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Rethinking Diversity


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Title: Rethinking Diversity

Rethinking Diversity

Faculty Resource Network National Symposium San
Juan, Puerto Rico November 2006
  • Approaches to Diversity on the College Campus
    (2002) Qualitative, national, interviews of 75
    practitioners in research universities and 4-year
  • Millennial Student Project (Spring 2005)
    Campus-based, quantitative and qualitative,
    student focused
  • Millennial Student Project (Fall 2005)
    Campus-based, longitudinal, quantitative and
    qualitative, student focused

Historical Approaches to Diversity in Higher
  • Focus on access
  • Hostile Climate Model
  • Cultural deficit approach
  • Primarily for minority students
  • Focus on cultural adjustment support

Typical Diversity Programs, Historically
  • Cultural centers
  • Summer Bridge programs and
  • Freshman Orientation
  • Support of student organizations
  • Mini-University Services approach -
  • recruitment, financial aid, tutoring,
  • advising, etc. specifically for minority
  • students

Trends Impacting on Student Views of Diversity
  • Shifting demographics
  • Persistence of isms
  • Influence of popular media
  • Support of diversity by industry
  • Challenges to affirmative action

Shifting Demographics
Changes in enrollment of students, ages 18-24
  • African-American ? 36.9
  • Asian-American ? 53.7
  • Native American ? 35.0
  • Caucasian students ? 4.6
  • (Latino not included in ACE report)
  • American Council on Education Minorities in
    Higher Education Twenty-First Annual Status
    Report, 2005

Demographic shift cont1990-8 race
categories2000-34 race categories
(US Census Bureau)
White Black or African Am. American Indian
Alaska Native American Indian or Alaska
Native Both American Indian Alaska Native Asian
Indian Chinese or Filipino or Japanese Korean or
Vietnamese Other Asian Category Two or more Asian
Category Native Hawaiian or Samoan Guamania or
Chamorro Other Pacific Islander Two or more
Native Hawaiian Mexican or Puerto Rican or Cuban
Other Hispanic or Latino Not Hispanic or Latino

Bi- and Multi- Racial Students
  • Millennial Study Finding 10 of students
    identified as bi- or multi-racial. Thats the
    4th highest identification group after Caucasian,
    Latino and Asian.
  • ACE 2005 Report A new category of students
    whose race or ethnicity is unknown accounted for
    5.5 of all degrees conferred during 2003-3.
    National trend of Caucasian students declining to

Todays Student Tomorrows
Changing Perceptions of Race
Tiger Woods Cablasian
Nigerian, Irish, African American, Native
American, Russian Jewish, Polish Jewish
  • Persistence of isms

an altercation sparked by intolerance of their
sexual orientation Gays frequently assaulted
on 4th Ave. Arizona Daily Wildcat, October 6,
2006 Two weeks ago, a member of the
fraternity reported to UAPD two swastikas were
drawn on the interior walls sometime during a
weekend social gathering. Alpha Epsilon Pi's
members are predominately Jewish. Arizona Daily
Wildcat, February 8, 2005 Students in the
pictures are wearing sideways baseball caps,
exposed underwear, bandanas, and other
accessories. A male student in one of the
pictures is holding a brown paper bag with a
leaking bottle inside. Ghetto party Chicago
Maroon, October 25, 2005 Students who wore
blackface to an off-campus party sparked such an
outcry on campus that officials at Whitman
College canceled classes Thursday so students and
faculty could attend a diversity symposium.
Fox News, November 9, 2006

Student Voice Is Diversity Important?
  • Yes, I am gay and Indian and define myself as
    androgynous. I need diversity to survive. I
    stick out as a sore thumb and I need awareness.
    I need knowledge, sensitivity and acceptance so
    that I am not bashed up.
  • UA Millennial Student Project, 2005

Influence of Popular Media
(No Transcript)
Everybody Hates Chris
Will Grace
Increased Diversity on Television
  • 2006 NPR Story on Lost
  • economic sense continues to drive a commitment
    to diversity. All the networks are looking for
    younger viewers -- and to get them, new shows
    will have to reflect their world.
  • Blind Casting "That really opened the door for
    us to go to our casting director and say, 'We
    have all these characters, bring us people of all
    nationalities and ages, and we will cast the best

