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modern architecture: 1870 to 2000

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causes of the first world war. unification of germany and italy ... technology brought on by the first world war. chemical warfare. fixed-wing aircraft ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: modern architecture: 1870 to 2000


1
modern architecture 1870 to 2000
ron herron, archigram, instant city, 1968.
collage in color on printing, 58 x 75.5
cm. centre georges pompidou/mnam-cci, paris, inv.
no. am 1992-1-285.
"architecture is the learned game, correct and
magnificent, of forms assembled in the
light. -le corbusier
2
modern architecture 1870 to 2000
over london by rail, gustave dore
  • the industrial revolution g/wiki/Industrial_revolution
  • a major technological, socioeconomic, and
    cultural change in the 18th and 19th centuries
  • replaced an economy dominated by manual labor to
    one with industry and machine manufacture
  • it began in england with the introduction of
    steam power and powered machinery

photo source la ville, art et architecture en
europe 1870-1993/the city, art, and architecture
in europe 1870-1993 (exhibition). centre georges
pompidou. paris, 1994
3
modern architecture 1870 to 2000
karl marx
  • philosophers
  • karl marx
  • saw industrialization as the logical progression
    of feudal economic modes
  • broke society into two classes bourgeoisie,
    those who own the means of production, and the
    proletariat, the working class
  • marx predicted the proletariat to eventually
    develop class consciousness and revolt against
    the bourgeoisie, eventually leading to a
    communist state
  • friedrich engels
  • wrote condition of the working class in england
    in 1844 about poverty
  • worked with marx to write the communist
    manifesto

photo source http//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedi
a/en/f/f9/Kmarx.jpg
friedrich engels
4
modern architecture 1870 to 2000
water frame
locomotive
cylinder boring machine
  • innovations
  • steam engine
  • cylinder boring machine
  • cotton gin
  • locomotive
  • steam boat
  • the water frame
  • textile manufacturing

5
modern architecture 1870 to 2000
slum in glasgow, 1871
  • social problems
  • poor and crowded living conditions
  • child labor grew far more abusive during the
    industrial revolution
  • factory act of 1833 prevented children under the
    age of nine to work
  • many craft workers lost jobs because they
    couldnt compete with machines

photo source la ville, art et architecture en
europe 1870-1993/the city, art, and architecture
in europe 1870-1993 (exhibition). centre georges
pompidou. paris, 1994
6
modern architecture 1870 to 2000
carson, pirie, scott an co. building in chicago
architecture in america the chicago school of
architecture was among the first to promote the
new technologies of steel-frame construction.
architects associated with it include danial
burnham, louis sullivan, frank lloyd wright, mies
van der rohe buildings include carson, pirie,
scott and co. building, chicago building,
reliance building, heyworth building, and leiter
i and ii buildings
photo source http//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedi
a/en/3/3f/Carsons2C_Pirie2C_Scott_26_Co._Buildi
ng.gif
7
modern architecture 1870 to 2000
german trenches in wwi
  • end of european monarchies
  • the rise in nationalism in europe requested a
    break from feudal traditions
  • social darwinism began to grow out of the idea
    of nationalism.
  • social darwinism emphasized a violent struggle
    for existence between races
  • where the weak would be destroyed by the
    stronger.
  • causes of the first world war
  • unification of germany and italy
  • dissatisfaction due to the dual monarchy of
    austria-hungary colonial expansion
  • unresolved previous disputes
  • 1919 treaty of versailles officially ended the
    way the weimar republic formed in germany
    1919-1933

photo source www.wikipedia.org
negotiators of treaty of versailles
photo source www.wikipedia.org
8
modern architecture 1870 to 2000
  • technology brought on by the first world war
  • chemical warfare
  • fixed-wing aircraft
  • u-boats
  • tanks

german tank
photo source www.wikipedia.org
poison gas attack
nieuport fighter, france 1917
9
modern architecture 1870 to 2000
the contemporary city for three million
inhabitants 1922
  • important movements
  • bauhaus in germany operated from 1919-1933
  • under direction of walter gropius, hannes meyer,
  • and ludwig mies van der rohe
  • the bauhaus has a major impact on art and
  • architecture in western europe and the united
  • states
  • gropius and mies van der rohe immigrated to us
  • other art movements
  • futurism
  • constructivism
  • monumentalism
  • de stijl
  • international style
  • 1922 corbusier presents his scheme for a
    contemporary city of 3 million inhabitants

