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ED 6000 CONTEMPORARY THEORIES OF EDUCATION

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Title: ED 6000 CONTEMPORARY THEORIES OF EDUCATION


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(No Transcript)
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ED 6000 CONTEMPORARY THEORIES OF EDUCATION
  • Progressivism
  • Educational Humanism
  • Perennialism
  • Essentialism
  • Reconstructionism
  • Behaviorism

3
  • OBJECTIVES
  • The student should be able to
  • Distinguish between the goals, nature of learner
    and learning, role of teacher and method, and
    curriculum philosophy of progressivism,
    perennialism, essentialism, reconstructionism,
    and behaviorism
  • Distinguish between the connections of specific
    world views to specific educational theories

4
EXAMINE EACH OF THESE SIX THEORIES...
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PROGRESSIVISM
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What is progressive education and do you agree
with it?
7
PROGRESSIVISM
KEY IDEAS
  • Reaction against traditional education.
  • Dominant in America from 1920s to 1950s.
  • Opposed traditional practices such as
    authoritarian teacher, heavy reliance on
    textbooks, passive learning by memorization of
    factual data, four walls approach, and discipline
    by fear of physical punishment.

8
PROGRESSIVISM
INFLUENTIAL PERSONS
Sigmund Freud (freedom of self-expression for
children and open learning environment) John
Dewey (pragmatist philosopher) Jean-Jacques
Rousseau Emile opposed interference of adults in
childrens learning
9
PROGRESSIVISM
VIEW OF LEARNER
  • Has a natural desire to learn and discover.
  • Is active, not passive
  • Will naturally want to learn if not frustrated by
    impositions of adults and authorities.

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PROGRESSIVISM
VIEW OF TEACHER
  • Advisor, guide, and fellow traveler, rather than
    authoritarian and classroom director.
  • Role is to help students learn how to learn by
    themselves, so they will develop into
    self-sufficient adults in a changing society.

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PROGRESSIVISM
VIEW OF METHODOLOGY
  • Classroom activity focused on problem solving.
  • Atmosphere of cooperation and democracy.
  • Project method--addressing problems of
    significance to students which results in
    interdisciplinary learning, just like all
    learning in life.

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PROGRESSIVISM
VIEW OF CURRICULUM
  • Grows out of students needs, interests, and
    initiatives.
  • Traditional subject matter is not rejected, but
    is not the driving force behind curricular
    organization.

13
PROGRESSIVISM
LEARNER
SPOKESPERSONS
Natural desire to learn learning by doing
Freud Dewey Rousseau
Reaction against traditional education
CURRICULUM
TEACHER
Student needs, interests, initiatives
Advisor, guide, fellow learner
METHOD
Cooperation problem-solving
14
What is perennialism and why did it arise as a
reaction to progressivism?
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PERENNIALISM
KEY IDEAS
  • Arose in 1930s as reaction against
    progressivism.
  • Based on classical, liberal education which made
    people free to think broadly. All people need a
    liberal education so they can think and
    communicate.
  • There are eternal truths which have lasted
    across generations and cultures. Everyone should
    study the great works which contain these truths.

16
PERENNIALISM
INFLUENTIAL PERSONS
Robert Hutchins and Mortimer Adler -- Great Books
of the Western World and The Paideia Proposal
(basic schooling for first 12 years of American
education). Great Books
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PERENNIALISM
VIEW OF LEARNER
Learner is a rational being whose mind should be
used fully.
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PERENNIALISM
VIEW OF TEACHER
  • Teacher is an example of an adult whose mind has
    been trained.
  • Leads students through the great knowledge of the
    ages in the course of training their minds.

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PERENNIALISM
VIEW OF METHODOLOGY
  • Classroom activities are designed to discipline
    the mind.
  • Includes difficult mental exercises such as
    reading, writing, drill, rote memory, and
    computation. Also exercises in grammar, logic,
    and rhetoric.

