maize and
    corn) through a process similar to brewing beer.
  • Biodiesel, however, is not an alcohol but is an
    ester, which is similar to vinegar. Many
    vegetable oils, animal fats, algae, or even
    recycled cooking greases are used to produce
    biodiesel.
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