photo source http//www.owlnet.rice.edu/arendt/t
opic_6.html
10
modern architecture 1870 to 2000
villa savoye by le corbusier
  • post world war one architecture origins of
  • modernism
  • "a house is a machine for living. le
    corbusier
  • after world war one, young architects felt
    european culture had failed.
  • architects felt they could fix the broken
    society through rational architecture that
    functioned like a machine.
  • architects directly expressed materials and
    processes of construction.
  • the international style architecture since 1922
    by philip johnson nternational_style_28architecture29
  • this book introduced european modernism as a new
    style and gave it the name international style.
  • the great enemies of modernism became the
    beaux-arts classical style.
  • modernists sought to make their building
    functional, rational, and sometimes
    machine-produceable.
  • modernism was touted as the solution to the
    social ills of the time. as a style it was
    cheaper and more efficient making it useful for
    public projects.
  • the style tried to combine industrial production
    with tradition craftmenship

photo source www.greatbuildings.com
11
modern architecture 1870 to 2000
the bauhaus
  • groups promoting modernism
  • deutscher werkbund 1907 to 1934

  • an association of 12 german architects who
    intended to integrate
  • traditional crafts and industrial
    mass-production techniques
  • it was a precursor to the bauhaus
  • the program was meant to keep germany
    competitive with
  • england and the united states
  • the bauhaus 1919 to 1933 /wiki/Bauhaus
  • an art and architecture school founded by walter
    gropius in the city of weimar, germany
  • the bauhaus was intended to be a combined
    architecture school, crafts school, and academy
    of the arts
  • gropius founded the school to create a new style
    for the post war era. uniting art and
    architecture would create the new style and
    cheap, but well designed products for the new era
  • the school was funded by the weimer republic
  • the weimer republic 1919 to 1933
  • after germanys defeat in world war one, the
    countrys monarchy and empire were abolished
  • a convention was held in weimer to produce a new
    german constitution resulting in germanys first
    liberal democracy (later destroyed by hitler)
  • weimer republic was a name invented by
    historians to refer to this part of german
    history

photo source http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ImageB
auhaus.JPG
12
modern architecture 1870 to 2000
seagram building by mies van der rohe
  • modern architecture and the international style
  • characteristics of the international style
  • radical simplification of form
  • rejection of ornament ornament and crime by
    adolf loos
  • adoption of glass, steel and concrete as
    preferred materials
  • transparency of building assembly
  • acceptance of mass-production and the machine
    aesthetic
  • acceptance of the automobile
  • design decisions that logically support the
    function of the building
  • positive outlook for the future
  • architects of the international style
  • mies van der rohe
  • peter behrens
  • le corbusier
  • walter gropius
  • alvar alto
  • philip johnson
  • bruno taut
  • richard neutra

photo source http//www.achievement.org/achievers
/joh0/large/joh0-023.jpg
13
modern architecture 1870 to 2000
barcelona pavilion
  • modern architecture and the international style
  • buildings of the international style
  • bauhaus walter gropius
  • seagram building mies van der rohe
  • barcelona pavilion mies van der rohe
  • steiner house adolf loos
  • villa savoye le corbusier
  • congrès international d'architecture moderne
    (CIAM)
  • (international congress of modern architecture)
    1928 to 1959
  • a series of meetings that formalized the
    principles of the modern movement
  • saw architecture as a tool to improve the world
  • tried to resolve the problems of modern cities
    by separating the functions of the city and
    evenly distributing the population in apartment
    blocks

photo source http//www.geocities.com/TheTropics/
Shores/8445/barcpav.jpg
14
modern architecture 1870 to 2000
  • world war two and its impact
  • causes of world war two
  • nationalism germans wanted the worlds respect
  • militarism germany acted agressively to rebuild
  • and defend itself
  • impirialism germany tried to restore lands it
    lost
  • through the peace agreement after
  • world war one
  • treaty of versailles the war guilt clause placed
    blame
  • for world war one on german
  • world war twos impact on america
  • infrastructure revolution dwight d. eisenhower
    national system of interstate and defense
    highways was established in 1956 by the
    federal-aid highway act.
  • g. i. bill of rights also called the
    servicemen's readjustment act of 1944. provided
    a college education for returning world war ii
    veterans. it also gave home loans to veterans.
  • the great black migration 1910 to 1960
  • thousands of african americans migrated north,
    mainly to chicago to find better jobs
  • african americans often took jobs left by men
    off at war
  • migration brought racial tensions to the whole
    country, not just the south whites moved to the
    suburbs
  • crowding in the north resulted in african
    american slums in public housing projects

