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TACKLING CLIMATE CHANGE WORKSHOP

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Title: TACKLING CLIMATE CHANGE WORKSHOP


1
TACKLING CLIMATE CHANGE WORKSHOP
  • Kent Public Health Department
  • 6 November 2008
  • WELCOME!

2
Programme
  • Part I Understanding climate change and health
  • Part II What does a sustainable future look like
  • Lunch
  • Part III Action planning
  • Jackie Spiby Making it happen in the south east

3
Part I
  • The situation were in
  • NB. Mitigation and adaptation

4
Essential characteristics of todays world (J.
Porritt)
  • Population growth
  • From 2.5 billion in 1953, 6.7 billion now, 8
    billion 2028, 9 billion in 2050
  • Rampant materialism in the developed world
  • Gross inequalities
  • An elite population of 1.2 billion
  • Declining natural resource base collapsing
    ecosystems
  • The 6th mass extinction of life on earth
  • Accelerating climate change

5
Climate change a public health imperative
  • Joint statement to health leaders from 19
    organisations
  • We believe that climate change is the public
    health challenge of the 21st century and that,
    unless decisive action is taken now, the world
    will face global public health and environmental
    catastrophe.

6
Climate change threatens the basic elements of
life
  • Stern Review 2007 The Economics of Climate
    Change. (For Cabinet Office and HM Treasury)
  • Climate change threatens the basic elements of
    life for people around the world
  • Access to water, food production, health and the
    use of land and the environment

7
Worse than we thought a year ago
  • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Reports
    2007 (for UNCCC, Bali)
  • James Hansen 350 ppm 385 in 2008
  • One hundred months campaign
  • But ... back to the beginning

8
Climate change what we know
  • Sources of information
  • IPCC and the Stern Review
  • Climate change is
  • Primarily a result of human activity
  • Due to greenhouse gas emissions carbon dioxide
    from burning of fossil fuels 85
  • Is happening now, both in the UK and worldwide
  • 2 degrees centigrade of global warming
  • Major ecosystems begin collapsing
  • Threshold for dangerous climate change

9
Likely impact of two degrees of global warming
  • Rapid warming at the poles sea levels rise 6-13
    metres
  • Disintegration of West Antarctic Ice Sheet
  • Melting of Arctic sea ice in summer
  • Melting of the permafrost in the far north
  • Drying out of much of Amazon rainforest
  • Stops absorbing CO2/fires release it

10
Position is serious and urgent
  • We have 5-10 years to cap carbon dioxide
    equivalent levels at 450 parts per million
  • Very close now 423 ppm in 2007
  • Increasing by 2 ppm each year
  • May be superseded by Hansen view based on
    paleoclimate evidence
  • Must prevent more than 2 degrees of global
    warming

11
Likely health impacts of climate change in the UK
  • Global impacts affecting the UK
  • Human nutrition crop failure causing food
    insecurity, rising food prices
  • Human movement armed conflict, potentially huge
    population displacement

12
Direct health impacts within the UK
  • Heat-related problems, food poisoning, sunburn,
    skin cancer
  • Worsening air quality respiratory problems
  • Old and young, chronically ill and poor most
    susceptible
  • River, coastal flooding and flash floods, extreme
    weather events (e.g. hurricanes)
  • Contamination of drinking water, increased
    water-borne infections, stress, disruption,
    injuries, deaths

13
Health benefits of tackling climate change
(co-benefits)
  • Its all joined up!
  • Common solutions benefit human AND environmental
    health (Jo Nurse)
  • Active travel
  • Improved food
  • More urban green space
  • More insulation in homes
  • Reduced material consumption
  • Review each briefly

14
1. Active travelhealth benefits
  • More walking, cycling and less car use reduce
    CO2 emissions
  • Lower BP, obesity, heart disease, diabetes,
    osteoporosis and cancer
  • Reduce road traffic accidents
  • Less air pollution less respiratory disease
    (asthma, COPD)
  • Reduce noise (stress)
  • Improve mental well-being and social cohesion

15
2. Eating better
  • Less processed food (less CO2)
  • Less saturated fat, sugar and salt
  • Reduce obesity, heart disease, stroke, diabetes,
    colon and breast cancers
  • Less meat more vegetables
  • Reduce CO2 and methane, improve health
  • Local food reduce food miles
  • Food transportation causes CO2, air pollution,
    congestion and accidents

16
3. More urban green space
  • Increases cooling in heatwaves
  • Aids flood absorption
  • Improves air quality incl. less CO2
  • Improves mental well-being
  • Reduces social violence and abuse
  • Increases physical activity
  • Reduces inequalities in health

