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Aggressors on the March


Hitler's next target was Czechoslovakia. ... Hitler demanded that Sudetenland be given to Germany. ... Hitler's troops took Czechoslovakia. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Aggressors on the March

Aggressors on the March
  • Erica Takahashi Jennifer Yang

  • After the WW1, all-powerful countries were going
    through Global Depression.
  • Therefore, many people wanted to gain peace by
    League of Nations.
  • Fascism spread in Europe, and powerful nation in
    Asia such as Japan moved toward a similar system.
  • Japan fell under military rule.

Democracy Struggles in Japan
  • 1920s, Japan became more democratic.
  • 1922, Japan signed an international treaty
    agreeing to respect China's borders.
  • 1928, Japan signed the Kellog-Briand Pact.
  • There were strict limits on the powers of the
    prime minister and the cabinet.

Militarists Take Control of Japan?
  • As long as Japan remained prosperous, the
    civilian government kept power.
  • However, when global depression struck in 1930,
    the government was blamed.
  • Therefore, military leaders gained support and
    won control of Japan.
  • Militarists didn't try to make a new government.

Militarists Take Control of Japan?
  • They kept emperor as the symbol of state power.
  • Militarists wanted to solve the country's
    economic problems.
  • They did it by foreign expansion.
  • Their first target was China.
  • Why? because China was able to provide them raw
    materials and room for rising population.

Japan Invades Manchuria?
  • Manchuria was rich in iron and coal.
  • 1931, army captured Manchuria eventhough the
    Japanese government disagreed
  • Military leaders set up a puppet government.

Japan Invades Manchuria?
  • This invasion was the first direct challenge to
    the League of Nations.
  • Members of the League protested, however, Japan
  • 1933, Japan withdrew from the League of Nations.

Japan invades China
  • July 7, 1937, Japan and China had a battle at a
    bridge near Beijing.
  • They started carving up the rest of the China.
  • Even though China had many people, they couldn't
    win the better-equipped and trained Japanese
  • 1937, Nanjing fell to the Japanese.
  • "The rape" of Nanjing.
  • Jiang Jieshi set up a new capital at Chongqing.

The rape of Nanking
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Mussolini Attacks Ethiopia
  • Ethiopias Resistance in 1890s
  • Mussolini dreamed of building a colonial empire
    in Africa like that of Britain and France.
  • Britain and France wanted to keep peace in

Hitler Defies Versailles Treaty
  • The Versailles Treaty
  • Reoccupation of the Rhineland
  • British urged appeasement
  • Weak response by France and Germany
  • Rome-Berlin Axis
  • Axis Powers

Civil War Erupts in Spain
  • Monarchy fell in 1931 and a republic was
  • Hitler and Mussolini helped Francos forces
  • Republicans received little help from abroad.
  • Franco became Spains Fascist dictator
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Western Democracies Fail to Halt Aggression
  • Instead of fighting against these countries like
    Japan, Italy and Germany, Britain and France
    repeatedly made concessions for peace.
  • They had serious economic problems.
  • Horrors of WW1 created a deep desire to avoid
  • It felt like allowing the three countries small
    territorial gains were a small price that they
    have to pay for peace.

United States Follows an Isolationist Policy
  • Many Americans refused to be the nations new
    position as a world leader.
  • They had this belief called Isolationism.
  • Isolationism- Political ties to other countries
    should be avoided.
  • Isolationists in US said that entering the WW1
    was a mistake. They wanted to prevent it.
  • 1935, Congress passed Three Neutrality Acts
  • Neutrality acts on 1935 prohibited American
    citizens from selling arms to belligerents in
    international war.

The German Reich Expands?
  • November 5, 1937, Hitler announced that he will
    capture Austria and Czechoslovakia into the Third
    Reich (German empire)
  • The Treaty of Versailles prohibited a union
    between Austria and Germany called Anschluss.
  • March 1938, Hitler sent his army to annex
  • France and Britain ignored.

The German Reich Expands?
  • Hitlers next target was Czechoslovakia.
  • After WW1, Czechoslovakia developed to a
    prosperous democracy with a strong army.
  • They also had a defense treaty with France.
  • 3million German-speaking people lived in
    Sudetenland. (Western border of Czechoslovakia.)
  • Hitler demanded that Sudetenland be given to
  • However, Czechs refused and asked France for help.

Britain and France Again Choose Appeasement
  • Munich Conference
  • The Czechs were not invited
  • Britain and France agreed that Hitler could take
    the Sudetenland.
  • Hitlers troops took Czechoslovakia.
  • Hitler demanded that Poland return the former
    German port of Danzig.

Nazis and Soviets Sign Nonaggression Pact
  • Negotiation between Soviet Union and Britain and
  • Stalin resented having been left out of the
    Munich Conference.
  • On August 23, 1939, a nonaggression pact signed
    by Germany and Soviet Union.