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MGT 7378 Advanced Systems Analysis

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Applications -- business, models/scientific, AI, embedded. Application ... Semantic (AI) Focus on reasoning processes. Computer-Aided Software Engineering ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: MGT 7378 Advanced Systems Analysis


1
MGT 7378Advanced Systems Analysis DesignSue
CongerFall, 2001Background Review
2
Contact Information
  • Office107 Augustine
  • Phones
  • UD 972.721.5063
  • Cell 214.929.8430
  • eMail
  • UD sconger_at_gsm.udallas.edu
  • AOL sconger_at_aol.com

3
Goals of this Course
  • Develop an understanding of the complexities and
    issues of real-time system development.
  • Develop your expertise in the analysis of
    real-time problems.
  • Develop your ability to document and think of
    real-time problems using object-oriented methods
    and notational schemes.

4
Course Conduct
  • 2 Exams Project
  • 2/26 MidTerm Exam
  • 4/9 Final Exam (cumulative)
  • Project Class and individual

5
Texts
  • Norman OO-SAD
  • Carter Developing eCommerce Systems

6
My Teaching Method
  • Lecture with discussion
  • Practice in class
  • Practice on your own

7
What does it take to develop a computer
application
  • Hardware
  • Software
  • People
  • Procedures

8
Hardware
  • Tangible
  • Manufactured
  • Computer properties based on systems theory
  • Input--gtProcess--gtOutput

9
Software
  • Logical
  • Engineered
  • Does not wear out
  • Customized
  • Subject to change
  • Many varieties

10
Software Varieties
  • Systems software -- operating system -- traffic
    cop (e.g., TPF, VM/CMS, MVS, DOS, OS/2)
  • Communications -- traffic cop for communications
    over distance (e.g., IMS/DC, TCAM, VTAM)
  • Utility -- frequently used routines (e.g., sort,
    copy, print)
  • Applications -- business, models/scientific, AI,
    embedded

11
Application
  • A set of programs to automate some task
  • Program -- set of computer instructions. Some
    applications have millions of instructions that
    need to be organized in a logical manner.
  • SAD process -- business requirements are
    decomposed to obtain small chunks, resulting in
    modules of 50-200 lines of code, that perform
    some well-defined function that can be programmed
    and tested in isolation of all of the other
    modules.

12
Common Application Characteristics
  • Data -- raw material of information, numbers and
    letters
  • Data -- input, output, or stored/retrieved
  • Processes -- sequence of instructions or
    conjunction of events that operate on data
  • Constraints -- limitations on behavior and/or
    processing of entities
  • Types -- prerequisite, postrequisite, time,
    structure, control, and inferential.
  • Interfaces -- human (e.g., screen interaction),
    manual (e.g., reports), automated

13
Application Responsiveness
  • Batch -- transactions are processed in groups...
    non-interactive
  • On-line -- interactive dialogue but does not
    impact concurrent business events
  • Real-time -- interactive and can affects
    concurrent decisions including the business event
    it documents

14
Business Application Types
  • Organization levels have different information
    needs
  • Operations -- transactions, current, accurate,
    unambiguous
  • Management -- problem finding/solving, trend and
    what if analysis, mostly accurate historical
    data
  • Executive -- strategic, future orientation,
    ambiguous, incomplete, not necessarily accurate
  • Staff support -- knowledge of processes and
    reasoning through problems

15
Applications Types match Information Types
  • Transaction - Transaction processing systems
    (TPS)
  • General information retrieval - Query systems
  • Problem finding/solving - Decision support
    systems (DSS)
  • Decision making -- Group decision support systems
    (GDSS)
  • Strategic -- Executive information systems (EIS)
  • Staff Support -- Expert systems (ES)

16
Language generations and examples
  • 1st - Machine language
  • 2nd - Assembler
  • 3rd - COBOL, FORTRAN, C, Java
  • 4th - VB, Paradox, Access,
  • dBase IV, Oracle, etc.
  • 5th - Prolog, Lisp

17
Each application type has better and worse
languages in which it can be written.
  • Batch - Cobol (TPS), Fortran (Scientific)
  • On-line - C (TPS, DSS), Assembler (TPS, DSS)
  • 4GL (query, small TPS)
  • 5GL (ES)
  • Packages (DSS, GDSS, EIS)
  • Real-time (usually TPS or embedded) -- 1GL, 2GL,
    C, Ada, may use specialized OS, e.g., TPF

18
People
  • The most difficult factor in SAD and app
    development
  • The larger and more complex the project,
  • The more specializations involved
  • The more the communication overhead

19
Project Manager role
  • Complementary/joint Activities to Sr.
    Technician(s)/SEs
  • Project Planning
  • Assigning Staff to Tasks
  • Selecting Alternatives
  • Liaison -- Project Sponsor, User, IS Management,
    Technical Staff, Operations, Vendors, Other
    Teams/Departments
  • Personnel Management -- Hiring, Firing,
    Motivating, Career Path Planning, Training,
    Evaluating
  • Monitor and Control -- Status monitoring and
    reporting, Change control, Standards, QA