17
4. Insulation in homes
  • Reduces CO2 less fossil fuel needed
  • Less fuel poverty and more income
  • Improves resilience to hot and cold weather
  • Reduces excess seasonal deaths and health
    inequalities

18
5. Less material consumption
  • A more equal society
  • Less CO2/reduced ecological footprint
  • Less emotional distress, dissatisfaction,
    alienation
  • More money (for some) for positive activities
  • Reduced inequalities in health

19
International carbon footprints - World Bank 2005
  • USA 20 tonnes per capita
  • UK 9 tonnes
  • France 6 tonnes
  • China 3 tonnes
  • India 1 tonne
  • World average 4 tonnes
  • Personal allowance 2 tonnes (GCI)

20
Carbon emissions the UKs big hitters
  • Each of the following 25
  • Energy in homes and workplaces
  • Transport (esp. car and air)
  • Food production, transportation and retail
  • Consumption of all other goods and services
    (excluding food)

21
Individual carbon emissions
  • UK approx. 10 tonnes per person per year
  • Just over half
  • Personal travel and household energy
  • Just under half individual share of
  • Emissions from production and transportation of
    goods and services that we consume
  • Public service infrastructure, incl. NHS

22
NHS carbon emissions
  • Draft NHS Carbon Reduction Strategy
  • SDC/Stockholm Environmental Institute
  • First full NHS carbon footprint
  • 18 million tonnes of CO2 p.a.
  • Largest public sector emissions
  • 30 of total public sector emissions
  • 3.2 of total CO2 emissions England

23
NHS Carbon emissions contd.
  • 22 building energy use
  • Electricity 59
  • 18 travel
  • Patients own travel 50
  • Visitors own travel 10
  • Staff commute and work travel 20
  • NHS transport 20
  • 59 procurement
  • Especially pharmaceuticals, medical equipment

24
The NHS leading by example
  • NHS largest single organisation in UK
  • 10 of regional economies in England
  • Procurement budget approx. 17 billion
  • Energy consumption is growing
  • Although energy efficiency is improving
  • Number of buildings is increasing
  • It is directly responsible for the health of the
    population
  • The NHS can provide a powerful example for other
    organisations to follow

25
Cutting the carbon - targets
  • Experts suggest UK needs to reduce carbon
    emissions by 80 - 90 by 2030
  • English Climate Change Bill
  • Each UK citizen needs to reduce carbon emissions
    from 10 tonnes to 2 tonnes max. per annum
  • 5 p.a. reduction
  • Short-term target of 10 by 2010

26
Part II
  • Living sustainably what does it mean?

27
What is sustainable development?
  • 1987 Dr Gro Harlem Brundtland, World Commission
    on Environment and Development
  • Meet the needs of the present without
    compromising the ability of future generations to
    meet their needs
  • Bring together environmental, social, political
    and economic considerations
  • Importance of social justice and equity
  • Living within our means - natural resources
    finite
  • Similar to corporate social responsibility or
    corporate citizenship

28
Securing the Future - UKs Sustainable
Development Strategy
  • An important public health strategy
  • Four priority areas
  • Sustainable consumption and production
  • Climate change and energy
  • Protecting our natural resources enhancing the
    environment
  • Creating sustainable communities and a fairer
    world

29
Protecting natural resources and the environment
  • Due to combined human pressures, including global
    warming
  • We are entering the 6th mass extinction of life
    on earth caused by human beings
  • The world is losing three species an hour
  • Six out of 10 species are likely to become
    extinct
  • In evolutionary terms, we are destroying the
    context in which humans arose and to which we are
    adapted

30
Creating sustainable communities
  • You know one when you see one
  • Well-planned use of land and well-designed public
    places
  • Attention to public safety and social support
    networks
  • Accessible public services, food shops and
    recreation
  • Green spaces and access to nature
  • Public transport, pavements and paths, cycle lanes

31
Sustainable consumption and production
  • To protect rapidly dwindling natural resources,
    we must
  • Consume fewer material goods
  • More cultural and community pursuits
  • Use locally-produced goods and services
  • Ensure goods are energy-efficient in their
    production, distribution, usage and disposal

32
THE BIGGER SOCIAL PICTURE
  • Profound issues
  • Summarise briefly some of themes from 2 reports
  • Defras Framework for Pro-Environmental
    Behaviours (Jan 2008)
  • Sustainable Consumption Roundtable report 2006
    I Will If You Will

33
1. Defra Framework
  • Common motivators
  • Feel good factor
  • Social norms
  • Ease of action
  • Being part of something
  • Individual benefits health, money

