Hydro Power

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Hydro Power

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Hydro Power Arjun Kannan (CH03B007) R. Srinivas (CH03B037) R. Vinay (CH03B044) R. Karthikeyan(CH03B050) How Hydropower Works! Hydrologic cycle How Hydropower ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Hydro Power


1
Hydro Power
  • Arjun Kannan (CH03B007)
  • R. Srinivas (CH03B037)
  • R. Vinay (CH03B044)
  • R. Karthikeyan(CH03B050)

2
How Hydropower Works!
  • Hydrologic cycle

3
How Hydropower Works! (ctd)
  • Water from the reservoir flows due to gravity to
    drive the turbine.
  • Turbine is connected to a generator.
  • Power generated is transmitted over power lines.

4
POTENTIAL
5
Potential
  • THEORETICAL- The maximum potential that exists.
  • TECHNICAL- It takes into account the cost
    involved in exploiting a source (including the
    environmental and engineering restrictions)
  • ECONOMIC- Calculated after detailed
    environmental, geological, and other economic
    constraints.

6
Continent Wide distribution
REGION THEORETICAL POTENTIAL (TWh) TECHNICAL POTENTIAL (TWh)
AFRICA 10118 3140
N. AMERICA 6150 3120
LATIN AMERICA 5670 3780
ASIA 20486 7530
OCEANIA 1500 390
EUROPE 4360 1430
WORLD 44280 19390
7
Top ten countries (in terms of capacity)
COUNTRY POWER CAPACITY (GWh) INSTALLED CAPACITY (GW)
TAJIKISTAN 527000 4000
CANADA 341312 66954
USA 319484 79511
BRAZIL 285603 57517
CHINA 204300 65000
RUSSIA 160500 44000
NORWAY 121824 27528
JAPAN 84500 27229
INDIA 82237 22083
FRANCE 77500 77500
8
UNDP estimates
  • Theoretical potential is about 40,500 TWh per
    year.
  • The technical potential is about 14,300 TWh per
    year.
  • The economic potential is about 8100 TWh per
    year.
  • The world installed hydro capacity currently
    stands at 694 GW.
  • In the 1980s the percentage of contribution by
    hydroelectric power was about 8 to 9.
  • The total power generation in 2000 was 2675
    Billion KWh or close to 20 of the total energy
    generation.

9
Continued
  • Most of the undeveloped potential lies in the
    erstwhile USSR and the developing countries.
  • Worldwide about 125 GW of power is under
    construction.
  • The largest project under construction is the
    Three Gorges at the Yangtze river in China.
    Proposed potential is 18.2 GW and the proposed
    power output is 85 TWh per year.

10
Global Installed Capacity
11
Under Construction
12
The Indian Scenario
  • The potential is about 84000 MW at 60 load
    factor spread across six major basins in the
    country.
  • Pumped storage sites have been found recently
    which leads to a further addition of a maximum of
    94000 MW.
  • Annual yield is assessed to be about 420 billion
    units per year though with seasonal energy the
    value crosses600 billion mark.
  • The possible installed capacity is around 150000
    MW (Based on the report submitted by CEA to the
    Ministry of Power)

13
Continued
  • The proportion of hydro power increased from 35
    from the first five year plan to 46 in the third
    five year plan but has since then decreased
    continuously to 25 in 2001.
  • The theoretical potential of small hydro power is
    10071 MW.
  • Currently about 17 of the potential is being
    harnessed
  • About 6.3 is still under construction.

