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Managing Hardware and Software Assets

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Basic hardware. Central processing unit (CPU) Memory primary ... High-level languages FORTRAN, COBOL, BASIC, Pascal, C, C . Fourth generation languages ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Managing Hardware and Software Assets


1
Managing Hardware and Software Assets
  • Chapter 6

2
Information Technology Infrastructure
  • A part of Information System
  • Includes Hardware and Software
  • Together with Management and Organization,
    Information System becomes a solution to resolve
    challenge arising from environment shift.

3
Basic hardware
  • Central processing unit (CPU)
  • Memory primary storage
  • Secondary storage
  • Communication Devices
  • Input devices
  • Output devices

4
On and off
  • On for 1 and off for 0
  • Become a signal
  • A data - A binary digit
  • A control language true and false

5
Coding
  • An arrangement of bits
  • Byte 8 bits
  • Representing characters, A…Z, 1..9,0
  • ASCII (American Standard Code for Information
    Interchange)

6
Display coding
  • Pixel picture element
  • A screen can be as dense as 1024 by 768 picture
    element called super video graphics array
  • Creating more than 700,000 pixels. Therefore,
    when down loading a high resolution picture, it
    takes a long time.

7
CPU
  • The part of the computer system where the
    manipulation of symbols, numbers, and letters
    occurs.
  • It controls the other parts of the computer system

8
Primary Storage
  • Memory
  • Cache memory even closer to the CPU
  • RAM (Random access memory)
  • Measurement kilobyte, megabyte, gigabyte,
    terabyte
  • ROM (read-only memory)

9
Microprocessors
  • Semiconductor chips
  • Word length 16-bit, 32-bit, 64-bit machines
  • Speed 4.47 megahertz (8088) to pentium III more
    then 800 megahertz
  • Data bus a highway between CPU and primary
    storage

10
Enhanced microprocessors
  • RISC (reduced instruction set computing)
  • MMX (MultiMedia eXtension)
  • Graphic co-processor

11
Secondary Storage
  • Hard disk vs. floppy diskette
  • RAID (Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks
  • CD-R vs. CD-RW vs. DVD
  • Tape

12
Input Devices
  • Pointing devices mouses, touch screen
  • Key board
  • Automation of Input
  • Optical character recognition
  • Bar code
  • Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR)
  • Pen-based input device
  • Voice recognition
  • Scanner
  • sensors

13
Output Devices
  • CRT (Cathode ray tube)
  • Flat panel screen
  • Printers
  • Plotters
  • Voice output devices

14
Categories of computers
  • Hand held
  • Notebook or lap top
  • Workstation
  • Mini computer
  • Main frame computer
  • Super computer

15
Computer networks
  • Distributed processing vs. centralized processing
  • Client/server computing splits processing
    between client PC and server computers

16
Miniaturization for mobile application
  • Lap top could be too heavy or too expensive
  • Information appliance a computer customized to
    perform only a few specialized tasks with a
    minimum effort.

17
Purchasing decisions?
  • What kind?
  • When?
  • When to upgrade?
  • Hardware-capacity planning

18
What is software?
  • Software is the detailed instructions that
    control the operation of hardware.
  • Without software, hardware can not extend its
    capabilities or utilities

19
Functions of software
  • Managing the computer resources of the
    organization
  • Provide tools for human beings to take advantage
    of these resources, and
  • Act as an intermediary between organizations and
    stored information

20
Major types of software
  • System software
  • Application software

21
System software
  • Coordinates the various parts of the hardware
    systems and mediates between application software
    and the hardware
  • The system software that manages and controls the
    computers activities is called operating system

22
PC operating systems
  • DOS
  • Mac OS
  • Windows 95, windows 98, windows ME
  • Windows 2000 (windows NT), windows XP
  • OS2, Unix, Linux
  • And many many more …

23
GUI
  • Graphical user interface
  • It contrasts with the interfaces of old operating
    systems, like unix. The old unix interface as
    well as DOS are text base.
  • When using gamut, one can not use mouse to click
    on screen because there is no GUI on the screen

24
Other systems software
  • Language translators like C compilers to
    translate C programs to executable code to be run
    by computers
  • Utility software like copying, or like software
    programs stored in the control panel subdirectory
    / folder of your PC

25
Generation of programming languages
  • Machine languages each machine has one
  • Assembly languages designed for a specific
    machine and specific processors. Each operation
    in assembly language corresponds to a machine
    operation
  • High-level languages FORTRAN, COBOL, BASIC,
    Pascal, C, C

26
Fourth generation languages
  • Aiming for assisting the end users
  • Consist of software tools that enable end users
    to develop software applications
  • It tends to be non-procedural

27
Categories of 4th generation languages
  • Query languages
  • Report generators
  • Graphics languages
  • Application generators
  • Very high-level programming languages
  • Application software packages
  • PC tools

28
PC tools
  • Are the most end users oriented 4th generation
    languages means that there are languages in
    these PC tools and one can program them like
    writing macros.
  • Examples Excel, Word, Internet Explorer, MS
    Access.

29
Application independent programming language
  • Object-oriented programming languages
  • Visual programming like visual basics
  • Rather than writing specific program coding for a
    specific application, a program just construct
    software program by selecting and arranging
    programming objects.

30
Platform independent programming languages
  • Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) which has been
    facilitated by, for example, Netscape composer or
    Front page
  • XML (eXtensible Markup Language)
  • JAVA
  • ActiveX

31
Software trends
  • Take advantage of hardware capabilities
  • Use powerful software to reduce people costs and
    human errors
  • Renting software through internet
  • Enterprise Resource planning
  • Middle ware to connect legacy systems and
    internet web browsers.

32
Software selection
  • Appropriateness
  • Trade off between efficiency, ease of use, and
    flexibility
  • Compatibility
  • Support

33
Total cost of ownership
  • Using Network computers (NCs) to reduce the cost
    of ownership
  • PC is getting too cheap to debate on this issue
  • Outsourcing / leasing are another ways of
    reducing TCO
  • Using Technology Service Providers
  • Storage Service Providers (SSPs)
  • Application Service Providers (ASPs)
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