34
Common barriers
  • External constraints
  • Infrastructure (e.g. for travel)
  • Cost
  • Working patterns
  • Demands on time
  • Habit
  • Scepticism
  • Disempowerment

35
2. Sustainable Consumption Roundtable (SDC, NCC)
  • The good life
  • Progress depends on enabling people to act
    together I will if you will
  • People, business and government three corners of
    a triangle
  • Everyday products and services must be centre
    stage
  • Build the space for more mandatory policies

36
Deep-seated habits
  • People find it very hard, for example, to
  • Eat seasonal food
  • Turn off lights
  • Reduce heating temperature
  • Opt to walk or cycle
  • Not use air transport

37
The need for symbolic actions
  • The public sector to show the way
  • Helping people to connect with climate change and
    their energy use
  • Carbon-offsetting by airlines
  • On-site energy generation everywhere
  • Serious incentives to low-carbon cars
  • Smart meters

38
Show people they are part of something bigger
  • People are locked in to unsustainable consumption
    patterns status, identity, habit
  • Stuff shapes our lives
  • People need the confidence that they will not be
    acting alone, against the grain and to no purpose
  • I will if you will

39
Change will happen
  • Because we want to change
  • Because we believe that we can live better
  • Because feelings of emptiness are strongly linked
    to materialism
  • Because our sense of meaning is closely linked to
    the natural world
  • The modest living movement
  • Transition towns etc.
  • Come back to this later

40
Part III
  • Making it happen

41
1. Individuals and groups at home and at work
  • Carry out a carbon audit ...
  • Develop an action plan
  • Energy
  • Energy-efficient appliances
  • Do not leave appliances on standby
  • Insulation and draught-proofing
  • Use renewable resources (e.g. solar), bought from
    a provider or generated yourself
  • Turn down the thermostat if you can

42
Action plan, contd.TRAVEL
  • Walk, cycle, use public transport
  • Try to avoid flying
  • Use teleconferencing and videoconferencing
    instead of face-to-face meetings
  • Drive as energy-efficient a car as possible and
    limit your speed
  • Join a car-sharing scheme

43
Sustainable event management
  • Do you need a face-to-face meeting? Would a
    video- or teleconference work?
  • Include sustainability clauses in contracts with
    suppliers
  • Seek to minimise the impacts of travel, e.g.
    venue accessible by public transport
  • Be energy and water efficient
  • Drink tap water
  • Source food carefully
  • Communicate electronically with participants
  • Delegate packs and giveaways minimise

44
Action plan, contd.FOOD
  • A healthy diet is good for the environment
  • Less animal products and processed food
  • Fresh, locally-produced seasonal products
  • Try not to waste food (40 is wasted)
  • Try to avoid drinking bottled water

45
Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Emissions
  • Global issue 22 of total GHGs
  • Livestock Production GHGs caused by
  • Deforestation for grazing and cereal crops for
    livestock food
  • Manure
  • Enteric fermentation by ruminants
  • GHG emissions from meat-eating as important as
    driving and flying
  • Must reduce consumption of animal products in
    high-income countries

46
Meat consumption
  • Current meat consumption
  • High income countries 200-250 g/day/person
  • Low income countries 25-50 g/day/person
  • Mc Michael AJ et al Lancet 2007
  • Suggest target of 90g/day/person for all
    countries

47
Action plan, contd.WASTE
  • Waste prevention needs to be the focus
  • Reduce, reuse, recycle in that order!
  • Try to purchase fewer new goods
  • Try buying second-hand items
  • Buy energy efficient electrical goods
  • Print as little paper as possible
  • Compost as much waste as you can
  • Recycle (but it consumes energy)

48
2. Organisational action plan
  • Set up a staff group and find champions
  • Non-Executive Director and senior manager
  • Reduce energy consumption
  • Seek advice from the Carbon Trust
  • Set an organisational recycling target
  • e.g. 60 for non-clinical waste
  • Reduce water consumption
  • Water efficient appliances
  • Implement a Travel Plan
  • Minimise car use
  • Use teleconferencing and videoconferencing
  • Procure locally-produced and environmentally-sound
    products

49
3. Integrate sustainable development into
business planning
  • Become a Good Corporate Citizen
  • www.corporatecitizen.nhs.uk
  • Developed by Sustainable Development Commission
    and funded by the Department of Health
  • Find a Non-Executive Director or Trustee champion
  • Develop a Board strategy
  • Include in business plans, annual reports,
    service specifications and contracts etc.

