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THE HUMAN BODY AN ORIENTATION

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Study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to each other ... Embryology: concerns developmental changes that occur before birth. Topics of Anatomy ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: THE HUMAN BODY AN ORIENTATION


1
THE HUMAN BODY AN ORIENTATION
  • An Overview of Anatomy and Physiology

2
Anatomy
  • Study of the structure of body parts and their
    relationships to each other
  • Anatomy Greek meaning to cut apart

3
Physiology
  • Study of the function of body parts
  • How all the body parts work and carry out their
    life-sustaining activities

4
Topics of Anatomy
  • Gross (macroscopic) anatomy the study of
    structures large enough to be seen with the naked
    eye
  • Regional anatomy all the body structures
    (muscles, bones, blood vessels, nerves, etc.) in
    a given body region , such as the abdomen or leg,
    are examined at the same time
  • Systemic anatomy body is studied system by
    system
  • Example when studying the cardiovascular system,
    you would examine the heart and the blood vessels
    of the entire body
  • Surface anatomy internal body structures as they
    relate to the overlying skin
  • Used when identifying the bulging muscles beneath
    a bodybuilders skin, and clinicians use it to
    locate appropriate blood vessels in which to feel
    pulses and draw blood

5
Topics of Anatomy
  • Microscopic anatomy the study of structures that
    are too small to be seen with the naked eye
  • Cytology study of individual cells
  • Histology study of tissues
  • Developmental anatomy the study of the change in
    body structures over the course of a lifetime
  • Embryology concerns developmental changes that
    occur before birth

6
Topics of Anatomy
  • Specialized Branches of Anatomy
  • Pathological anatomy study of structural changes
    associated with disease
  • Radiographic anatomy study of internal
    structures using specialized visualization
    techniques (X-rays or special scanning devices)
  • Molecular biology study of biological molecules

7
Topics of Physiology
  • Considers the function of specific organ systems
  • Examples
  • Renal physiology concerns kidney function and
    urine production
  • Neurophysiology explains the workings of the
    nervous system
  • Cardiovascular physiology examines the operation
    of the heart and blood vessels
  • While anatomy provides us with a static image of
    the bodys architecture, physiology reveals the
    bodys dynamic nature

8
Topics of Physiology
  • Focuses on cellular and molecular events
  • Individual cells and the chemical reactions that
    go on within them
  • Principles of physics which helps to explain
    electrical currents, blood pressure, and the way
    muscles use bones to cause body movements

9
Complementarity of Structure and Function
  • Function is dependent on structure, and the form
    of a structure relates to its function
  • What a structure can do depends on its specific
    form
  • Examples
  • Bones can support body organs because they
    contain hard mineral deposits
  • Blood flows in one direction through the heart
    because the heart has valves that prevent
    backflow
  • Lungs can serve as a site for gas exchange
    because the walls of their air sacs are extremely
    thin

10
Levels of Structural Organization
  • (1)Chemical level is the simplest level of
    organization
  • Atoms, tiny building blocks of matter, combine to
    form molecules such as water and proteins
  • Molecules combine in specific ways to form
    organelles, which are the basic unit of living
    cells
  • Cells are the smallest units of living things
  • All cells have some common functions, but
    individual cells vary widely in size and shape,
    reflecting their unique functions in the body

11
Levels of Structural Organization
  • (2)Cellular level smallest unit of life, and
    varies widely in size and shape according to the
    cells function
  • (3)Tissue level groups of similar cells having
    a common function
  • Four basic tissue types each tissue type has a
    characteristic role in the body
  • Epithelium covers the body surface and lines its
    cavities
  • Muscle provides movement
  • Connective supports and protects body organs
  • Nervous provides a means of rapid internal
    communication by transmitting electrical impulses

12
Levels of Structural Organization
  • (4)Organ level made up of discrete structures
    that are composed of a least two groups of
    tissues that work together to perform a specific
    function in the body
  • Stomach epithelium lining, muscles, blood
    vessels, connective tissues, nerve fibers, etc.
  • (5)Organ system level a group of organs that
    work closely together to accomplish a specific
    purpose
  • Respiratory and circulatory system, digestive and
    circulatory systems
  • (6)Organismal level the total of all structures
    working together to promote life
  • The living human being

