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Lawns, Lakes, and Laws

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It takes a 1,000 times less phosphorus to turn a lake green than keep a lawn healthy ... MN lawn fertilizer law. When liquid product is used in non-metro ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Lawns, Lakes, and Laws


1
Lawns, Lakes, and Laws
2
PhosphorusP
  • Needed plant nutrient
  • Most rare of the major life building
    blocks (C, H, O, N, P, S)
  • 75 of nations use is mined in Florida

3
PhosphatePO4
  • Phosphorus is highly reactive
  • Does not exist as an element in nature
  • Combines with oxygen to form phosphate

4
Phosphorusand plants
  • Function Energy transfer and cell division
  • Deficiency Stunted growth
  • Deficiency Purple or yellow leaves
  • Deficiency More common in cool spring

5
Phosphorusand plants
  • Function Energy transfer and cell division
  • Deficiency Stunted growth
  • Deficiency Purple or yellow leaves
  • Deficiency More common in cool spring

RARE!
6
Phosphorus in soil
300 lbs/acre


Pools of phosphorus storage in soil
7
Phosphorus in soil
  • Soil solution phosphorus (H2PO4-)
  • Form taken up by plants
  • Mobile form
  • Small fraction of total soil P (

8
Phosphorus in soil
  • Active soil phosphorus
  • In equilibrium with solution P
  • 300 lbs/acre
  • Tightly adhered to soil particles

9
Phosphorus and soil pH
7.0 pH
6.0 pH
Availability of phosphorus vs. soil pH
10
Phosphorus fertilization
  • Recommended on turf when
  • Solution P Soil P

11
Phosphorus and lakes
  • Most limiting plant nutrient in lakes
  • Algae blooms low oxygen and smell
  • 1 lbs P 300 lbs to 500 lbs algae

12
Impacts of phosphorus
High growth
Low light
Low oxygen
13
Speeding aging of lakes
10,000s YEARS IN NATURAL CONDITIONS
10s to 100s YEARS UNDER HUMAN INFLUENCE
14
Tropic State
15
A factor of 1,000 less!
60 parts per BILLION
30 parts per MILLION
It takes a 1,000 times less phosphorus to turn a
lake green than keep a lawn healthy
16
As phosphorus goes up, algae goes up, and water
clarity goes down
17
Secchi Disk Secchi disk is a low-tech way to
measure water clarity and determine a lakes
tropic state
18
Experimental Lake Area Study(Fisheries and
Oceans Canada)
  • Top-to-bottom curtain divides lake in two
  • Carbon and nitrogen added to one side
  • Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus added to
    other effect is clear to see

19
Sources of phosphorusWhen it rains, it pollutes
Think watersheds!
20
Typesof runoff pollution
  • Sediment soil erosion, street grit
  • Nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus
  • Organics manure, leaves, grass
  • Toxics lead, zinc, copper, pesticides

21
Impervious surfaces
Residential Areas 50 Impervious
22
Every city lot is waterfront property!
23
Sources of phosphorus runoff
Bannerman - Wisconsin DNR
Sidewalks
Roofs
Driveways
Lawns
Streets
24
Sources of phosphorus runoff from lawns
Soluble plant P
Soil solution P
25
Sources of phosphorusrunoff from lawns
  • Runoff from plant material (dissolved)
  • Misapplied fertilizer (dissolved)
  • Runoff from soil solution (dissolved)
  • Attached to eroded soil (particulate)

26
Sources of phosphorusrunoff from lawns
?
  • Runoff from plant material (dissolved)
  • Misapplied fertilizer (dissolved)
  • Runoff from soil solution (dissolved)
  • Attached to eroded soil (particulate)

27
Phosphorus runoff by land use
28
Grass clippings
  • Contain 0.13 lbs P / 1000 sq. ft. / year
  • Thats 0.65 lbs P / ave. yard / year

29
Controlling P runoff is package deal
30
Phosphorus fertilization
  • Apply according to soil test
  • Important when seeding or sodding
  • Rarely needed on est. lawns in Metro
  • Sweep up overspread spilled material

31
Reading the bag
Look for the middle number!N - P - K
  • Given in phosphate by weight
  • Phosphate (P2O5) not phosphorus (P)!
  • P P2O5 2.29

32
Takinga soil test
  • Sample is made up of 10 sub-samples
  • Collect with trowel and plastic bucket
  • Sample 3 deep on establish lawns
  • Sample 6 deep for new lawns

33
  • Sample front and back lawn separately
  • Sample randomly, avoid odd areas
  • Mix in plastic bucket send 1 pint to lab

34
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35
  • Two phosphorus tests used in Minnesota based on
    soil pH
  • Bray 1 pH 7.4
  • Olsen pH 7.4

36
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37
Application challenges
  • Selecting fert. with needed N-P-K balance
  • 1,000 sq. ft.??? How big is my lawn?
  • Setting spreader application rate
  • Soil test? Calibrate? Get a life!!!