14
Indias Basin wise potential
Rivers Potential at 60LF (MW) Probable installed capacity (MW)
Indus 19988 33832
Ganga 10715 20711
Central Indian rivers 2740 4152
West flowing 6149 9430
East flowing 9532 14511
Brahmaputra 34920 66065
Total 84044 148701
15
Region wise status of hydro development
REGION POTENTIAL ASSESSED (60 LF) POTENTIAL DEVELOPED (MW) DEVELOPED UNDER DEVELOPMENT
NORTH 30155 4591 15.2 2514
WEST 5679 1858 32.7 1501
SOUTH 10763 5797 53.9 632
EAST 5590 1369 24.5 339
NORTH EAST 31857 389 1.2 310
INDIA 84044 14003 16.7 5294
16
Major Hydropower generating units
NAME STATA CAPACITY (MW)
BHAKRA PUNJAB 1100
NAGARJUNA ANDHRA PRADESH 960
KOYNA MAHARASHTRA 920
DEHAR HIMACHAL PRADESH 990
SHARAVATHY KARNATAKA 891
KALINADI KARNATAKA 810
SRISAILAM ANDHRA PRADESH 770
17
Installed Capacity
REGION HYDRO THERMAL WIND NUCLEAR TOTAL
NORTH 8331.57 17806.99 4.25 1320 27462.81
WEST 4307.13 25653.98 346.59 760 31067.7
SOUTH 9369.64 14116.78 917.53 780 25183.95
EAST 2453.51 13614.58 1.10 0 16069.19
N.EAST 679.93 1122.32 0.16 0 1802.41
INDIA 25141.78 72358.67 1269.63 2860 101630.08
18
Region wise contribution of Hydropower
REGION PERCENTAGE
NORTH 30.34
WEST 13.86
SOUTH 37.2
EAST 15.27
NORTH-EAST 37.72
INDIA 24.74
19
Annual gross generation (GWh)
YEAR GROSS GENERATION
85/86 51021
90/91 71641
91/92 72757
92/93 69869
93/94 70643
94/95 82712
95/96 72579
96/97 68901
97/98 74582
98/99 82690
99/2000 80533
00/01 74346
20
(No Transcript)
21
Potential of Small Hydropower
  • Total estimated potential of 180000 MW.
  • Total potential developed in the late 1990s was
    about 47000 MW with China contributing as much as
    one-third total potentials.
  • 570 TWh per year from plants less than 2 MW
    capacity.
  • The technical potential of micro, mini and small
    hydro in India is placed at 6800 MW.

22
Small Hydro in India
STATE TOTAL CAPACITY (MW)
ARUNACHAL PRADESH 1059.03
HIMACHAL PRADESH 1624.78
UTTAR PRADESH UTTARANCHAL 1472.93
JAMMU KASHMIR 1207.27
KARNATAKA 652.51
MAHARASHTRA 599.47
23
Sites (up to 3 MW) identified by UNDP
STATE TOTAL SITES CAPACITY
NORTH 562 370
EAST 164 175
NORTH EAST 640 465
TOTAL 1366 1010
24
Small Hydro in other countries
  • China has 43000 small hydro-electric power
    stations nationwide to produce 23 million KWh a
    year. It has 100 million kilowatts of explorable
    small hydro-electric power resources in
    mountainous areas of which only 29 has been
    tapped.
  • Philippines has a total identified
    mini-hydropower resource potential is about
    1132.476 megawatts (MW) of which only 7.2 has
    been utilized.
  • There is about 3000 MW of small hydro capacity in
    operation in the USA. A further 40 MW is planned.

25
TECHNOLOGY
26
Technology
27
Impoundment facility
28
Dam Types
  • Arch
  • Gravity
  • Buttress
  • Embankment or Earth

29
Arch Dams
  • Arch shape gives strength
  • Less material (cheaper)
  • Narrow sites
  • Need strong abutments

30
Concrete Gravity Dams
  • Weight holds dam in place
  • Lots of concrete (expensive)

31
Buttress Dams
  • Face is held up by a series of supports
  • Flat or curved face

32
Embankment Dams
  • Earth or rock
  • Weight resists flow of water

33
Dams Construction
34
Diversion Facility
  • Doesnt require dam
  • Facility channels portion of river through canal
    or penstock

35
Pumped Storage
  • During Storage, water pumped from lower reservoir
    to higher one.
  • Water released back to lower reservoir to
    generate electricity.