13
Levels of Structural Organization
14
Maintaining Life Necessary Life Functions
  • (a) Maintaining Boundaries allows an organism
    to maintain separate internal and external
    environments, or separate internal chemical
    environments
  • Integumantary System or Skin
  • (b) Movement allows the organism to travel
    through the environment, and allows transport of
    molecules within the organism
  • Skeletal, Circulatory, Muscular Systems
  • (c) Responsiveness or irritability, is the
    ability to detect changes in the internal or
    external environment and respond to them
  • Muscular System

15
ORGAN SYSTEMS
16
Maintaining Life Necessary Life Functions
  • (d) Nervous System
  • Responsiveness to external and internal
    environments by activating muscles and glands
  • (e) Endocrine System
  • Regulating body functions such as growth,
    reproduction, and nutrition
  • (f) Cardiovascular System
  • Transportation of nutrients, waste, gases, and
    hormones throughout the body

17
ORGAN SYSTEMS
18
Maintaining Life Necessary Life Functions
  • (g) Lymphatic System/Immunity
  • Body defenses
  • (h) Respiratory System
  • External and internal gas exchanges
  • (i) Digestive System
  • Breakdown and absorption of nutrients

19
ORGAN SYSTEMS
20
Maintaining Life Necessary Life Functions
  • (j) Urinary System
  • Absorption of waste from the blood and
    elimination
  • (k) Male Reproductive System
  • Production of sperm
  • (l) Female reproductive System
  • Production of eggs

21
ORGAN SYSTEMS
22
Maintaining Life Necessary Life Functions
  • Digestion is the process of breaking down food
    into molecules that are usable by the body
  • Metabolism includes all chemical reactions that
    occur in the body
  • Excretion is the process of removing wastes
  • Reproduction is the process of producing more
    cells or organisms
  • Growth is an increase in size in body parts or
    the whole organism

23
Examples of selected interrelationships among
body organ systems
  • Integumentary system protects the body as a whole
    from the external environment
  • Digestive and respiratory systems, in contact
    with the external environment, take in nutrients
    and oxygen, respectively, which are then
    distributed by the blood to all body cells
  • Elimination of metabolic wastes is accomplished
    by the urinary and respiratory systems

24
ORGAN SYSTEMS
25
Survival Needs
  • The ultimate goal of all body systems is to
    maintain life
  • Life is extraordinarily fragile and requires that
    several factors be present
  • These factors are called survival needs and
    include
  • Nutrients consumed chemical substances that are
    used for energy and cell building
  • Oxygen required by the chemical reactions that
    release energy from foods
  • Water most abundant chemical substance in the
    body, provides an environment for chemical
    reactions and a fluid for secretions and
    excretions
  • Normal body temperature required for the
    chemical reactions of the body to occur at the
    proper rate
  • Atmospheric pressure must be within an
    appropriate range so that proper gas exchange
    occurs in the lungs

26
Homeostasis
  • The ability of the body to maintain a relatively
    constant internal environment, regardless of
    environmental changes
  • Body temperature
  • Blood pH

27
Homeostatic Control Mechanisms
  • Communication within the body is essential for
    homeostasis
  • Accomplished chiefly by the nervous and endocrine
    systems
  • All homeostatic control mechanisms have at least
    three interdependent components
  • 1. Receptor type of sensor that monitors the
    environment and responds to changes, called
    stimuli, by sending information (input) to the
    second component (control center)

28
Homeostatic Control Mechanisms
  • 2. Control Center
  • Information flows from the receptor to the
    control center along the afferent pathway
  • Structure that determines the set point (level or
    range at which a variable is to be maintained)
    for a variable, analyzes input, and coordinates
    an appropriate response
  • Variable the regulated factor or event

29
Homeostatic Control Mechanisms
  • 3. Effector
  • Provides the means for the control centers
    response (output) to the stimulus
  • Structure that carries out the response directed
    by the control center
  • Information flows from the control center to the
    effector along the efferent pathway
  • The results of the response then feed back to
    influence the stimulus, either depressing it
    (negative feedback) so that the whole control
    mechanism is shut off or enhancing it (positive
    feedback) so that the reaction continues at an
    even faster rate

