How Animals work - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – How Animals work PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 7d8b8-NzQ4M



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

How Animals work

Description:

What a structure can do is influenced by it's form ... The study of the skin is Dermatology. 13. Three types of epithelial membranes. Serous Membranes ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:48
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 43
Provided by: DGIL6
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: How Animals work


1
How Animals work
  • Theme is Biology Form and function
  • What a structure can do is influenced by its
    form
  • The form of a structure is uniquely suited to
    what that structure does
  • Both the form and function evolve together
  • Areas of Biological study
  • Anatomy the structures of an organism (form)
  • Physiology how the structures work (function)

2
We are a tube within a tube
  • We are a thick walled tube
  • Running through the center of the tube is a
    digestive system, another tube.

http//biology.kenyon.edu/courses/biol112/Biol112W
ebPage/Syllabus/Topics/Week207/Resources/coelom.G
IF
http//www.mscd.edu/biology/231course/cavity.jpg
3
Which way is which?
http//anthro.palomar.edu/animal/images/dorsal.gif
4
Tissues
  • A tissue is a group of similar cells that usually
    have a similar embryological origin and are
    specialized for a particular function.
  • Tissue cells are often separated by non-living,
    intercellular materials that cells produce. This
    substance is called the matrix.
  • Histology the study of tissues

5
Four Principal Types of Tissues
  • Epithelial covering and lining and glands
  • Connective protects and supports, binds organs
    together, stores energy, and provides immunity
  • Muscle movement
  • Nervous transmits impulses that coordinate body
    activities

6
Feature of Epithelial Tissue
  • Closely packed cells with little extracellular
    material
  • Epithelial cells are arranged in continuous
    sheets, in single or multiple layers
  • Epithelial cells have two surfaces
  • One side is up against other tissues
  • The other side faces an open space

http//www.cnas.missouristate.edu/labimages/biolog
y/bio122/images/Week20820Images/trachea.jpg
7
Connective Tissue
  • Connective tissue is the most abundant and
    widely distributed tissue in the body .
  • The functions of connective tissue
  • Binding, attachment and support (bones, tendons
    and ligaments, organs)
  • Protection- bones and adipose tissue
  • Insulation - adipose tissue
  • Storage - of energy and fat soluble substances
  • Transportation - blood

8
Muscle Tissue
Skeletal Smooth Cardiac voluntary
involuntary involuntary cells are long short,
spindle-shaped branched many nuclei single
nucleus single nucleus striated nonstriated st
riated intercalated disks
Diagram of skeletal muscle
9
Nervous tissue Sends signals to other parts of
body neurons Dendrites - (one or many)
receive incoming signals Cell body Axon -
(one) transmits outgoing signals neuroglia
protective and supporting cells
10
Axon
dendrites
11
  • Organs are two or more tissues which together
    perform a specialized function.
  • Epithelial membranes are thin structures that
    usually contain both epithelial and connective
    tissue.

12
  • Integumentary system is the skin and the organs
    derived from it (hair, glands, nails)
  • One of the largest organs
  • 2 square meters 10-11 lbs.
  • Largest sense organ in the body
  • The study of the skin is Dermatology

13
Three types of epithelial membranes
  • Serous Membranes
  • Line cavities and cover organs
  • Mucous membranes
  • Line cavities that open to the exterior
  • Layer of epithelium over connective tissue
  • Cutaneous membrane is the skin
  • the major organ of the integumentary system

14
Functions
  • 1. Regulation of body temperature
  • Cellular metabolism produces heat as a waste
    product .
  • High temperature
  • Dilate surface blood vessels
  • Sweating
  • Low temperature
  • Surface vessels constrict
  • shivering

15
(No Transcript)
16
  • 2. Protection
  • physical abrasion
  • dehydration
  • ultraviolet radiation
  • 3. Sensation
  • touch
  • vibration
  • pain
  • temperature

17
  • 4. Excretion
  • Sweat, rid excess salt for example
  • 5. Immunity/ Resistance
  • Keeps microbes out, fights infections
  • 6. Blood Reservoir
  • 8-10 of blood in a resting adult
  • 7. Synthesis of vitamin D
  • Produced by exposure to UV light
  • aids absorption of calcium

18
Anatomy
  • Epidermis Skin
  • Dermis
  • Subcutaneous layer or hypodermis

See next two slides
19
(No Transcript)
20
(No Transcript)
21
The Skeletal System
  • comprised mostly of connective tissue
  • In the case of most vertebrates, a skeletal
    system is comprised of bone
  • Various bone types

22
Functions of Bone
  • Support
  • For soft tissues
  • For attachment of skeletal muscles
  • Protection
  • Movement
  • Storage minerals, fat
  • Blood cell production hematopoiesis
  • Erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets

23
Matrix
  • As a connective tissue, bone is living cells
    embedded in a matrix consisting of
  • Secreted substances (proteins)
  • Proteoglycans and glycoproteins
  • Collagen reinforces, gives tensile strength
  • Mineral salts
  • Tricalcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite) and calcium
    carbonate
  • Calcium is thus needed for bone.
  • Bone is an active, living material!