50
4. Create momentum for change
  • Work in partnership with others the NHS, local
    authorities, voluntary groups and communities
  • Local Strategic Partnerships and Local Area
    Agreements
  • Regional strategies and initiatives
  • Sustainable communities
  • To improve travel planning
  • To improve household energy efficiency and reduce
    fuel poverty
  • Take the messages into the community within your
    daily work

51
Suggested tactics
  • Enable, encourage and exemplify lead by example
  • Face to face contact and personal recommendation
    crucial
  • Create a sense of collective action
  • People feel the mandate for government action
    does not extend to forcing radical change
  • Push the boundaries of public debate, e.g. on
    well-being, travel, consumerism

52
Its all joined upin the local community
  • Talk to people
  • About the benefits of a healthy, low-carbon
    lifestyle
  • In nutrition and obesity initiatives
  • Include messages about locally-produced, seasonal
    food, reducing consumption of animal products and
    processed food
  • In physical activity initiatives
  • Make the links with climate change

53
Its all joined upSupporting action in the
local community
  • Link mental health promotion
  • with access to nature and physical activity
  • Healthy schools programme and eco-schools
    programme
  • bring together
  • Transition Towns initiative
  • have a look

54
Check your plans for sustainability
  • 10 questions does the project
  • Minimise the use of energy from fossil fuels?
  • Encourage walking, cycling, use of public
    transport?
  • Enhance green space and wildlife?
  • Minimise the production of waste?
  • Use water carefully?
  • Improve public safety?
  • Encourage social networks?
  • Provide employment in disadvantaged areas?
  • Help to alleviate poverty?
  • Improve housing?

55
ADVOCACY FOR STRUCTURAL CHANGE
56
Advocacy for structural change
  • Reducing SE Englands Ecological Footprint A
    Route Map
  • SE England Regional Assembly, SEEDA, WWF
  • National incentives, e.g. carbon quotas, fiscal
    incentives
  • New measures of wealth
  • Local incentives, e.g. reductions in council tax
    for low impact lifestyles
  • Investment to retro-fit housing stock

57
Sustrans, ADsPHTake action on active travel
  • Set ambitious targets for growth in walking and
    cycling
  • Commit 10 of transport budgets to walking and
    cycling NOW
  • Create safe, attractive conditions for walking
    and cycling
  • 20 mph the norm for residential streets
  • Health check every transport and land use
    decision

58
How to advocate?
  • Lobby MPs
  • Lobby PHOs
  • Join health groups
  • Climate and Health Council
  • UKPHA
  • Health and Sustainability Network
  • General groups, e.g. WWF
  • SEEDA Action on the Route Map

59
Conclusion
60
Conclusion
  • Sustainable development is about the determinants
    of health
  • We have little time to prevent unmanageable
    climate change
  • Join the transition to a healthy, sustainable,
    low-carbon future
  • Its the only future there is!
  • Keep your cool! (Robin Stott)

61
DEFINITIONS OF COMMON TERMS
62
Definitions 1
  • Greenhouse gases
  • Have a warming effect by trapping heat
  • Main GHGs carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous
    oxide
  • Carbon dioxide equivalent
  • Calculation of the levels of GHGs in the
    atmosphere
  • i.e. not only carbon dioxide but methane and
    nitrous oxide
  • Global warming
  • The result of more GHGs in the atmosphere

63
Definitions 2
  • Climate change
  • Simply, the changing climate caused by global
    warming
  • Climate chaos
  • Alternative, more accurate, description
  • Carbon footprint
  • Measure of the amount of carbon dioxide emitted
    through the combustion of fossil fuels
  • Often expressed as tonnes of carbon emitted each
    year

64
Definitions 3Ecological Footprint
  • Can be personal, organisational, regional etc.
  • A measure of resource consumption and
    environmental impact, expressed as land usage in
    global hectares (gha) per person per year
  • A fair earth share is 1.8 gha
  • UK ecological footprint is 5.4 gha
  • Globally, need equivalent of two planet earths to
    sustain present levels of consumption of natural
    resources

65
Definitions 4Contraction and Convergence
  • Global framework for equitable carbon rationing
    and carbon trading
  • Contraction of global carbon budget to safe level
  • Convergence is fair share for each person
  • Low carbon emitters, the disadvantaged, would be
    able to develop economically and socially
  • Developed by the Global Commons Institute

66
Definitions 5
  • Carbon offsetting schemes
  • Balance emissions (e.g. air travel) through
    spending money on projects that will absorb
    greenhouse gas emissions, e.g. renewable power,
    energy efficiency
  • Mitigation and adaptation
  • Mitigation strategies tackle the causes of
    climate change
  • Adaptation strategies reduce vulnerability to the
    effects of climate change, e.g. heatwaves
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