36
Pumped Storage
  • Operation Two pools of Water
  • Upper pool impoundment
  • Lower pool natural lake, river or storage
    reservoir
  • Advantages
  • Production of peak power
  • Can be built anywhere with reliable supply of
    water

The Raccoon Mountain project
37
Sizes of Hydropower Plants
  • Definitions may vary.
  • Large plants capacity gt30 MW
  • Small Plants capacity b/w 100 kW to 30 MW
  • Micro Plants capacity up to 100 kW

38
Large Scale Hydropower plant
39
Small Scale Hydropower Plant
40
Micro Hydropower Plant
41
Micro Hydropower Systems
  • Many creeks and rivers are permanent, i.e., they
    never dry up, and these are the most suitable for
    micro-hydro power production
  • Micro hydro turbine could be a waterwheel
  • Newer turbines Pelton wheel (most common)
  • Others Turgo, Crossflow and various axial flow
    turbines

42
Generating Technologies
  • Types of Hydro Turbines
  • Impulse turbines
  • Pelton Wheel
  • Cross Flow Turbines
  • Reaction turbines
  • Propeller Turbines Bulb turbine, Straflo, Tube
    Turbine,
  • Kaplan
    Turbine
  • Francis Turbines
  • Kinetic Turbines

43
Impulse Turbines
  • Uses the velocity of the water to move the runner
    and discharges to atmospheric pressure.
  • The water stream hits each bucket on the runner.
  • No suction downside, water flows out through
    turbine housing after hitting.
  • High head, low flow applications.
  • Types Pelton wheel, Cross Flow

44
Pelton Wheels
  • Nozzles direct forceful streams of water against
    a series of spoon-shaped buckets mounted around
    the edge of a wheel.
  • Each bucket reverses the flow of water and this
    impulse spins the turbine.

45
Pelton Wheels (continued)
  • Suited for high head, low flow sites.
  • The largest units can be up to 200 MW.
  • Can operate with heads as small as 15 meters and
    as high as 1,800 meters.

46
Cross Flow Turbines
  • drum-shaped
  • elongated, rectangular-section nozzle directed
    against curved vanes on a cylindrically shaped
    runner
  • squirrel cage blower
  • water flows through the blades twice

47
Cross Flow Turbines (continued)
  • First pass water flows from the outside of the
    blades to the inside
  • Second pass from the inside back out
  • Larger water flows and lower heads than the
    Pelton.

48
Reaction Turbines
  • Combined action of pressure and moving water.
  • Runner placed directly in the water stream
    flowing over the blades rather than striking each
    individually.
  • lower head and higher flows than compared with
    the impulse turbines.

49
Propeller Hydropower Turbine
  • Runner with three to six blades.
  • Water contacts all of the blades constantly.
  • Through the pipe, the pressure is constant
  • Pitch of the blades - fixed or adjustable
  • Scroll case, wicket gates, and a draft tube
  • Types Bulb turbine, Straflo, Tube turbine,
    Kaplan

50
Bulb Turbine
  • The turbine and generator are a sealed unit
    placed directly in the water stream.

51
Others
  • Straflo The generator is attached directly to
    the perimeter of the turbine.
  • Tube Turbine The penstock bends just before or
    after the runner, allowing a straight line
    connection to the generator
  • Kaplan Both the blades and the wicket gates are
    adjustable, allowing for a wider range of
    operation

52
Kaplan Turbine
  • The inlet is a scroll-shaped tube that wraps
    around the turbine's wicket gate.
  • Water is directed tangentially, through the
    wicket gate, and spirals on to a propeller shaped
    runner, causing it to spin.
  • The outlet is a specially shaped draft tube that
    helps decelerate the water and recover kinetic
    energy.

53
Francis Turbines
  • The inlet is spiral shaped.
  • Guide vanes direct the water tangentially to the
    runner.
  • This radial flow acts on the runner vanes,
    causing the runner to spin.
  • The guide vanes (or wicket gate) may be
    adjustable to allow efficient turbine operation
    for a range of water flow conditions.

54
Francis Turbines (continued)
  • Best suited for sites with high flows and low to
    medium head.
  • Efficiency of 90.
  • expensive to design, manufacture and install, but
    operate for decades.

55
Kinetic Energy Turbines
  • Also called free-flow turbines.
  • Kinetic energy of flowing water used rather than
    potential from the head.
  • Operate in rivers, man-made channels, tidal
    waters, or ocean currents.
  • Do not require the diversion of water.
  • Kinetic systems do not require large civil works.
  • Can use existing structures such as bridges,
    tailraces and channels.