24
Remodeling
  • Bone is continually being broken down and
    reformed
  • 3-5 of bone calcium exchanged each year
  • In response to stress on bones
  • Balance between actions of osteoclasts and
    osteoblasts
  • Osteo means bone
  • Osteoblasts MAKE bone, osteoclasts dismantle it.
  • Vitamins needed for maintenance, esp. D

25
3 related organ systems
  • Two important things that animals do feed and
    breed
  • Well skip breed, but explore 3 organ systems
    by looking at feed
  • Part of survival of the fittest is being able
    to procure nutrients to survive and live long
    enough to breed.
  • Digestive system processes nutrients
  • Respiratory exchanges nutrients and wastes
  • Cardiovascular system transports these

26
Needed to function (but not discussed)
  • Urinary system without kidneys to filter waste
    products from the blood for excretion, wed be in
    trouble.
  • Muscles movement required for animals.
  • Nervous system and endocrine system
  • nerve cells allow communication by
    electrochemical signals
  • Coordinated with chemical signal hormones

27
Digestive system
  • Food is needed
  • Organic materials to break down for energy
  • Organic molecules as building blocks for cellular
    material
  • Specific organic molecules (amino acids,
    vitamins) we are unable to make ourselves
  • Certain minerals needed to assist enzymes
  • How much?
  • We need enough energy (measured in calories) to
    power our activities.
  • Over and under nutrition can occur.

28
A digestive system needed
  • A large organism has a system for extracting
    nutrients from food for distributing to the rest
    of the body.
  • Food must be physically broken down
  • Food must be chemically broken down
  • Nutrients must be absorbed
  • Excess water used in digestion must be recovered
  • Waste must be excreted

29
Parts of a digestive system
  • Mouth
  • Teeth for breaking up food
  • Saliva for wetting, breakdown of starch
  • Esophagus muscular tube for transferring food to
    the stomach
  • Stomach
  • Physical digestion muscular stomach churns
  • Chemical low pH (high stomach acid) dissolves
    food enzymes also breakdown food

30
  • Food passes into small intestine
  • Bile salts and enzymes from liver (via
    gallbladder) act as detergents, break up fats.
  • Pancreas neutralizes stomach acid, adds enzymes
    that break down food more.
  • Small intestine site of nutrient absorption
  • Possesses a high surface area
  • Cells are arranged in villi
  • Each cell is covered with microvilli
  • Each villus contains lots of blood capillaries
    for transporting nutrients away

31
Form and function in the small intestine
villi
High surface area for lots of absorption.
http//users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyP
ages/V/villi.gifhttp//distance.stcc.edu/AandP/AP
/imagesAP2/digestion/microvilli.jpg
32
The end of the line
  • Large intestine colon
  • Most of the water is absorbed here
  • In an irritated colon, material is moved through
    quickly before all the water is absorbed
    diarrhea
  • Home to billions of bacteria
  • Most are anaerobic
  • Responsible for bad odors, production of gas from
    fermentation
  • Feces are mostly bacterial bodies undigested
    food a smaller proportion

33
Respiratory system
  • During metabolism, cells burn organic
    molecules.
  • E.g. glucose ultimately gets converted to CO2,
    energy is released.
  • Process needs oxygen, releases CO2
  • Respiratory system must efficiently get O2 into
    the body
  • Yet protect from microbes, dirt and dust, drying
    out, etc.

34
Respiratory anatomy
  • Nose, sinuses
  • Trachea windpipe, tube that leads from oral
    cavity (mouth) to lungs
  • Bronchi the trachea branches
  • Bronchioles the bronchi branch into smaller
    tubes that lead to the lobes of the lung
  • Alveoli air sacs small compartments in which
    gasses are transferred between air and bloodstream

35
Lungs
http//www.aduk.org.uk/gfx/lungs.jpg
36
Respiratory protections
  • Ciliated epithelium
  • Surfaces lined with cells that secrete mucus,
    push mucus along with cilia
  • Mucus with entrapped bacteria, dust, pushed
    towards mouth for coughing out or swallowing
  • Swallowing leads to stomach, acid
  • Things that kill epithelium interfere with these
    protections
  • Influenza virus
  • smoking

37
Single ciliated cell
Cilia
http//n2.bioeng5.bioeng.auckland.ac.nz/ontology/i
mages/RespiratoryEpitheliumCiliatedEpithelialCell.
png
38
Where does Oxygen go?
http//training.seer.cancer.gov/module_anatomy/ima
ges/quiz_dd_pulmonary_circulation.jpg
39
Cardiovascular terms to know
  • Cardio means heart vascular means tubes
  • From big to small
  • Arteries, arterioles, capillaries
  • Take blood AWAY from the heart
  • Veins, venules, capillaries
  • Bring blood TO the heart
  • Capillaries are where exchange of materials
    between blood stream and cells occurs.

40
Status of blood
  • Pulmonary circulation
  • Blood traveling AWAY from heart to lungs has
    little O2 content (in blue) pulmonary artery
  • Blood traveling from lungs TO heart has lots of
    O2 (in red) pulmonary vein.

41
The rest of the circulation
  • Heart has 4 chambers in a mammal
  • 2 atria and 2 ventricles
  • Pulmonary and systemic circulation
  • Blood returns from body into right atrium
  • Flows into right ventricle, pumped to lungs
  • Returns from lungs to left atrium
  • Flows into left ventricle, pumped to the rest of
    the body
  • Main artery leading to rest of body aorta

42
Heart structure
Ao aortaLA left atriumLV left
ventriclePA pulmonary arteryRA right
atriumRV right ventricle Match up with
description on previous slide.
http//www.rch.org.au/cardiology/media2/Fontan_pic
1.gif
About PowerShow.com