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PERENNIALISM
VIEW OF CURRICULUM
Emphasizes languages, history, mathematics,
natural science, philosophy, and fine arts in
order to acquaint student with perennial or
lasting truth.
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PERENNIALISM
LEARNER
SPOKESPERSONS
Rational being develop the mind
Hutchins Adler
Lasting truth which all generations need
CURRICULUM
TEACHER
Subjects containing perennial or lasting truth
Trained thinker leads students
METHOD
Mental exercises to discipline the mind
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ESSENTIALISM
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Essentialism says that good effort is more
important to learning than being interested in
the subject. Do you agree?
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ESSENTIALISM
KEY IDEAS
  • Reaction against progressivism--education had
    become too painless--students not forced to
    master tools of learning.
  • Basics (3 Rs) and established facts must be
    learned in order to produce competent citizens.

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ESSENTIALISM
INFLUENTIAL PERSONS
Essentialist Committee for Advancement of
American Education (1938) Council for Basic
Education (1950s) Arthur Bestor Admiral Hyman
Rickover American education had become too soft
needs to return to basics A Nation at Risk (1983)
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ESSENTIALISM
VIEW OF LEARNER
Learner does not naturally possess ability to
discipline self and work hard.
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ESSENTIALISM
VIEW OF TEACHER
  • Teacher is center of classroom authority. Knows
    what student needs to know, the logical order of
    the subject matter, and how it should be
    presented.
  • Requires respect. Has right and responsibility
    to administer disciplinary measures that will
    lead to orderly learning atmosphere.

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ESSENTIALISM
VIEW OF METHOD
  • Some subject matter must be learned by
    memorization and drill.
  • Some can be learned by problem-solving. Not all
    learning is fun, and putting forth good effort is
    more important to learning than being interested
    in the subject.

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ESSENTIALISM
VIEW OF CURRICULUM
  • Elementary curriculum focuses on basic tool
    skills in literacy and computation.
  • Secondary curriculum aims at developing
    competencies in history, mathematics, English,
    literature, and foreign languages.
  • Non-essentials should not be part of school
    curriculum.

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ESSENTIALISM
LEARNER
SPOKESPERSONS
Discipline and hard work not natural
CBE Rickover A Nation at Risk
Essentials for competent citizenry
CURRICULUM
TEACHER
Basic skills essential competencies
Classroom director authority
METHOD
Mental exercise effort required
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RECONSTRUCTIONISM
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Do you agree with reconstructionists that schools
should be agents of social change?
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RECONSTRUCTIONISM
KEY THOUGHTS
  • Began as a reaction to the chaos of depression.
  • Only way to change the world order to full
    cooperation of all nations in providing limited
    resources for growing population is through
    formal education.
  • Schools should be major agents of reconstruction
    of the social order.

34
RECONSTRUCTIONISM
INFLUENTIAL PERSONS
George Counts (1932) Dare the School Build a New
Social Order? Theodore Brameld (1950/60s)
Toward a Reconstructed Philosophy of Education
Education as Power Ivan Illich - deschooling
35
RECONSTRUCTIONISM
VIEW OF LEARNER
  • Intelligent. Capable of learning to solve
    problems in new ways.
  • Desires improvement of the human condition.

36
RECONSTRUCTIONISM
VIEW OF TEACHER
  • Possesses a vision that a new world order is
    needed. Must work for acceptance of that
    viewpoint by largest possible majority.
  • Should awaken students consciousness of social
    problems and engage them in working for
    solutions.
  • Leads students in questioning the status quo.

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RECONSTRUCTIONISM
VIEW OF METHODOLOGY
  • Investigation and discussion of current
    injustices and social problems.
  • Democratic procedures used as students consider
    various social, political and economic options.

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RECONSTRUCTIONISM
VIEW OF CURRICULUM
Social sciences are logical foundations for
identification of problem areas. Anthropology,
economics, sociology, political science, and
psychology. Also environmental ethics studies.
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RECONSTRUCTIONISM
LEARNER
SPOKESPERSONS
Intelligent problem-solver
Counts Brameld Illich
Schools should be major agents of societal change
CURRICULUM
TEACHER
Focus on social sciences
Envisions a new societal order
METHOD
Democratic procedures investigation of injustices
40
BEHAVIORISM
41
With which of the other five theories do you
think Behaviorism has the most in common? Why?
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BEHAVIORISM
KEY THOUGHTS
  • Built on realism, positivism, and materialism.
  • Humans are part of nature and operate according
    to laws of the physical universe.
  • Behavior is a matter of conditioned reflexes.