38
The lawand the lawn
  • State phosphorus lawn fertilizer law
  • Local fertilizer ordinances
  • Use vs. Sale regulation

39
Minnesota phosphorus lawn fertilizer law
  • Passed in 2002
  • Goes into full effect in 2004
  • Concerns phosphorus fertilizer - mostly
  • Treats metro and non-metro differently
  • First in nation - has drawn attention

40
MN lawn fertilizer law
  • Metro area (seven county) - Starts 2004
  • 0 P2O5 fertilizer required, unless
  • - Newly seeded or sodded lawn
  • - Soil test shows need
  • - Applied by trained golf course staff

41
MN lawn fertilizer law
  • Non-metro area - Starts 2004
  • No greater than 3 P2O5 fertilizer
    required, unless
  • - Newly seeded or sodded lawn
  • - Soil test shows need
  • - Applied by certified golf course staff
  • Cities can opt to adopt 0 P2O5 limit

42
MN lawn fertilizer law
  • When liquid product is used in non-metro
    area, rate is limited to 0.3 lbs. P2O5 per
    1,000 sq. ft. - unless need for higher rates
    is shown.
  • When there is need to apply phosphorus lawn
    fertilizer at higher rates, University of
    Minnesota recommendations are to be followed.

43
MN lawn fertilizer law
Prohibited to apply fertilizer (any type) to
impervious surfaces. Examples Streets,
sidewalks, driveways. Started 2002
44
MN lawn fertilizer law
  • Preempts local ordinances on fertilizer use
  • Allows pre-2002 local ordinances on fertilizer
    sales to stand
  • Enforcement by local units of government as a
    petty misdemeanor

45
City of Burnsville ordinance - before state law
  • No application between Nov 15 - April 1
  • Clean fertilizer from impervious surfaces
  • Keep outside 20 foot buffer around water
  • Apply no greater than 0 P2O5 fertilizer
    unless new lawn or soil test shows need
  • Notice of law needs to be posted in stores

46
City of Burnsville ordinance - after state law
  • No application between Nov 15 - April 1
  • Clean fertilizer from impervious surfaces
  • Keep outside 20 foot buffer around water
  • Apply no greater than 0 P2O5 fertilizer
    unless new lawn or soil test shows need
  • Notice of law needs to be posted in stores

Locals can no longer regulate fertilizer use
47
0 P2O5 fertilizers becoming widely available . .
.
48
What to advise . . .
  • On existing lawns
  • - Use 0 P2O5 fertilizer unless a need
    for phosphorus is shown
  • - Unless a new lawn, soil testing is
    easiest way to show phosphorus need
  • - Apply to UM recommendations when
    phosphorus is used

49
What to advise . . .
  • On new lawns
  • - Soil test to 6 depth
  • - No test? Apply 2 lbs. P2O5/1,000 sq. ft.
  • - Mix fertilizer well into top 6 of soil

50
What to advise . . .
  • All lawns
  • - Sweep up, rake up, pick up
  • - Soil test to establish baseline

51
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52
What to advise . . .
  • Future? practices to increase infiltration

Rain garden in Maplewood, MN
53
Information used
A Primer on Limnology. Bruce Monson. University
of Minnesota Water Resources Center. The Nature
of Phosphorus in Soils. Lowell Busman, et.al.
University of Minnesota Extension Service. Pub.
FO-6795 Phosphorus Transport and Availability in
Surface Waters. Gyles Randall, et.al. U of MN
Extension Service. Pub. FO-6796 Soil Test
Interpretation and Fertilizer Management for
Lawns, Turf, Gardens, and Landscape Plants. Carl
Rosen, et.al. University of Minnesota Extension
Service. Pub. BU-1731 Understanding Lake Data.
Byron Shaw, et.al. University of Wisconsin
Extension. Pub. G3582
54
Ron Struss Water Resources EducatorUniversity of
Minnesota Extension Service 651-215-1950rstruss_at_u
mn.edu
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