Support of Diversity by Industry
Fortune 500 Companies Focus on Diversity
  • General Motors' Policy on Diversity (Editor's
    Note The following is borrowed from General
    Motors' website, pertaining to the corporation's
    policy on diversity)
  • Throughout GM, the Diversity Initiative is
    defined as the process of creating and
    maintaining an environment that naturally enables
    GM employees, dealers, suppliers and communities
    to fully contribute in pursuit of total customer
    enthusiasm. GM believes that diversity is the
    collective mixture of similarities and
    differences, and recognizes that managing
    diversity includes race and gender as well as
    broader dimensions like age, family status,
    religion, sexual orientation, level of education,
    physical abilities, military status, union
    represented/non-represented, years of service,
    language and many others.
  • Workplace Diversity
  • GM's greatest asset is the quality and
    capabilities of its diverse workforce. Managing
    diversity allows GM to reach the full potential
    of its employees and contribute to theirs and the
    company's success. GM seeks to create an
    environment that optimizes the contributions of
    this workforce, and recognizes that it is
    essential for that workforce to reflect both the
    marketplace and its customers. Diversity in the
    workplace and in GM's business relationships help
    enhance its effectiveness in the global
  • Diversity Training.
  • Moving towards company-wide diversity training, a
    number of GM units within the U.S. have required
    training in their divisions. New salaried
    employees attend an orientation that includes a
    diversity segment taught by diversity
    professionals. All hourly and salaried employees
    have had sexual harassment training, and
    diversity training is scheduled for hourly
    employees throughout 2000. In 1999, GM added a
    narrative piece in the Talent Review Process
    regarding development of employees. All managers
    are expected to meet or exceed their diversity
    goals set through the Affirmative Action Program
    and initiatives and efforts. Executive
    representation goals have been set for each GM
    Sector and performance and targets are expected
    to be fully satisfied. Additional information on
    GM diversity management and related initiatives
    can be found at .

Wal-Mart-Our Commitment to People Diversity and
Responsible Employment Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. is
the leading private employer of emerging groups
in the United States. More than 160,000 African
American associates and more than 105,000
Hispanic associates work for Wal-Mart Stores,
SAM'S CLUBS and Wal-Mart's logistics facilities
nationwide Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. received the
2002 Ron Brown Award, the highest Presidential
Award recognizing outstanding achievement in
employee relations and community initiatives The
National Hispana Leadership Institute recognized
Wal-Mart with the 2002 National Leadership Award
for its support of leadership and development
programs for Latinas The NAACP presented
Wal-Mart with the NAACP 2000 Pacesetter Award for
corporate leadership The National Action Network
(NAN) presented Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. with the
2002 Community Commitment Corporate Award in
recognition of community involvement and
diversity practices Wal-Mart received the
Hispanic National Bar Association (HNBA) 2002
Corporate Partner of the Year Award for its
consistent support and best practices in the area
of diversity The Organization of Chinese
Americans (OCA) appointed Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.
to its 2002 Corporate Advisory Board Wal-Mart
received the prestigious 2001 and 2002
Billion-Dollar Roundtable Award for spending more
than 1 billion with women and minority-owned
suppliers The American Minority Supplier
Development Council named Wal-Mart as the 2001
Minority Business Advocate of the Year Hispanic
Business Magazine named Wal-Mart one of the Top
25 Diversity Recruitment Programs in 2001 for its
aggressive program to hire and promote Latinos
and Latinas Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. received a
Blue Ribbon Board Award from the organization
Catalyst for having two women on its board of
directors. Catalyst is a nationally established
organization that works with the business sector
to advance women
...recognizes that managing diversity includes
race and gender as well as broader dimensions
like age, family status, religion, sexual
orientation, level of education, physical
abilities, military status, union
represented/non-represented, years of service,
language and many others.
ExxonMobils- Why Focus on Diversity? Because
it is the right thing to do for our
Business...Achieving peak performance from all
of our operational, technological and financial
resources depends on realizing the full potential
from all of our human resources.
People...Employees are naturally more productive
working in an environment that encourages a wide
range of ideas and perspectives an environment
where opportunities to grow and excel apply to
everyone. Communities...Neighbors, whether
corporate or families, care for each other. We
seek to assist and support those communities
where we live and work. Global Diversity
Essential to Success
Challenges to Affirmative Action
Affirmative Action June 22, 2003
  • 5-4 to uphold the University of Michigan's
    preferences for minorities who apply to its law
  • 6-3 vote, struck down a point system used by
    Michigan's undergraduate program.

  • From the issue dated March 19, 2004
  • http//
  • Not Just for Minority Students Anymore
  • Fearing charges of discrimination, colleges
    open minority scholarships and programs to
    students of all races

  • Desi Arnaz, Orson Welles, Roy Orbison, Ted
    Bundy, Ayatollah
  • Khomeini, and Cary Grant  have always been
  • Heeeeres Johnny! is a scary greeting from
    Jack Nicholson, not
  • a warm welcome from Ed McMahon.
  • The Energizer bunny has always been going, and
    going, and
  • going.
  • Photographs have always been processed in an
    hour or less.
  • The U.S.  has always been a Prozac nation.
  • They have always enjoyed the comfort of
  • Harry has always known Sally.