30
CONTROL SYSTEM
31
Negative Feedback Mechanisms
  • Most homeostatic control mechanisms are negative
    feedback mechanisms
  • In these systems, the output shuts off the
    original stimulus or reduces its intensity
  • These mechanism cause the variable to change in a
    direction opposite to that of the initial change,
    returning it to its ideal value
  • Both the nervous system and the endocrine system
    are important to the maintenance of homeostasis
  • The goal of negative feedback mechanisms is to
    prevent sudden, severe changes in the body

32
Negative Feedback Mechanisms
  • Home heating system connected to a
    temperature-sensing thermostat
  • Thermostat houses BOTH the receptor and the
    control center
  • If thermostat is set at 20oC (68oF), the heating
    system (effector) is triggered ON when the house
    temperature drops below that setting
  • As the furnace produces heat and warms the air,
    the temperature rises, and when it reaches 20oC
    or slightly higher, the thermostat triggers the
    furnace OFF
  • This process results in a cycling of furnace-ON
    and furnace-OFF so that the temperature in the
    house stays very near the desired temperature of
    20oC
  • Your body thermostat, located in a part of your
    brain called the hypothalamus, operates in a
    similar fashion

33
Negative Feedback Mechanisms
  • To carry out normal metabolism, body cells need a
    continuous supply of glucose, their major fuel
    for producing cellular energy, or ATP
  • Blood sugar levels are normally maintained around
    90 milligrams (mg) of glucose per 100 millimeters
    (ml) of blood
  • Rising glucose levels stimulate the
    insulin-producing cells of the pancreas, which
    respond by secreting insulin into the blood
  • Insulin accelerates the uptake of glucose by most
    body cells
  • It also encourages storage of excess glucose as
    glycogen in the liver and muscles
  • Consequently, blood sugar levels ebb back toward
    the normal set point, and the stimulus for
    insulin release diminishes

34
NEGATIVE FEEDBACK
35
Negative Feedback Mechanisms
  • Glucagon, another pancreatic hormone, has the
    opposite effect of insulin
  • Its release is triggered as blood sugar levels
    decline below the set point
  • Glucagon secretion is stimulated
  • Glucagon targets the liver, causing it to release
    its glucose reserves from glycogen into the blood
  • Consequently, blood sugar levels increase back
    into the homeostatic range
  • There are hundreds of Negative Feedback
    Mechanisms (regulation of heart rate, blood
    pressure, rate and depth of breathing, and blood
    levels of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and minerals)

36
NEGATIVE FEEDBACK
37
Positive Feedback Mechanisms
  • Result or response enhances the original stimulus
    so that the activity (output) is accelerated
  • A positive feedback mechanism causes the variable
    to change in the same direction as the original
    change, resulting in a greater deviation from the
    set point
  • Positive feedback mechanisms typically activate
    events that are self-perpetuating
  • Once initiated, have an amplifying effect
  • Most positive feedback mechanisms are not related
    to the maintenance of homeostasis
  • Homeostatic imbalance often results in disease

38
Positive Feedback Mechanisms
  • Examples
  • Enhancement of labor contractions during birth
  • Oxytocin, a hypothalamic hormone, intensifies
    labor contractions during the birth of a baby
  • Causes the contractions to become more frequent
    and more powerful until the baby is finally born,
    an event that ends the stimulus for oxytocin
    release and shuts off the positive feedback
    mechanism

39
Positive Feedback Mechanisms
  • Examples
  • Blood clotting
  • Blood clotting is a normal response to a break in
    the lining of a blood vessel
  • 1. Once vessel damaged has occurred
  • 2. Blood elements called platelets immediately
    begin to cling to the injured site
  • 3. Platelets release chemical that attract more
    platelets
  • 4. This rapidly growing pileup of platelets
    initiates the sequence of events that finally
    forms a clot

40
POSITIVE FEEDBACK
41
Homeostatic Imbalance
  • Homeostasis is so important that most disease is
    regarded as a result of its disturbance, a
    condition called Homeostatic Imbalance
  • Causes
  • As we age, our bodys control systems become less
    efficient
  • Negative feedback mechanisms become overwhelmed
    and destructive positive feedback mechanisms take
    over

42
Language of Anatomy Anatomical Position and
Directional Terms
  • To describe body parts and position accurately,
    we need an initial reference point and must
    indicate direction
  • The anatomical reference point is a standard body
    position called the Anatomical Position
  • Anatomical Position position in which the body
    is
  • Erect with feet only slightly apart
  • Palms face forward
  • Thumbs point away from the body

