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World War I

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World War I. Homefront & Economy. World War I: Homefront ... World War I: Homefront & Economy. Government increases control over business. Fuel Administration ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: World War I


1
World War I
  • Homefront Economy

2
World War I Homefront Economy
  • Government increases control over business
  • Congress gives President Wilson direct control
    over most of the economy.
  • Price Controls
  • Nationalizing certain companies that are in
    war-related fields

3
World War I Homefront Economy
  • Government increases control over business
  • Congress gives President Wilson direct control
    over most of the economy.
  • Price Controls
  • Nationalizing certain companies that are in
    war-related fields
  • Stop labor strikes

4
World War I Homefront Economy
  • Government increases control over business
  • War Industries Board (WIB)
  • Established in 1917 reorganized in 1918.
  • Bernard M. Baruch led this organization.

5
World War I Homefront Economy
  • Government increases control over business
  • War Industries Board (WIB)
  • Encouraged mass production techniques
  • Fostered efficiency eliminate waste through
    standardization.

6
World War I Homefront Economy
  • Government increases control over business
  • War Industries Board (WIB)
  • Typewriter ribbons changed from 150 colors to 5.

7
World War I Homefront Economy
  • Government increases control over business
  • War Industries Board (WIB)
  • Set quotas on production.

8
World War I Homefront Economy
  • Government increases control over business
  • War Industries Board (WIB)
  • Psychology tests to increase hiring efficiency.

9
World War I Homefront Economy
  • Government increases control over business
  • War Industries Board (WIB)
  • Industrial production increased 20.
  • Price controls maintained at wholesale level
    only.
  • This led to inflation.
  • Corporate profits soared.
  • Chemicals
  • Copper
  • Lumber
  • Meatpacking
  • Oil
  • steel

10
World War I Homefront Economy
  • Government increases control over business
  • War Industries Board (WIB)
  • Encouraged the end of buying corsets with steel
    reinforcement.
  • 8 tons of steel per year was saved

11
World War I Homefront Economy
  • Government increases control over business
  • War Industries Board (WIB)
  • Tall leather shoes became out of fashion.
  • The WIB discouraged factories producing the high
    boots to save leather for soldier boots.

12
World War I Homefront Economy
  • Government increases control over business
  • War Industries Board (WIB)
  • Long skirts became shorter.
  • The extra fabric was used to make more military
    uniforms.

13
World War I Homefront Economy
  • Government increases control over business
  • Railroad Administration
  • This department created by the federal government
    heavily regulated the railroad.

14
World War I Homefront Economy
  • Government increases control over business
  • Fuel Administration
  • Monitored coal supplies.
  • Rationed gasoline heating oil.

15
World War I Homefront Economy
  • Government increases control over business
  • Fuel Administration
  • Organized volunteer energy saving campaigns like
  • gasless Sundays
  • lightless nights
  • daylight savings time.

16
World War I Homefront Economy
  • Government increases control over business
  • National War Labor Board
  • Set up to try to keep avoid labor disputes.
  • Labor strikes would hurt the war effort.
  • Union membership went from 2.5 million members to
    4 million members by 1919.
  • There were also more than 6,000 strikes that
    broke out during the war months.
  • Although wages increased, inflation was rising
    giving consumers less money to spend.

17
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18
World War I Homefront Economy
  • Government increases control over business
  • National War Labor Board
  • National War Labor Board officials tired to help
    workers owners create a labor agreement to
    avoid any work stoppage (strike or lockout).
  • Sometimes the National War Labor Board encouraged
    (or intimidated workers) to accept labor
    agreements by threatening to draft them into
    military service.
  • Some leaders of this federal agency basically
    told laborer this,
  • Work or fight!

19
World War I Homefront Economy
  • Government increases control over business
  • National War Labor Board
  • National War Labor Board officials did try to
    influence companies to improve labor conditions
    by trying to persuade them to
  • Implement an 8 hour workday.
  • Allow safety inspections.
  • Implement the federal ban on child labor.

20
World War I Homefront Economy
  • Government increases control over business
  • National War Labor Board
  • The chart demonstrates the labor union membership
    that increased during the war.

21
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22
World War I Homefront Economy
  • Government increases control over business
  • Food Administration
  • Led by Herbert Hoover
  • Consisted of nearly all volunteers.
  • Ran a publicity campaign to conserve food.

23
World War I Homefront Economy
  • Government increases control over business
  • Food Administration asked the people to
  • Practice the gospel of the clean plate.
  • Observe one day of the week asmeatless
  • Observe one day of the week as sweetless.
  • Observe two porkless days of the week.
  • Observe two weatless days of the week.
  • Eat more corn so more wheat can be sent to
    Europe.

24
World War I Homefront Economy
  • Government increases control over business
  • Food Administration asked the restaurants to
  • Remove sugar bowls from the table.
  • Only serve bread of the first course of the meal.

25
World War I Homefront Economy
  • Government increases control over business
  • Food Administration asked the citizens to
  • Plant victory gardens (by people planting their
    own food, more food can be sent to Europe.)
  • The White House grew them.
  • School children were encouraged to join the
    United States School Garden that planted tomatoes
    cucumbers in public parkss

26
World War I Homefront Economy
  • Government increases control over business
  • Food Administrations results
  • U.S. food shipments to Europe tripled.
  • 40 million acres of farmland were added to
    production after the president set a higher price
    on wheat other foods that were popular with
    the Europeans.
  • Farmers increased their income by 30 during the
    World War I era.

27
World War I Homefront Economy
  • Government increases control over business
  • In many cases the increased government
    involvement led to increased production more
    efficiency.
  • Labor disputes were still an issue.
  • Minimum wage, child labor, safe working
    conditions were still an issue.
  • Equal work for equal pay was still not
    accomplished for women or other minorities.
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