The Millennial Project Research Questions
  • What are Millennial Students perceptions and
    attitudes with regard to diversity?
  • How do the perceptions and attitudes of the
    Millennial Student compare across traditional
    measures of diversity race/ethnicity, gender,
    class, ability, and religion?
  • What elements do Millennial Students ascribe to

The Video Students Speak About Diversity
  • Online Survey (ASSET, Seton Hall) Interviews
  • Sampling Strategy
  • Stratified random sample
  • Over-sampled students of color
  • Contacted 4,500 full-time, classified
    undergraduates enrolled in fall 2005
  • Weekly emails sent to students over five weeks
  • Response Rate Survey N 487 (11)
  • 60 Interviews Conducted
  • 10 Students Followed in Documentary
  • Limitations small sample, self-selection,
    politically-charged topic

Sample Characteristics
  • 65 Female
  • 11 with Disabilities
  • 8 GLBTQ
  • 14 First Generation (neither
  • parent attended college)
  • 37 STEM Majors
  • 49 Ethnic Minorities
  • 10 Bi-or Multi- Ethnic

In terms of race/ethnicity, I identify as
  • African-American
  • Human
  • Tan
  • Native American/Egyptian
  • Euro-mutt with a dash of Native
  • American
  • Half Egyptian, quarter Scottish,
  • eighth French, eighth English
  • Jamexican-American

Influences on Beliefs about Diversity
  • Education 22
  • Friends/Peers 8
  • Parents 7
  • Media 5
  • Travel 5
  • (Most frequent answers,
  • multiple answers possible)

Entering Characteristics Diverse Friendships
  • Percent of students reporting some or most of
    friends were of different
  • Sexual Orientation 33
  • Racial/Ethnic Background 79
  • Gender 94
  • Disability 21
  • Religion 86

Entering Characteristics Expectations of
Diversity in College
  • Percent of students expecting to encounter
    diversity in
  • University Leadership 84
  • Faculty 87
  • Staff 86
  • Student Leadership 83
  • Student Body 88
  • Residence Hall 80

Support for Services for Targeted Populations
Percent of students reporting support for services
  • Students with Disabilities 79
  • Low SES Students 76
  • International Students 75
  • Latino/as 70
  • Native Americans 69
  • First Generation Students 69
  • African Americans 69

Support for Services for Targeted Populations
Percent of students reporting support for services
  • Multi-ethnic 67
  • Asian/Pacific Islanders 67
  • Women 64
  • GLBTQ 62
  • Men 55
  • Caucasians 53

Groups Most Supportive of Services for Targeted
Populations (Chi Square)
  • Females more supportive of services than males
  • all populations
  • Ethnic minorities more supportive of services
  • Caucasians for some populations
  • First generation students less supportive of
  • for Caucasians than non first generation
  • No significant differences for students with
  • disabilities, GLBTQ, and STEM majors

Dynamic Diversity Paradigm Model (DDPM)
Meritocratic Perspective 3.1
Meritocratic Perspective
I define diversity as a measure of the
differences among peoples past life experiences.
To specify, I do not consider a black person
diverse from a white person if they both grew up
in a wealthy suburb with loving parents and an
easy overall life, despite their superficial
racial differences. - White, Catholic, Male,
Sophomore, Social Sciences Major
Stigmatization Perspective 1.6
Stigmatization Perspective
  • While appreciating and recognizing cultural
    heritage and differences is an admirable goal, I
    feel that it creates more divisions than it
    breaks down. Forced diversity inherently
    segments a population, and segmentation leads to
    resentment and bigotry.
  • White, Agnostic, Male, Sophomore, Computer
    Information Sciences Major

Postmodern Perspective 59.7

Postmodern Perspective
I think that it is very important for
co-existence and communication that we try to
understand where people are coming from and how
they communicate with others as well as
understand how our own up-bringing has affected
our views. - Latina, Catholic, Senior, Social
Sciences Major
Critical Postmodern Perspective 9.9
Critical Postmodern Perspective
  • Diversity is a mixture of the physical and
    cultural characteristics that combine to
    distinguish individuals. Diversity is responsible
    for cultural differences and distinct ways of
    living. It is important that people are different
    to provide a constant supply of challenging
    ideas. Without differences, there is no basis of
    comparison and people are slaves to their
    homogenous ways of thinking. Diversity supplies
    unfamiliarity that causes people to stretch into
    beyond their own ways of thinking.
  • Bi-Racial/Ethnic, Spiritual, Female, Sophomore,
  • Social Sciences Major

Conclusions About Millennials
  • Millennials are accustomed to diversity and
    expect their college environments to be diverse.
  • Students define diversity broadly and express
    multiple identities, extending well beyond the
    traditional focus on race and ethnicity.
  • Students desire to connect to identity-based
    programming may be specific to generational
    status and/or history of the identity group.

Conclusions, continued
  • While they may have had a high exposure to
    diversity, Millennials dont necessarily connect
    it to social justice issues.
  • Students support services for individual groups
    to a varying degree, but many are hesitant to
    impose this value on others.

Implications for Educators/Administrators
  • Rethink our diversity paradigms, goals and
    programs make sure we are meeting students
    where they are.
  • Engage faculty, staff and students in
    conversations about generational differences in
    their approaches to diversity.
  • Understand that students relate to multiple
    identities and that those are in constant flux
    depending on environment.
  • Create opportunities for students to engage in
    critical discourse on diversity and social
    justice education.

Contact Information
  • Lynette Cook Francis
  • Assistant Vice President Multicultural Affairs
    and Student Success
  • (520) 626-1664

Melissa D. Ousley, Ph.D. Research
Analyst Multicultural Affairs and Student
Success (520) 626-2885
Project Web Site http//