43
BEHAVIORISM
INFLUENTIAL PERSONS
Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) John B. Watson
(1878-1958) Environment shapes the person B. F.
Skinner Walden Two (1948) Science and Human
Behavior (1953)
44
BEHAVIORISM
VIEW OF LEARNER
  • Students are highly developed animals who learn
    in the same way that other animals learn.
  • Humans are not beings who are related to a
    supernatural Being (God).
  • Students are complex natural organisms.

45
BEHAVIORISM
VIEW OF TEACHER
Teacher's role is to create an effective learning
environment which includes positive reinforcement
and consequences for actions.
46
BEHAVIORISM
VIEW OF METHODOLOGY
  • By properly structuring the learning environment
    with expected behaviors, re-enforcers, and
    consequences, students' behavior will be shaped.
  • Examples are programmed learning and behavior
    modification activities.

47
BEHAVIORISM
VIEW OF CURRICULUM
  • Consists of the knowledge and skills needed to
    function as a contributing member of society and
    to continue the improvement of the human race.
  • Therefore, will include essential academic
    disciplines as well as problem-solving skills.

48
BEHAVIORISM
LEARNER
SPOKESPERSONS
Complex natural Organism learns Like animals
Pavlov Watson Skinner
Behavior is a matter of conditioned responses
CURRICULUM
TEACHER
Essential academic disciplines problem- solving
skills
Create environment of re-enforcers
and consequences
METHOD
Shape behavior through expected
behaviors, re-inforcers, consequences
49
  • CHECK YOUR LEARNING
  • Are you able to
  • Distinguish between the goals, nature of learner
    and learning, role of teacher and method, and
    curriculum philosophy of progressivism,
    perennialism, essentialism, reconstructionism,
    and behaviorism
  • Distinguish between the connections of specific
    world views to specific educational theories?

50
Scripture Focus
  • Conduct yourselves with wisdom toward
    outsiders, making the most of the opportunity.
    Let your speech always be with grace, seasoned as
    it were with salt, so that you may know how you
    should respond to each person. Colossians 116-17

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CONTEMPORARY THEORIES OF EDUCATION
  • Create a fictitious school founded on one of the
    contemporary theories of education
  • Progessivism (p. 98-107)
  • Perennialism (p. 107-113)
  • Essentialism (p. 113-118)
  • Reconstructionism (p. 118-126)
  • Behaviorism (p. 126-131)

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FICTITIOUS SCHOOL ACTIVITY
  • Name and mascot for your school
  • Schools heroes/heroines?
  • Schools view of
  • metaphysics
  • epistemology
  • axiology
  • What will it teach about other worldviews?
  • Describe your schools physical plant

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FICTITIOUS SCHOOL ACTIVITY
  • What information will your report cards provide
    to parents?
  • Other appropriate elements
  • Create a poster for your school that illustrates
    all of the elements.

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Behaviorism
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Behaviorism
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Essentialism
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Essentialism
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Perennialism
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Perennialism
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Progressivism
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Progressivism
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Reconstructivism
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Reconstructivism
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CONTEMPORARY THEORIES OF EDUCATION
  • I am convinced that the battle for humankinds
    future (the mind) must be waged (and won) in the
    public school classroom by teachers who correctly
    perceive their role as the proselytizers of a new
    faith a religion of humanity that recognizes and
    respects the spark of what theologians call
    divinity in every human being

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CONTEMPORARY THEORIES OF EDUCATION
  • These teachers must embody the same selfless
    dedication as the most rabid fundamentalist
    preachers, for they will be ministers of another
    sort, utilizing a classroom instead of a pulpit
    to convey humanist values in whatever subject
    they teach, regardless of the education level
    preschool day care or large state university

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CONTEMPORARY THEORIES OF EDUCATION
  • The classroom must and will become an arena of
    conflict between the old and the new the rotting
    corpse of Christianity, together with all its
    adjacent evils and misery, and the new faith of
    humanism, resplendent in its promise of a world
    in which the never-realized Christian ideal of
    love thy neighbor will finally be achieved....

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CONTEMPORARY THEORIES OF EDUCATION
  • It will undoubtedly be a long, arduous, painful
    struggle replete with much sorrow and many tears,
    but humanism will emerge triumphant. It must if
    the family of humankind is to survive. Dunphy,
    John. (Jan/Feb 1983). A Religion For A New Age.
    The Humanist.

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