56
Hydroelectric Power Plants in India
Baspa II Binwa
57
Continued
Gaj
Nathpa Jakri
58
Continued
Rangit
Sardar Sarovar
59
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
60
Benefits
  • Environmental Benefits of Hydro
  • No operational greenhouse gas emissions
  • Savings (kg of CO2 per MWh of electricity)
  • Coal 1000 kg
  • Oil 800 kg
  • Gas 400 kg
  • No SO2 or NOX
  • Non-environmental benefits
  • flood control, irrigation, transportation,
    fisheries and
  • tourism.

61
Disadvantages
  • The loss of land under the reservoir.
  • Interference with the transport of sediment by
    the dam.
  • Problems associated with the reservoir.
  • Climatic and seismic effects.
  • Impact on aquatic ecosystems, flora and fauna.

62
Loss of land
  • A large area is taken up in the form of a
    reservoir in case of large dams.
  • This leads to inundation of fertile alluvial rich
    soil in the flood plains, forests and even
    mineral deposits and the potential drowning of
    archeological sites.
  • Power per area ratio is evaluated to quantify
    this impact. Usually ratios lesser than 5 KW per
    hectare implies that the plant needs more land
    area than competing renewable resources. However
    this is only an empirical relation.

63
  • Disappropriating and resettlement represents a
    mammoth political and management challenge.
    Related costs can increase project costs by as
    much as 10 if planned poorly.

HYDROPLANT COUNTRY POPULATION DISPLACED
Danjiangkou China 383000
Aswan Egypt 120000
Volta Ghana 78000
Narmada Sardar Sarovar India 70000
Three Gorges China 2000000
64
Interference with Sediment transport
RIVER Kg/m3
Yellow River 37.6
Colorado 16.6
Amur 2.3
Nile 1.6
  • Rivers carry a lot of sediments.
  • Creation of a dam results in the deposition of
    sediments on the bottom of the reservoir.
  • Land erosion on the edges of the reservoir due to
    deforestation also leads to deposition of
    sediments.

65
Effects
  • Capture of sediment decreases the fertility
    downstream as a long term effect.
  • It also leads to deprivation of sand to beaches
    in coastal areas.
  • If the water is diverted out of the basin, there
    might be salt water intrusion into the inland
    from the ocean, as the previous balance between
    this salt water and upstream fresh water in
    altered.
  • It may lead to changes in the ecology of the
    estuary area and lead to decrease in agricultural
    productivity.

66
Climatic and Seismic effects
  • It is believed that large reservoirs induce have
    the potential to induce earthquakes.
  • In tropics, existence of man-made lakes decreases
    the convective activity and reduces cloud cover.
    In temperate regions, fog forms over the lake and
    along the shores when the temperature falls to
    zero and thus increases humidity in the
    nearby area.

67
Some major/minor induced earthquakes
DAM NAME COUNTRY HEIGHT (m) VOLUME OF RESERVOIR (m3) MAGNITUDE
KOYNA INDIA 103 2780 6.5
KREMASTA GREECE 165 4650 6.3
HSINFENGKIANG CHINA 105 10500 6.1
BENMORE NEW ZEALAND 118 2100 5.0
MONTEYNARD FRANCE 155 240 4.9
68
Eutrophication
  • In tropical regions due to decomposition of the
    vegetation, there is increased demand for
    biological oxygen in the reservoir.
  • The relatively constant temperatures inhibit the
    thermally induced mixing that occurs in temperate
    latitudes.
  • In this anaerobic layer, there is formation of
    methane which is a potential green house gas.
  • This water, when released kills the fishes
    downstream and creates an unattractive odor. The
    only advantage is that all these activities are
    not permanent.

69
Other problems
  • Many fishes require flowing water for
    reproduction and cannot adapt to stagnant
    resulting in the reduction in its population.
  • Heating of the reservoirs may lead to decrease in
    the dissolved oxygen levels.
  • The point of confluence of fresh water with salt
    water is a breeding ground for several aquatic
    life forms. The reduction in run-off to the sea
    results in reduction in their life forms.
  • Other water-borne diseases like malaria,
    river-blindness become prevalent.