43
REGION TERMS
44
REGION TERMS
45
Language of Anatomy Anatomical Position and
Directional Terms
  • In anatomical position, right and left refer to
    the right and left sides of the person viewedNOT
    those of the observer
  • In anatomy, anatomical position is always
    assumed, regardless of the actual position of the
    body

46
Language of Anatomy Anatomical Position and
Directional Terms
  • Directional terms are used to explain exactly
    where one body part is in relation to another
  • Example
  • The ears are located on each side of the head to
    the right and left of the nose
  • Using anatomical terminology, this condenses to,
  • The ears are lateral to the nose
  • Saves words and is less ambiguous
  • Anatomical meanings are VERY PRECISE

47
Orientation and Directional Terms
48
Orientation and Directional Terms
49
Orientation and Directional Terms
50
Regional Terms
  • There are two fundamental divisions of the body
  • Axial region
  • Makes up the main axis of our body
  • Includes the head, neck, and trunk
  • Appendicular region
  • Consists of the appendages, or limbs
  • Attached to the bodys axis
  • Consists of the upper and lower limbs
  • Regional terms are used to designate specific
    areas within the major body divisions
  • The common term for each of these body regions is
    provided (in parentheses)

51
REGION TERMS
52
REGION TERMS
53
Body Planes and Sections
  • For anatomical studies, the body is often
    sectioned (cut) along a flat surface called a
    plane
  • Body planes are flat surfaces that lie at right
    angles to each other
  • Sagittal plane a vertical plane that separates
    the body into right and left parts
  • Median, or midsagittal plane lies exactly along
    the bodys midline
  • Parasagittal plane (paranear) lies offset from
    the midline
  • Frontal plane a vertical plane that separates
    the body into anterior and posterior parts
  • Transverse, or horizontal, plane a plane that
    runs horizontally from right to left, and divides
    the body into superior and inferior parts

54
BODY PLANES
55
Body Planes and Sections
  • Transverse, or horizontal, plane a plane that
    runs horizontally from right to left, and divides
    the body into superior and inferior parts
  • Many different transverse planes exist, at every
    possible level from head to foot
  • Transverse section, or cross section, is a cut
    made along the transverse plane
  • Oblique sections are cuts made at angles between
    the horizontal and vertical planes
  • The ability to interpret sections made through
    the body, especially transverse sections, is
    important in the clinical sciences
  • New medical imaging devices produce sectional
    images rather than three-dimensional images

56
BODY PLANES
57
Body Cavities and Membranes
  • Within the axial portion of the body are two
    large cavities called the dorsal and ventral body
    cavities
  • Body cavities are spaces within the body that are
    closed to the outside and contain the internal
    organs

58
BODY CAVITIES
59
BODY CAVITIES
60
Dorsal Body Cavity
  • The space that houses the central nervous system,
    and has two subdivisions the cranial cavity and
    the vertebral cavity
  • Cranial cavity is within the skull, and encases
    the brain
  • Vertebral, or spinal, cavity is within the
    vertebral column, and encloses the spinal cord

61
BODY CAVITIES
62
BODY CAVITIES
63
Ventral Body Cavity
  • Is anterior to and larger than the dorsal cavity
    and has two main subdivisions the thoracic
    cavity, and the abdominopelvic cavity
  • Houses the body organs collectively called the
    viscera (viscusan organ in a body cavity), or
    visceral organs
  • Thoracic cavity
  • Is a superior division of the ventral cavity that
    is further subdivided into the lateral pleural
    cavities that surround the lungs
  • Thoracic cavity also contains the medulla
    mediastinum, which includes the pericardial
    cavity surrounding the heart and the space
    surrounding the other thoracic structures
    (esophagus, trachea, and others)
  • Diaphragm Muscle separates the Thoracic and
    Abdominopelvic Regions
  • Abdominopelvic Regions and Quadrants
  • Inferior to the Thoracic Cavity
  • There are nine abdominopelvic regions used
    primarily by anatomists
  • There are four quadrants used primarily by
    medical personnel