20
Software Engineers -- Analysts, Designers,
Programmers, Senior technical staff
  • Complementary/joint Activities to PM
  • Project Planning
  • Assigning Staff to Tasks
  • Proposing and Selecting Alternatives for project
    life cycle, methodology, CASE tools, hardware,
    operating environment, software, language, etc.
  • Software Engineers -- Application Activities
  • Requirements elicitation (user liaison)
  • Decomposition of requirements and translation
    into computer components
  • Definition of computer database from user data
    requirements
  • Testing that programs match requirements
  • Implementation

21
User Activities
  • All tasks negotiated with PM
  • Overall responsibility and management of project
    work
  • Provide/approve all functional requirements -
    data, processes, constraints, interfaces
  • Screen/report design - contents and layout
  • User documentation development
  • User training
  • Acceptance testing

22
Procedures
  • Prescribe conduct of the process.
  • Project Life Cycles -- gross work breakdown of
    application development work
  • Methodologies -- procedures, documentation
    techniques, and thought processes that direct
    activities of each phase
  • Testing Plans -- describe the strategies, types
    and detailed test plans for the project
  • Project Management -- describes the time plan,
    staffing plan, budget, reporting and control
    mechanisms for managing the work
  • Other -- e.g., use of technical environment,
    change control, etc.

23
Sequential (Waterfall) Life Cycle
  • Initiation -- User request is activated
  • Feasibility -- Determine financial, technical and
    organizational readiness, risks, technical
    alternatives evaluated and tentative approach ID
  • Analysis -- Define detailed user functional
    requirements, what the application will do
  • Design -- Translate user requirements into
    computer design, how for specific HW/SW
  • Program/Unit Test -- Translate design into
    program code
  • Test -- Find errors
  • Requires strategy -- black box, white box,
    top-down, bottom-up
  • Types of tests -- unit, integration, system,
    recovery, peak period, multi-user, etc.

24
Sequential Life Cycle -- continued
  • Implement -- Turn over to users, place into
    production use, requires strategy (big bang,
    incremental by geography, function, other)
  • Operate and Maintain -- Fix bugs, adapt to
    changing business requirements, make more
    efficient
  • Retire -- Discontinue maintenance, transfer
    functions to a new application

25
Iterative Life Cycle Types
  • Full Prototyping Life Cycle
  • Proof of Concept Life Cycle
  • Partial System Prototype Life Cycle

26
Learn-as-you-go Life Cycle
27
Methodology Classes
  • Flesh out the life cycle phases by focusing
    attention and identifying decisions to be made
  • Process -- Focus on data flows through processes
  • Data -- Focus on data
  • Object Focus on development of encapsulated
    data and processes
  • Semantic (AI) Focus on reasoning processes

28
Computer-Aided Software Engineering Tools (CASE)
  • Automate some or all of project documentation for
  • - functional requirements,
  • - design decompositions,
  • program specification,
  • code generation,
  • testing, and
  • maintenance.

29
Varieties of CASE
  • Dumb -- paper/pencil alternative
  • Semi-intelligent -- enforces local rules
  • Intelligent -- enforces local and global rules,
    incorporates intelligent evaluation, integrated
    -- supports transformations (analysis --gt design
    --gt program code)

30
CASE Changes Project Work
  • All documentation is on computer vs. meetings,
    verbal, typed/hand-written
  • Forces top-down approach to documenting
    information vs. gather all information, then
    decide what to do with it
  • Requires compliance with supported methodology to
    obtain intelligent advantages
  • More esoteric technical documentation than
    traditional applications

31
CASE/Methodology Assumptions
  • Technical environment definition and design are
    outside analytical scope
  • Project management is outside analytical scope
  • Functional requirements are correct and complete
  • Customizing is done by the SE and project manager
    to fit project requirements

32
Traditional life cycle
33
Life cycle using CASE
34
Novice v. Expert
  • And, learning new methods

35
Learning Characteristics
  • Novices
  • Local mental models
  • Undirected search (trial and error)
  • Surface Features
  • Mental simulation of isolated functions
  • Incomplete analysis
  • Failure to integrate pieces into a whole ...
    design pieces
  • Find a (any) solution
  • Experts
  • Global mental models
  • Directed search
  • Deep Structures
  • Mental simulation of integrated functions and
    whole application
  • Complete analysis deferring details, top-down
    thinking
  • Integrated whole throughout the process ...
    design whole and add pieces
  • Find the best solution

36
Goals of this Course
  • Develop an understanding of the complexities and
    issues of real-time system development.
  • Develop your expertise in the analysis of
    real-time problems.
  • Develop your ability to document and think of
    real-time problems using object-oriented methods
    and notational schemes.
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