70
Methods to alleviate the negative impact
  • Creation of ecological reserves.
  • Limiting dam construction to allow substantial
    free flowing water.
  • Building sluice gates and passes that help
    prevent fishes getting trapped.

71
Case Study- Volta Lake, Ghana
  • Volta lake was formed as a result of the
    construction of the Akosombo Dam.
  • It was aimed at providing much needed power needs
    for domestic consumption and for the production
    of Aluminium.
  • Even though much study was conducted prior to the
    construction, many favorable and adverse
    environmental changes took place.

72
Favorable impact
  • Enhanced fishing upstream.
  • Opportunities for irrigated farming downstream.
  • With the flooding of the forest habitat of the
    Tsetse fly, the vector of this disease, the
    problem of Sleeping Sickness has been
    substantially reduced.

73
Negative Impact
  • Diminished fishing downstream.
  • Growth of long lasting weeds like Pistia, Vossia
    spp. Ceratophyllum.
  • Ceratophyllums submerged beds house large
    populations of Bulinus snails the vector of
    Schistosomiasis.
  • Growth of dangerous water weeds like water
    hyacinth.
  • Prevalence of river blindness
    (Snchocerchiasis), bilharzia (Schistosomiasis),
    malaria and Sleeping Sickness (Trypanosomiasis

74
Technological advancements
  • Technology to mitigate the negative environmental
    impact.
  • Construction of fish ways for the passage of fish
    through, over, or around the project works of a
    hydro power project, such as fish ladders, fish
    locks, fish lifts and elevators, and similar
    physical contrivances
  • Building of screens, barriers, and similar
    devices that operate to guide fish to a fish way

75
Continued
  • Evaluating a new generation of large turbines
  • Capable of balancing environmental, technical,
    operational, and cost considerations
  • Developing and demonstrating new tools
  • to generate more electricity with less water and
    greater environmental benefits
  • tools to improve how available water is used
    within hydropower units, plants, and river
    systems
  • Studying the benefits, costs, and overall
    effectiveness of environmental mitigation
    practices

76
ECONOMICS OF HYDRO POWER
77
Global HP Economics
  • Cost of HP is affected by oil prices when oil
    prices are low, the demand for HP is low.
  • Thesis was tested in the 1970s when the oil
    embargo was in place
  • More plants built, greater demand for HP
  • Reduces dependency on other countries for
    conventional fuels

78
Local HP Economics
  • Development, operating, and maintenance costs,
    and electricity generation
  • First check if site is developed or not.
  • If a dam does not exist, several things to
    consider are land/land rights, structures and
    improvements, equipment, reservoirs, dams,
    waterways, roads, railroads, and bridges.
  • Development costs include recreation, preserving
    historical and archeological sites, maintaining
    water quality, protecting fish and wildlife.

79
Construction Costs
  • Hydro costs are highly site specific
  • Dams are very expensive
  • Civil works form two-thirds of total cost
  • Varies 25 to 80
  • Large Western schemes 1200/kW
  • Developing nations 800 to 2000/kW
  • Compare with CCGT 600 to 800/kW

80
Production Costs
  • Compared with fossil-fuelled plant
  • No fuel costs
  • Low OM cost
  • Long lifetime

81
Cost and Revenue of HP
82
Comparison with CCGT
83
Parameters
  • Payback-HP has higher payback time(25 years)
  • Net present value (NPV)
  • Unit cost
  • Discounting

84
Payback
85
Effect of discounting payback
86
Effect of discounting payback CCGT
87
Discounting and NPV
  • Effect of discounting
  • Hydros high capital cost at near full value
  • Its additional revenue far in future less
  • valuable
  • CCGT has higher NPV

88
Unit cost
  • Unit cost
  • Cost per kWh produced
  • Discount costs and production
  • HP has greater cost
  • 2 to 7 p/kWh typical range for HP
  • 1.5 to 2.5 p/kWh for CCGT

89
Conclusion
  • Overall CCGT appears to be the better investment
  • Environmental or operational benefits not
    considered
  • Overall HP is still a better investment for
    future