64
BODY CAVITIES
65
BODY CAVITIES
66
Membranes in the Ventral Body Cavity
  • The walls of the ventral body cavity and the
    outer surfaces of the organs it contains are
    covered by a thin, double-layered membrane, the
    serosa, or serous membrane
  • Serous membranes, or serosae, cover the inner
    walls of the ventral cavity and the outer
    surfaces of organs
  • Serous membranes secrete and are separated by a
    thin layer of lubrication fluid called serous
    fluid, which allows organs to slide without
    friction along cavity walls and between each
    other
  • Parietal serosa lines the body cavity walls, and
    is named for the specific cavities it is
    associated with
  • Visceral serosa covers the outer surfaces of
    organs, and is named for the specific organs it
    is associated with
  • Parietal pericardium lines the pericardial cavity
  • Visceral pericardium covers the heart within that
    cavity
  • Parietal pleura lines the walls of the thoracic
    cavity
  • Visceral pleura covers the lungs
  • Parietal peritoneum is associated with the walls
    of the abdominalpelvic cavity
  • Visceral peritoneum covers most of the organs
    within that cavity

67
SEROUS MEMBRANE
  • Parietal pericardium lines the pericardial cavity
  • Visceral pericardium covers the heart within that
    cavity

68
SEROUS MEMBRANE
69
Membranes in the Ventral Body Cavity
  • You can visualize the relationship between the
    serosal layers by pushing your fist into a limp
    balloon
  • The part of the balloon that clings to your fist
    can be compared to the visceral serosa clinging
    to the organs external surface
  • The outer wall of the balloon then represents the
    parietal serosa that lines the walls of the
    cavity

70
SEROUS MEMBRANE
71
Homeostatic Imbalance
  • When serous membranes are inflamed, they
    typically produce less lubricating serous fluid
  • This leads to excruciating pain as the organs
    stick together and drag across one another, as
    anyone who has experienced pleurisy (inflammation
    of the pleurae thoracic cavity) or peritonitis
    (inflammation of the peritoneal abdominal
    cavity)

72
Abdominopelvic Regions
  • Because the abdominopelvic cavity is large and
    contains several organs, it helps to divide it
    into smaller areas for study
  • Cavity divided into 9 regions
  • Umbilical region centermost region deep to and
    surrounding the umbilicus (navel)
  • Epigastric region located superior to the
    umbilical region (epiupon, above gastribelly)
  • Hypogastric (pubic) region located inferior to
    the umbilical region (hypobelow)

73
ABDOMINAL REGION
74
ABDOMINAL REGIONS
75
Abdominopelvic Regions
  • Right and left iliac, or inguinal regions
    located lateral to the hypogastric region
    (iliacsuperior part of the hip
    bone)(inguinalgroin between thigh and trunk)
  • Right and left lumbar regions lie lateral to the
    umbilical region (lumbusloin between ribs and
    pelvis)
  • Right and left hypochondriac regions flank the
    epigastric region laterally (chondrocartilage)

76
ABDOMINAL REGION
77
ABDOMINAL REGIONS
78
Quadrants
  • Medical personnel usually use a simpler scheme to
    localize the abdominopelvic cavity organs
  • In this scheme, one transverse and one median
    sagittal plane pass through the umbilicus at
    right angles
  • The resulting quadrants are named according to
    their positions from the subjects point of view
  • Right upper quadrant (RUQ)
  • Left upper quadrant (LUQ)
  • Right lower quadrant (RLQ)
  • Left lower quadrant (LLQ)

79
ABDOMINAL REGION
80
Other Body Cavities
  • Oral and digestive cavities are continuous
    cavities that extend from the mouth through the
    digestive system to the anus
  • Nasal cavity is within and posterior to the nose
  • Part of the respiratory system
  • Orbital cavities (orbits) in the skull house the
    eyes
  • Middle ear cavities are within the skull just
    medial to the eardrums, and house the bones that
    transmit sound vibrations to the inner ears
  • Synovial cavities are joint cavities
  • Enclosed within fibrous capsules that surround
    movable joints (elbow and knee)
  • Lined with a lubricating fluid-secreting
    membranes
  • Secrete a lubricating fluid that reduces friction
    as the bones move across one another

81
OTHER CAVITIES
82
Medical Imaging
  • X-ray (radiograph)
  • CAT Ccomputerized axial tomography
  • Xenon CT
  • DSR Dynamic spatial reconstruction
  • DSA Digital subtraction angiography
  • PET Positron emission tomography
  • Sonography (ultrasound imaging)
  • MRI Magnetic resonance imaging
  • MRS Magnetic resonance spectroscopy

83
IMAGING
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