ad for the g.i. bill
photo source http//www.pbs.org/now/popups/photo4
vb.html
15
modern architecture 1870 to 2000
howards three magnets
  • world war two and its impact
  • suburbanization after world war two
  • de facto segregation in home buying made suburbs
    an all white area
  • african americans forced to stay in inner-city
    slums
  • levittown, new york /Levittown2C_NYDisparaging_Use
  • william levitt planned levittown from 1947 to
    1951
  • became the first planned suburb and was widely
    copied
  • city beautiful movement
  • a progressive reform movement in north america
    in the 1890s with the intent of using
    beautification in cities to counteract the
    perceived moral decay of poverty-stricken urban
    environments
  • the garden city movement took place in britain
    influenced planning of suburbs based on formal
    garden plans and small detached villas
  • british urban planner, ebenezer howard, called
    for the creation of suburban towns of limited
    size surrounded by a permanent band of
    agricultural land

photo source http//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedi
a/en/5/55/Howard-three-magnets.png
16
modern architecture 1870 to 2000
hippie flower power bus
  • the cold war era
  • the cold war 1947 to 1991
  • russia threatened to spread communism to the
    u.s.
  • policy of containment led to korean and vietnam
    wars
  • prompted the red scare and mccarthy era
  • nuclear arms race with russia resulted in the
    cuban missile crisis
  • space race with russia after launch of sputnik
  • cold war ended with collapse of the ussr in 1991
  • hippie movement 1960s and 1970s
  • renounced corporate influence
  • opposed consumerism
  • protested the vietnam war
  • criticized middle class values
  • rejected the establishment
  • concerned about what cities were doing to
    environment

photo source http//upload.wikimedia.org/wikiped
ia/commons/2/23/Flower-Power_Bus.JPG
17
modern architecture 1870 to 2000
vietnam college protest
  • the cold war era
  • black power movement 1960s rg/wiki/Black_power
  • movement embraced the self worth of african
    americans encouraging pride in their race
  • ideals of the movement embraced by the black
    panther party, a militant civil rights group
  • popularized by stokely carmichael, founder of
    the black panthers
  • anti vietnam movement beginning 1965
  • began on college campuses
  • national coordinating committee to end the war
    in vietnam staged draft card burnings
  • opposition led by student socialist groups who
    gained membership because of baby boomers

photo source http//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedi
a/en/0/03/Vietnamdem.jpg
this picture was symbol for war protestors
photo source http//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedi
a/en/d/d4/TrangBang.jpg
18
modern architecture 1870 to 2000
symbol of the r.a.f
  • the cold war era
  • red army faction 1970s to 1998
  • also known as the baader-meinhof gang
  • left-wing terrorist group in post war germany
  • members were called urban guerrillas
  • killed dozens of high profile germans
  • led to a national crisis in august 1977
  • berlin divided 1961 to 1989
  • russia possessed berlin after world war two
  • allies divided berlin into quadrants
  • tensions with communist russia prompted them to
    blockade berlin from supplies. u.s. air dropped
    aid
  • russia took controlled of east berlin, making it
    communist
  • allies claimed west berlin
  • russia put up wall to keep residents from
    leaving east berlin and escaping communism

photo source http//upload.wikimedia.org/wikiped
ia/commons/f/f7/Rote_armee_fraktion_logo.png
19
modern architecture 1870 to 2000
pompidou center by renzo piano
  • the cold war era
  • post modernism and architecture 1950s to present
  • ture
  • style responds to international style
  • is the return of "wit, ornament and reference
    to architecture
  • contradicts modernist ideas
  • robert venturi introduced postmodernism in his
    book complexity and contradiction in architecture
  • post modern architects
  • michael graves
  • robert venturi
  • philip johnson
  • post modern buildings
  • att headquarters philip johnson
  • portland building michael graves
  • pompidou center renzo piano

photo source http//www.galinsky.com/buildings/p
ompidou/pompidou1.jpg
20
modern architecture 1870 to 2000
pompidou center by renzo piano
  • globalization and the future
  • the global village post 1945
  • introduction of a world economy through free
    trade
  • gained momentum after world war two
  • trade policies like nafta have encourage
    globalization
  • promotes movement of people, goods, and services
    across borders, has led to increased immigration
  • leads to outsourcing as companies search the
    world for cheap labor
  • lax environmental regulations attract companies
    to underdeveloped countries to set up factories
  • international building exhibition (i.b.a)
  • program in 1988 to redevelop the derelict area
    of emscher in berlin
  • area was successfully redeveloped by 1999
  • media and communication revolution
  • communication is becoming more transparent and a
    larger part of society
  • will communication result in a cyber city?

photo source http//www.vitruvius.com.br/arquite
xtos/arq042/arq042_01.asp
21
modern architecture sources
  • carnes, mark c. and john a. garrity. american
    destiny narrative of a nation since 1865, vol 2.
    new york pearson longman, 2006.
  • moffet, marian, michael fazio, and lawrence
    wodehouse. buildings across time an
    introduction to world architecture. london
    mcgraw-hill higher education, 2004.
  • www.wikipedia.org
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