90
Small HP costs
  • Machinery-includes turbine, gearbox or drive
    belts, generator, water inlet control valve.
  • Civil Works-includes intake and screen to collect
    the water, the pipeline or channel, turbine house
    and machinery foundations, and the channel to
    return the water back to the river-site specific

91
Small HP costs
  • Electrical Works-control panel and control
    system, wiring.
  • External Costs-includes the services of someone
    to design the installation, costs of obtaining a
    water license, planning costs and cost of
    connection to the electricity network
  • -these two depend on maximum power output

92
Typical costs of 100KW plant
Low head High head
  1000s 1000s
     
Machinery 30 - 90 15 - 60
Civil works 10 - 40 20 - 40
Electrical works 10 - 20 10 - 20
External (no grid connection) 8 - 15 8 - 15
  ________________ ________________
Total 58 - 165 53 - 135
93
Sardar Sarovar Dam
  • Project planning started as early as 1946.
  • Project still under construction with a part of
    the dam in operation.
  • A concrete gravity dam, 1210 meters (3970 feet)
    in length and with a maximum height of 163 meters

94
  • The gross storage capacity of the reservoir is
    0.95 M. ha.m. (7.7 MAF) while live storage
    capacity is 0.58 M.ha.m. (4.75 MAF).
  • The total project cost was estimated at Rs. 49
    billion at 1987 price levels.
  • There are two power houses project- 1200 MW River
    Bed Power House and 250 MW Canal Head Power
    House. Power benefits are shared among Madhya
    Pradesh, Maharashtra and Gujarat in the ratio of
    572716 respectively.

95
Environmental Protection measures
  • About 14000 ha of land has been afforested to
    compensate for the submergence of 4523 ha of
    land.
  • Formation of co-operatives, extensive training to
    the fisherman, providing infrastructure such as
    fish landing sites, cold storage and
    transportation etc.
  • Surveillance Control of Water related diseases
    and communicable diseases.
  • Extension of Shoolpaneshwar sanctuary to cover an
    area of 607 sq.km.

96
Rehabilitation Resettlement
  • Individual benefits like grant of minimum 2 ha.
    of land for agricultural purpose of the size
    equal to the area of land acquired.
  • Civil and other amenities such as approach road,
    internal roads, primary school building, health,
    centre, Panchayat ghar, Seeds store, Children's
    park, Village pond, Drinking water wells,
    platform for community meetings, Street light
    electrification, Religious place, Crematorium
    ground etc. are provided at resettled site.   

97
The Three Gorges Project
  • Being built on the Yangtze river.
  • Still under construction to supply energy and
    provide inland transportation.
  • Project expected to complete in 2009.

98
Some Facts.
  • Dam to provide 18.2 GW of power using 26 Francis
    generators of 700 MW each.
  • 630 Km long and 1.3 Km wide capable of allowing
    10,000-ton ocean-going freighters to sail
    directly into the nation's interior for six
    months of each year.
  • More than 2 million people are to be resettled.
  • The amount of concrete totals 26.43 million cubic
    meters, twice that of the Itaipu project in
    Brazil, currently the world's largest
    hydroelectric dam.

99
Environmental and Other Concerns
  • There have been little to no attempts made toward
    removing accumulations of toxic materials and
    other potential pollutants from industrial sites
    that will be inundated. They number more than
    1600 in all.
  • The dam will disrupt heavy silt flows in the
    river. It could cause rapid silt build-up in the
    reservoir, creating an imbalance upstream, and
    depriving agricultural land and fish downstream
    of essential nutrients. However, sufficient
    studies have not been conducted.

100
  • Potential Hazard also exists. For example, In an
    annual report 1 to the United States Congress,
    the Department of Defense cited that Taiwanese
    "proponents of strikes against the mainland
    apparently hope that merely presenting credible
    threats to China's urban population or high-value
    targets, such as the Three Gorges Dam, will deter
    Chinese military coercion."

101
  • Independent reports suggest residents are
    convinced their compensation is miserly even
    though China claims its plans will improve the
    life of those affected.
  • Archaeologists and historians have estimated
    nearly 1,300 important sites will disappear under
    the reservoir's waters including remnants of the
    homeland of the Ba civilization.

102
THANK YOU